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19, 20. Calling God to witness his distress, he presents its aggravation produced by the want of sympathizing friends (compare Isa 63:5; Mr 14:50).

21. Instead of such, his enemies increase his pain by giving him most distasteful food and drink. The Psalmist may have thus described by figure what Christ found in reality (compare Joh 19:29, 30).

22, 23. With unimportant verbal changes, this language is used by Paul to describe the rejection of the Jews who refused to receive the Saviour (Ro 11:9, 10). The purport of the figures used is that blessings shall become curses, the "table" of joy (as one of food) a "snare," their

welfare—literally, "peaceful condition," or security, a "trap." Darkened eyes and failing strength complete the picture of the ruin falling on them under the invoked retribution.

23. continually to shake—literally, "to swerve" or bend in weakness.

24, 25. An utter desolation awaits them. They will not only be driven from their homes, but their homes—or, literally, "palaces," indicative of wealth—shall be desolate (compare Mt 23:38).

26. Though smitten of God (Isa 53:4), men were not less guilty in persecuting the sufferer (Ac 2:23).

talk to the grief—in respect to, about it, implying derision and taunts.

wounded—or, literally, "mortally wounded."

27, 28. iniquity—or, "punishment of iniquity" (Ps 40:12).

come … righteousness—partake of its benefits.

28. book of the living—or "life," with the next clause, a figurative mode of representing those saved, as having their names in a register (compare Ex 32:32; Isa 4:3).

29. poor and sorrowful—the afflicted pious, often denoted by such terms (compare Ps 10:17; 12:5).

set me … high—out of danger.

30, 31. Spiritual are better than mere material offerings (Ps 40:6; 50:8); hence a promise of the former, and rather contemptuous terms are used of the latter.

32, 33. Others shall rejoice. "Humble" and poor, as in Ps 69:29.

your heart, &c.—address to such (compare Ps 22:26).

33. prisoners—peculiarly liable to be despised.

34-36. The call on the universe for praise is well sustained by the prediction of the perpetual and extended blessings which shall come upon the covenant-people of God. Though, as usual, the imagery is taken from terms used of Palestine, the whole tenor of the context indicates that the spiritual privileges and blessings of the Church are meant.