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19. Zaccaeus, Triumphal Entry
1And he entered and was passing through Jericho. 2And behold, a man called by name Zacchaeus; and he was a chief publican, and he was rich. 3And he sought to see Jesus who he was; and could not for the crowd, because he was little of stature. 4And he ran on before, and climbed up into a sycomore tree to see him: for he was to pass that way. 5And when Jesus came to the place, he looked up, and said unto him, Zacchaeus, make haste, and come down; for to-day I must abide at thy house. 6And he made haste, and came down, and received him joyfully. 7And when they saw it, they all murmured, saying, He is gone in to lodge with a man that is a sinner. 8And Zacchaeus stood, and said unto the Lord, Behold, Lord, the half of my goods I give to the poor; and if I have wrongfully exacted aught of any man, I restore fourfold. 9And Jesus said unto him, To-day is salvation come to this house, forasmuch as he also is a son of Abraham. 10For the Son of man came to seek and to save that which was lost. 11And as they heard these things, he added and spake a parable, because he was nigh to Jerusalem, and because they supposed that the kingdom of God was immediately to appear. 12He said therefore, A certain nobleman went into a far country, to receive for himself a kingdom, and to return. 13And he called ten servants of his, and gave them ten pounds, and said unto them, Trade ye herewith till I come. 14But his citizens hated him, and sent an ambassage after him, saying, We will not that this man reign over us. 15And it came to pass, when he was come back again, having received the kingdom, that he commanded these servants, unto whom he had given the money, to be called to him, that he might know what they had gained by trading. 16And the first came before him, saying, Lord, thy pound hath made ten pounds more. 17And he said unto him, Well done, thou good servant: because thou wast found faithful in a very little, have thou authority over ten cities. 18And the second came, saying, Thy pound, Lord, hath made five pounds. 19And he said unto him also, Be thou also over five cities. 20And another came, saying, Lord, behold, here is thy pound, which I kept laid up in a napkin: 21for I feared thee, because thou art an austere man: thou takest up that which thou layedst not down, and reapest that which thou didst not sow. 22He saith unto him, Out of thine own mouth will I judge thee, thou wicked servant. Thou knewest that I am an austere man, taking up that which I laid not down, and reaping that which I did not sow; 23then wherefore gavest thou not my money into the bank, and I at my coming should have required it with interest? 24And he said unto them that stood by, Take away from him the pound, and give it unto him that hath the ten pounds. 25And they said unto him, Lord, he hath ten pounds. 26I say unto you, that unto every one that hath shall be given; but from him that hath not, even that which he hath shall be taken away from him. 27But these mine enemies, that would not that I should reign over them, bring hither, and slay them before me. 28And when he had thus spoken, he went on before, going up to Jerusalem. 29And it came to pass, when he drew nigh unto Bethphage and Bethany, at the mount that is called Olivet, he sent two of the disciples, 30saying, Go your way into the village over against you; in which as ye enter ye shall find a colt tied, whereon no man ever yet sat: loose him, and bring him. 31And if any one ask you, Why do ye loose him? thus shall ye say, The Lord hath need of him. 32And they that were sent went away, and found even as he had said unto them. 33And as they were loosing the colt, the owners thereof said unto them, Why loose ye the colt? 34And they said, The Lord hath need of him. 35And they brought him to Jesus: and they threw their garments upon the colt, and set Jesus thereon. 36And as he went, they spread their garments in the way. 37And as he was now drawing nigh, even at the descent of the mount of Olives, the whole multitude of the disciples began to rejoice and praise God with a loud voice for all the mighty works which they had seen; 38saying, Blessed is the King that cometh in the name of the Lord: peace in heaven, and glory in the highest. 39And some of the Pharisees from the multitude said unto him, Teacher, rebuke thy disciples. 40And he answered and said, I tell you that, if these shall hold their peace, the stones will cry out. 41And when he drew nigh, he saw the city and wept over it, 42saying, If thou hadst known in this day, even thou, the things which belong unto peace! but now they are hid from thine eyes. 43For the days shall come upon thee, when thine enemies shall cast up a bank about thee, and compass thee round, and keep thee in on every side, 44and shall dash thee to the ground, and thy children within thee; and they shall not leave in thee one stone upon another; because thou knewest not the time of thy visitation. 45And he entered into the temple, and began to cast out them that sold, 46saying unto them, It is written, And my house shall be a house of prayer: but ye have made it a den of robbers. 47And he was teaching daily in the temple. But the chief priests and the scribes and the principal men of the people sought to destroy him: 48and they could not find what they might do; for the people all hung upon him, listening.
