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Ps 80:1-19. Shoshannim—"Lilies" (see on Ps 45:1, title). Eduth—Testimony, referring to the topic as a testimony of God to His people (compare Ps 19:7). This Psalm probably relates to the captivity of the ten tribes, as the former to that of Judah. Its complaint is aggravated by the contrast of former prosperity, and the prayer for relief occurs as a refrain through the Psalm.

1, 2. Joseph—for Ephraim (1Ch 7:20-29; Ps 78:67; Re 7:8), for Israel.

Shepherd—(Compare Ge 49:24).

leadest, &c.—(Ps 77:20).

dwellest … cherubim—(Ex 25:20); the place of God's visible glory, whence He communed with the people (Heb 9:5).

shine forth—appear (Ps 50:2; 94:1).

2. Before Ephraim, &c.—These tribes marched next the ark (Nu 2:18-24). The name of Benjamin may be introduced merely in allusion to that fact, and not because that tribe was identified with Israel in the schism (1Ki 12:16-21; compare also Nu 10:24).

3. Turn us—that is, from captivity.

thy face to shine—(Nu 6:25).

4. be angry—(Compare Margin.)

5. bread of tears—still an Eastern figure for affliction.

6. strife—object or cause of (Isa 9:11). On last clause compare Ps 79:4; Eze 36:4.

8-11. brought—or, "plucked up," as by roots, to be replanted.

a vine—(Ps 78:47). The figure (Isa 16:8) represents the flourishing state of Israel, as predicted (Ge 28:14), and verified (1Ki 4:20-25).

12. hedges—(Isa 5:5).

13. The boar—may represent the ravaging Assyrian and

the wild beast—other heathen.

14, 15. visit this vine—favorably (Ps 8:4).

15. And the vineyard—or, "And protect or guard what thy right hand," &c.

the branch—literally, "over the Son of man," preceding this phrase, with "protect" or "watch."

for thyself—a tacit allusion to the plea for help; for

16. it—the "vine" or

they—the "people" are suffering from Thy displeasure.

17. thy hand … upon—that is, strengthen (Ezr 7:6; 8:22).

man of … hand—may allude to Benjamin (Ge 35:18). The terms in the latter clause correspond with those of Ps 80:15, from "and the branch," &c., literally, and confirm the exposition given above.

18. We need quickening grace (Ps 71:20; 119:25) to persevere in Thy right worship (Ge 4:26; Ro 10:11).

19. (Compare Ps 80:3, "O God"; Ps 80:7, "O God of hosts").