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12. Triumphal Entry
1Jesus therefore six days before the passover came to Bethany, where Lazarus was, whom Jesus raised from the dead. 2So they made him a supper there: and Martha served; but Lazarus was one of them that sat at meat with him. 3Mary therefore took a pound of ointment of pure nard, very precious, and anointed the feet of Jesus, and wiped his feet with her hair: and the house was filled with the odor of the ointment. 4But Judas Iscariot, one of his disciples, that should betray him, saith, 5Why was not this ointment sold for three hundred shillings, and given to the poor? 6Now this he said, not because he cared for the poor; but because he was a thief, and having the bag took away what was put therein. 7Jesus therefore said, Suffer her to keep it against the day of my burying. 8For the poor ye have always with you; but me ye have not always. 9The common people therefore of the Jews learned that he was there: and they came, not for Jesus' sake only, but that they might see Lazarus also, whom he had raised from the dead. 10But the chief priests took counsel that they might put Lazarus also to death; 11because that by reason of him many of the Jews went away, and believed on Jesus. 12On the morrow a great multitude that had come to the feast, when they heard that Jesus was coming to Jerusalem, 13took the branches of the palm trees, and went forth to meet him, and cried out, Hosanna: Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord, even the King of Israel. 14And Jesus, having found a young ass, sat thereon; as it is written, 15Fear not, daughter of Zion: behold, thy King cometh, sitting on an ass's colt. 16These things understood not his disciples at the first: but when Jesus was glorified, then remembered they that these things were written of him, and that they had done these things unto him. 17The multitude therefore that was with him when he called Lazarus out of the tomb, and raised him from the dead, bare witness. 18For this cause also the multitude went and met him, for that they heard that he had done this sign. 19The Pharisees therefore said among themselves, Behold how ye prevail nothing: lo, the world is gone after him. 20Now there were certain Greeks among those that went up to worship at the feast: 21these therefore came to Philip, who was of Bethsaida of Galilee, and asked him, saying, Sir, we would see Jesus. 22Philip cometh and telleth Andrew: Andrew cometh, and Philip, and they tell Jesus. 23And Jesus answereth them, saying, The hour is come, that the Son of man should be glorified. 24Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except a grain of wheat fall into the earth and die, it abideth by itself alone; but if it die, it beareth much fruit. 25He that loveth his life loseth it; and he that hateth his life in this world shall keep it unto life eternal. 26If any man serve me, let him follow me; and where I am, there shall also my servant be: if any man serve me, him will the Father honor. 27Now is my soul troubled; and what shall I say? Father, save me from this hour. But for this cause came I unto this hour. 28Father, glorify thy name. There came therefore a voice out of heaven, saying, I have both glorified it, and will glorify it again. 29The multitude therefore, that stood by, and heard it, said that it had thundered: others said, An angel hath spoken to him. 30Jesus answered and said, This voice hath not come for my sake, but for your sakes. 31Now is the judgment of this world: now shall the prince of this world be cast out. 32And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto myself. 33But this he said, signifying by what manner of death he should die. 34The multitude therefore answered him, We have heard out of the law that the Christ abideth for ever: and how sayest thou, The Son of man must be lifted up? who is this Son of man? 35Jesus therefore said unto them, Yet a little while is the light among you. Walk while ye have the light, that darkness overtake you not: and he that walketh in the darkness knoweth not whither he goeth. 36While ye have the light, believe on the light, that ye may become sons of light. These things spake Jesus, and he departed and hid himself from them. 37But though he had done so many signs before them, yet they believed not on him: 38that the word of Isaiah the prophet might be fulfilled, which he spake,
Lord, who hath believed our report?
And to whom hath the arm of the Lord been revealed?
39For this cause they could not believe, for that Isaiah said again,
40He hath blinded their eyes, and he hardened their heart;
Lest they should see with their eyes, and perceive with their heart,
And should turn,
And I should heal them.
41These things said Isaiah, because he saw his glory; and he spake of him. 42Nevertheless even of the rulers many believed on him; but because of the Pharisees they did not confess it, lest they should be put out of the synagogue: 43for they loved the glory that is of men more than the glory that is of God. 44And Jesus cried and said, He that believeth on me, believeth not on me, but on him that sent me. 45And he that beholdeth me beholdeth him that sent me. 46I am come a light into the world, that whosoever believeth on me may not abide in the darkness. 47And if any man hear my sayings, and keep them not, I judge him not: for I came not to judge the world, but to save the world. 48He that rejecteth me, and receiveth not my sayings, hath one that judgeth him: the word that I spake, the same shall judge him in the last day. 49For I spake not from myself; but the Father that sent me, he hath given me a commandment, what I should say, and what I should speak. 50And I know that his commandment is life eternal: the things therefore which I speak, even as the Father hath said unto me, so I speak.
13. Took branches of palm-trees. The palm was the emblem of victory and peace among the ancients; but they were wont to employ branches of palm-trees, when they bestowed kingly power on any one, or when they humbly supplicated the favor of a conqueror. But those persons appear to have taken into their hands branches of palm-trees, as a token of gladness and rejoicing at receiving a new king.
Shouted, Hosanna. By this phrase they testified that they acknowledged Jesus Christ to be the Messiah, who had anciently been promised to the fathers, and from whom redemption and salvation were to be expected. For the Psalm 118:25 from which that exclamation is taken was composed in reference to the Messiah for this purpose, that all the saints might continually desire and ardently long for his coming, and might receive him with the utmost reverence, when he was manifested. It is therefore probable, or rather it may be inferred with certainty, that this prayer was frequently used by the Jews, and, consequently, was in every man’s mouth; so that the Spirit of God put words into the mouths, 55 “Et pourtant le Sainct Esprit mettoit les mots en la bouche des hommes, quand ils ont ainsi souhaitte heureuse venue au Seigneur Jesus.” of those men, when they wished a prosperous arrival to the Lord Jesus; and they were chosen by him as heralds to attest that Christ was come.