Lu 19:1-10. Zaccheus the Publican.
The name is Jewish.
2-4. chief among the publicans—farming a considerable district, with others under him.
rich—Ill-gotten riches some of it certainly was. (See on Lu 19:8.)
3. who he was—what sort of person. Curiosity then was his only motive, though his determination not to be baulked was overruled for more than he sought.
4. sycamore—the Egyptian fig, with leaves like the mulberry.
5, 6. looked up,—in the full knowledge of who was in the tree, and preparatory to addressing him.
Zaccheus—whom he had never seen in the flesh, nor probably heard of. "He calleth His own sheep by name and leadeth them out" (Joh 10:3).
make haste, and come down—to which he literally responded—"he made haste and came down."
for to-day, &c.—Our Lord invites Himself, and in "royal" style, which waits not for invitations, but as the honor is done to the subject, not the sovereign, announces the purpose of royalty to partake of the subject's hospitalities. Manifestly our Lord speaks as knowing how the privilege would be appreciated.
to-day … abide—(Compare Joh 1:39), probably over night.
6. joyfully—Whence this so sudden "joy" in the cold bosom of an avaricious publican? The internal revolution was as perfect as instantaneous. "He spake and it was done." "Then shall the lame man leap as an hart, and the tongue of the dumb sing" (Isa 35:6).
7. to be guest—or lodge: something more than "eating with" such (Lu 15:2).
a sinner—that was one but a minute ago, but now is not. This mighty change, however, was all unknown to them. But they shall know it presently. "Sinner" would refer both to his office, vile in the eyes of a Jew, and to his character, which it is evident was not good.
8-10. stood—before all.
said unto the Lord, Behold, Lord—Mark how frequently Luke uses this title, and always where lordly authority, dignity, or power is intended.
if I have—that is, "so far as I have," for evidently the "if" is so used (as in Php 4:8).
fourfold—The Roman law required this; the Jewish law, but the principal and a fifth more (Nu 5:7). There was no demand made for either; but, as if to revenge himself on his hitherto reigning sin (see on Joh 20:28), and to testify the change he had experienced, besides surrendering the half of his fair gains to the poor, he voluntarily determines to give up all that was ill-gotten, quadrupled. He gratefully addressed this to the "Lord," to whom he owed the wonderful change.
9. Jesus said unto him—but also before all.
This day, &c.—memorable saying! Salvation already come, but not a day old.
to this house—so expressed probably to meet the taunt, "He is gone to be guest," &c. The house is no longer polluted; it is now fit to receive Me. But salvation to a house is an exceedingly precious idea, expressing the new air that would henceforth breathe in it, and the new impulses from its head which would reach its members (Ps 118:15; Ac 16:15, 16, 31).
son of Abraham—He was that by birth, but here it means a partaker of his faith, being mentioned as the sufficient explanation of salvation having come to him.
10. lost—and such "lost" ones as this Zaccheus. (See on Lu 15:32.) What encouragement is there in this narrative to hope for unexpected conversions?
Lu 19:11-27. Parable of the Pounds.
A different parable from that of the Talents (Mt 25:14-30). For, (1) This parable was spoken "when He was nigh to Jerusalem" (Lu 19:11); that one, some days after entering it, and from the Mount of Olives. (2) This parable was spoken to the promiscuous crowd; that, to the Twelve alone. Accordingly, (3) Besides the "servants" in this parable, who profess subjection to Him, there is a class of "citizens" who refuse to own Him, and who are treated differently, whereas in the parable of the talents, spoken to the former class alone, this latter class is omitted. (4) In the Talents, each servant receives a different number of them (five, two, one); in the Pounds all receive the same one pound, which is but about the sixtieth part of a talent; also, in the talents, each shows the same fidelity by doubling what he received (the five are made ten; the two, four); in the Pounds, each receiving the same, render a different return (one making his pound ten, another five). Plainly, therefore, the intended lesson is different; the one illustrating equal fidelity with different degrees of advantage; the other, different degrees of improvement of the same opportunities; yet with all this difference, the parables are remarkably similar.
