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7even considering the exceptional character of the revelations. Therefore, to keep me from being too elated, a thorn was given me in the flesh, a messenger of Satan to torment me, to keep me from being too elated. 8Three times I appealed to the Lord about this, that it would leave me, 9but he said to me, “My grace is sufficient for you, for power is made perfect in weakness.” So, I will boast all the more gladly of my weaknesses, so that the power of Christ may dwell in me. 10Therefore I am content with weaknesses, insults, hardships, persecutions, and calamities for the sake of Christ; for whenever I am weak, then I am strong.

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7. And lest through the superiority of revelations. Here we have a second reason — that God, designing to repress in him every approach to insolence, subdued him with a rod. That rod he calls a goad, by a metaphor taken from oxen. The word flesh is, in the Greek, in the dative 898898     Selon le Grec il faudroit dire A la chair;” — “According to the Greek, we would require to say, To the flesh. Hence Erasmus has rendered it “by the flesh.” I prefer, however, to understand him as meaning, that the prickings of this goad were in his flesh.

Now it is asked, what this goad was. Those act a ridiculous part, who think that Paul was tempted to lust. We must therefore repudiate that fancy. 899899     Il faut reietter loin ce songe;” — “We must put far away from us that dream.” Some have supposed, that he was harassed with frequent pains in the head. Chrysostom is rather inclined to think, that the reference is to Hymeneus and Alexander, and the like, because, instigated by the devil, they occasioned Paul very much annoyance. My opinion is, that under this term is comprehended every kind of temptation, with which Paul was exercised. For flesh here, in my opinion, denotes — not the body, but that part of the soul which has not yet been regenerated. “There was given to me a goad that my flesh might be spurred up by it, for I am not yet so spiritual, as not to be exposed to temptations according to the flesh.”

He calls it farther the messenger of Satan on this ground, that as all temptations are sent by Satan, so, whenever they assail us, they warn us that Satan is at hand. Hence, at every apprehension of temptation, it becomes us to arouse ourselves, and arm ourselves with promptitude for repelling Satan’s assaults. It was most profitable for Paul to think of this, because this consideration did not allow him to exult like a man that was off his guard. 900900     Ceste consideration ne luy donnoit point le loisir de s’egayer, comme vn homme sans souci, mais l’admonestoit de se tenir sur ses gardes;” — “This consideration did not allow him leisure to sport himself, like a man that is devoid of care, but warned him to be upon his guard.” For the man, who is as yet beset with dangers, and dreads the enemy, is not prepared to celebrate a triumph. “The Lord, says he, has provided me with an admirable remedy, against being unduly elated; for, while I am employed in taking care that Satan may not take advantage of me, I am kept back from pride.”

At the same time, God did not cure him by this means exclusively, but also by humbling him. For he adds, to buffet me; by which expression he elegantly expresses this idea. — that he has been brought under control. 901901     “Qu’il a este reprime et range a humilite;” — “That he has been restrained and brought down to subjection.” For to be buffeted is a severe kind of indignity. Accordingly, if any one has had his face made black and blue, 902902     Si quelq’vn a este tellement frappe au visage, que les taches noires y demeurent;” — “If any one has been struck on the face, in such a way, as to leave black marks upon it.” he does not, from a feeling of shame, venture to expose himself openly in the view of men. In like manner, whatever be the infirmity under which we labor, let us bear in mind, that we are, as it were, buffeted by the Lord, with the view of making us ashamed, that we may learn humility. Let this be carefully reflected upon by those, especially, who are otherwise distinguished by illustrious virtues, if they have any mixture of defects, if they are persecuted by any with hatred, if they are assailed by any revilings — that these things are not merely rods of the Heavenly Master, but buffetings, to fill them with shame, and beat down all forwardness. 903903     Toute orgueil et insolence;” — “All pride and insolence.” Now let all the pious take notice as to this, that they may see 904904     “Or ie prie maintenant sur cepassage tous fideles, qu’ils auisent;” — “But I entreat now in connection with this passage all believers to take notice.” how dangerous a thing the “poison of pride” is, as Augustine speaks in his third sermon “On the words of the Apostle,” inasmuch as it “cannot be cured except by poison.” 905905     “Veu qu’il ne pent estre guari que par d’autre poison;” — “Inasmuch as it cannot be cured except by another poison. And unquestionably, as it was the cause of man’s ruin, so it is the last vice with which we have to contend, for other vices have a connection with evil deeds, but this is to be dreaded in connection with the best actions; and farther, it naturally clings to us so obstinately, and is so deeply rooted, that it is extremely difficult to extirpate it.