The word Hosanna is composed of two Hebrew words, and means, Save, I beseech you. The Hebrews, indeed, pronounce it differently, (הושיע-נא) Hoshianna; 66 See Harmony of the Evangelists, vol. 2, p. 451. but it usually happens that the pronunciation of words is corrupted, when they are transferred to a foreign language. Yet the Evangelists, though they wrote in Greek, purposely retained the Hebrew word, in order to express more fully that the multitude employed the ordinary form of prayer, which was first employed by David, and afterwards throughout an uninterrupted succession of ages, received by the people of God, and peculiarly consecrated for the purpose of blessing the kingdom of the Messiah. 77 “Le royaume du Messias.” To the same purpose are the words which immediately follow, Blessed be the King of Israel, who cometh in the name of the Lord; for this is also a joyful prayer for the happy and prosperous success of that kingdom, on which the restoration and prosperity of the Church of God depended.
But as David appears to speak of himself rather than of Christ in that psalm, we must first of all solve this difficulty; nor will the task be hard. We know for what purpose the kingdom was established in the hand of David and of his posterity; and that purpose was, that it might be a sort of prelude of the everlasting kingdom which was to be manifested at the proper time. And, indeed, it was not necessary that David should confine his attention to himself; and the Lord, by the prophets, frequently commands all the godly to turn their eyes to a different person from David. 88 “De jetter leurs yeux ailleurs qu’a David.” So then all that David sung about himself is justly referred to that king who, according to the promise, was to arise from the seed of David to be the redeemer.
But we ought to derive from it a profitable admonition; for if we are members of the Church, the Lord calls upon us to cherish the same desire which he wished believers to cherish under the Law; that is, that we should wish with our whole heart that the kingdom of Christ should flourish and prosper; and not only so, but that we should demonstrate this by our prayers. In order To give us greater courage in prayer, we ought to observe that he prescribes to us the words. Woe then to our slothfulness, if we extinguish by our coldness, or quench by indifference, that ardor which God excites. Yet let us know that the prayers which we offer by the direction and authority of God will not be in vain. Provided that we be not indolent or grow weary in praying, He will be a faithful guardian of his kingdom, to defend it by his invincible power and protection. True, indeed, though we remain drowsy and inactive, 99 “Endormis et oisifs.” the majesty of his kingdom will be firm and sure; but when — as is frequently the ease — it is less prosperous than it ought to be, or rather falls into decay, as we perceive it to be, at the present day, fearfully scattered and wasted, this unquestionably arises through our fault. And when but a small restoration, or almost none, is to be seen, or when at least it advances slowly, let us ascribe it to our indifference. We daily ask from God that his kingdom may come, (Matthew 6:10,) but scarcely one man in a hundred earnestly desires it. Justly, therefore, are we deprived of the blessing of God, which we are weary of asking.
We are also taught by this expression, that it is God alone who preserves and defends the Church; for He does not claim for himself, or command us to give him, anything but what is his own. Since, therefore, while He guides our tongues, we pray that he may preserve the kingdom of Christ, we acknowledge that, in order that this kingdom may remain in a proper state, God himself is the only bestower of salvation. He employs, indeed, the labors of men for this purpose, but of men whom his own hand has prepared for the work. Besides, while he makes use of men for advancing, or maintaining the kingdom of Christ, still every thing is begun and completed, through their agency, by God alone through the power of his Spirit.
Who cometh in the name of the Lord. We must first understand what is meant by this phrase, to come in the name of the Lord. He who does not rashly put himself forward, or falsely assume the honor, but, being duly called, has the direction and authority of God for his actions, cometh in the name of God This title belongs to all the true servants of God. A Prophet who guided by the Holy Spirit, honestly delivers to men the doctrine which he has received from heaven, — cometh in the name of God. A King, by whose hand God governs his people cometh in the same name. But as the Spirit of the Lord rested on Christ, and he is the Head of all things, (Ephesians 1:22,) and all who have ever been ordained to rule over the Church are subject to his say, or rather, are streams flowing from him as the fountain, he is justly said to have come in the name of God. Nor is it only by the high rank of his authority that he surpasses others, but because God manifests himself to us fully in him; for in him dwelleth the fullness of the Godhead bodily, as Paul says, (Colossians 2:9,) and he is the lively image of God, (Hebrews 1:3,) and, in short, is the true lmmanuel, (Matthew 1:23.) It is therefore by a special right that he is said to have come in the name of the Lord, because by him God has manifested himself fully, and not partially, as he had formerly done by the Prophets. We ought therefore to begin with him as the Head, when we wish to bless the servants of God.
Now since the false prophets arrogantly boast of the name of God, and shelter themselves under this false pretense, we ought to supply an opposite clause in the prayer, that the Lord may scatter and utterly destroy them. Thus we cannot bless Christ without cursing the Pope and that sacrilegious tyranny which he has raised up against the Son of God. 1010 “Contre le Fils de Dieu.” He huffs his excommunications against us, indeed, with great violence, as if they were thunderbolts, but they are mere air-bladders, 1111 “Vessies pleines de vent.” and therefore we ought boldly to despise them. On the contrary, the Holy Spirit here dictates to us an awful curse, that it may sink the Pope to the lowest hell, with all his pomp and splendor. Nor is it necessary that there should be any Bishop or Pontiff 1212 “Evesque ou Pontiffe.” to pronounce the curse against him, since Christ at one time bestowed this authority on children, when he approved of their crying in the temple, and saying, Hosanna to the Son of David, as the other Evangelists relate, (Matthew 21:15, 16.)