12. a far country—said to put down the notion that He was just on His way to set up His kingdom, and to inaugurate it by His personal presence.
to receive … a kingdom—be invested with royalty; as when Herod went to Rome and was there made king; a striking expression of what our Lord went away for and received, "sitting down at the right hand of the Majesty on high."
to return—at His second coming.
13. Occupy—"negotiate," "do business," with the resources entrusted.
14. his citizens—His proper subjects; meaning the Jews, who expressly repudiating our Lord's claims said, "We have no king but Cæsar" (Joh 19:15). In Christendom, these correspond to infidel rejecters of Christianity, as distinguished from professed Christians.
15-26. (See on Mt 25:19-29.)
ten … five cities—different degrees of future gracious reward, proportioned to the measure of present fidelity.
Lu 19:28-44. Christ's Triumphant Entry into Jerusalem and Tears over It.
(See on Mt 21:1-11.)
29-38. Bethphage—"house of figs," a village which with Bethany lay along the further side of Mount Olivet, east of Jerusalem.
30. whereon, &c.—(See on Joh 19:41).
31. the Lord hath need, &c.—He both knew all and had the key of the human heart. (See on Lu 19:5.) Perhaps the owner was a disciple.
35. set Jesus on—He allowing this, as befitting the state He was for the first and only time assuming.
37. whole multitude, &c.—The language here is very grand, intended to express a burst of admiration far wider and deeper than ever had been witnessed before.
38. Blessed be the King, &c.—Mark (Mr 11:9, 10) more fully, "Hosanna," that is, "Save now," the words of Ps 118:25, which were understood to refer to Messiah; and so they add, "to the Son of David, blessed is He that cometh in the name of the Lord (Ps 118:26), Hosanna in the highest." This was the very loftiest style in which He could be saluted as the promised Deliverer.
40. the stones, &c.—Hitherto the Lord had discouraged all demonstrations in His favor; latterly He had begun an opposite course; on this one occasion He seems to yield His whole soul to the wide and deep acclaim with a mysterious satisfaction, regarding it as so necessary a part of the regal dignity in which as Messiah He for this last time entered the city, that if not offered by the vast multitude, it would have been wrung out of the stones rather than be withheld (Hab 2:11).
41-44. when beheld … wept—Compare La 3:51, "Mine eye affecteth mine heart"; the heart again affecting the eye. Under this sympathetic law of the relation of mind and body, Jesus, in His beautiful, tender humanity, was constituted even as we. What a contrast to the immediately preceding profound joy! He yielded Himself alike freely to both. (See on Mt 23:37.)
42. at least in this, &c.—even at this moving moment. (See on Lu 13:9.)
thy peace—thinking perhaps of the name of the city. (Heb 7:2) [Webster and Wilkinson]. How much is included in this word!
now … hid—It was His among His last open efforts to "gather them," but their eyes were judicially closed.
43. a trench—a rampart; first of wood, and when this was burnt, a built wall, four miles in circuit, built in three days—so determined were they. This "cut off all hope of escape," and consigned the city to unparalleled horrors. (See Josephus, Wars of the Jews, 6.2; 12.3,4.) All here predicted was with dreadful literally fulfilled.
Lu 19:45-48. Second Cleansing of the Temple and Subsequent Teaching.
45, 46. As the first cleansing was on His first visit to Jerusalem (Joh 2:13-22), so this second cleansing was on His last.
den of thieves—banded together for plunder, reckless of principle. The mild term "house of merchandise," used on the former occasion, was now unsuitable.
47. sought—continued seeking, that is, daily, as He taught.
48. were very attentive to hear him—hung upon His words.