Let us carefully consider, who it is that here speaks — He had overcome so many dangers, tortures, and other evils — had triumphed over all the enemies of Christ — had driven away the fear of death — had, in fine, renounced the world; and yet he had not altogether subdued pride. Nay more, there awaited him a conflict so doubtful, that he could not overcome without being buffeted. Instructed by his example, let us wage war with other vices in such a way, as to lay out our main efforts for the subduing of this one.

But what does this mean — that Satan, who was a

man-slayer 906906     Dr. Campbell, in his Translation of the Gospels, makes use of the term manslayer, as Calvin does here, and makes the following observations in support of this rendering: “The common term for murderer in the New Testament is φονεὺς. I have here made choice of a less usual name, not from any disposition to trace etymologies, but because I think it is not without intention, that the devil, as being not of earthly extraction, is rather called ἀνθρωποκτόνος than φονεὺς, as marking, with greater precision, his ancient enmity to the human race. When the name murderer is applied to a rational being of a species different from ours, it naturally suggests, that the being so denominated is a destroyer of others of his own species. As this is not meant here, the Evangelist’s term is peculiarly apposite. At the same time, I am sensible, that our word manslaughter means, in the language of the law, such killing as is, indeed, criminal, though not so atrocious as murder. But, in common use, it is not so limited. Heylyn says, to the same purpose — a slayer of men.” — Campbell on the Gospels, (Edin. 1807,) volume 2. — Ed. from the beginning, (John 8:44,)

was a physician to Paul, and that too, not merely in the cure of the body, but — what is of greater importance — in the cure of the soul? I answer, that Satan, in accordance with his disposition and custom, had nothing else in view than to kill and to destroy, (John 10:10,) and that the goad, that Paul makes mention of, was dipt in deadly poison; but that it was a special kindness from the Lord, to render medicinal what was in its own nature deadly.

8. For this thing I besought the Lord thrice. Here, also, 907907     Calvin alludes to what he had said as to the number three, when commenting on an expression, which occurs in 2 Corinthians 12:2third heavens. See p. 368. — Ed. the number three is employed to denote frequent repetition. 908908     Τρὶς; is considered by the commentators as a certain for an uncertain, but large number, (i.e., oftentimes.) To the passages cited by them I add Eurip. Hippol. 46; and Job 33:29, which I would render — ‘So all these things doth God work with man unto three times,’ namely, by divinely sent disorders, by nocturnal visions, and by divine messengers.” — Bloomfield.Ed. He means, however, to intimate, that this annoyance had been felt by him distressing, inasmuch as he had so frequently prayed to be exempted from it. For if it had been slight, or easy to be endured, he would not have been so desirous to be freed from it; and yet he says that he had not obtained this: hence it appears, how much need he had of being humbled. He confirms, therefore, what he had said previously — that he had, by means of this bridle, been held back from being haughty; for if relief from it had been for his advantage, he would never have met with a refusal.

It may seem, however, to follow from this, that Paul had not by any means prayed in faith, if we would not make void all the promises of God. 909909     “Si nous ne voulons faire toutes les promesses de Dieu vaines et in u-tiles;” — “If we would not make all the promises of God vain and useless.” “We read everywhere in Scripture, that we shall obtain whatever we ask in faith: Paul prays, and does not obtain.” I answer, that as there are different ways of asking, so there are different ways of obtaining. We ask in simple terms those things as to which we have an express promise — as, for example, the perfecting of God’s kingdom, and the hallowing of his name, (Matthew 6:9,) the remission of our sins, and every thing that is advantageous to us; but, when we think that the kingdom of God can, nay must be advanced, in this particular manner, or in that, and that this thing, or that, is necessary for the hallowing of his name, we are often mistaken in our opinion. In like manner, we often fall into a serious mistake as to what tends to promote our own welfare. Hence we ask those former things confidently, and without any reservation, while it does not belong to us to prescribe the means. If, however, we specify the means, there is always a condition implied, though not expressed. Now Paul was not so ignorant as not to know this. Hence, as to the object of his prayer, there can be no doubt that he was heard, although he met with a refusal as to the express form. By this we are admonished not to give way to despondency, as if our prayers had been lost labor, when God does not gratify or comply with our wishes, but that we must be satisfied with his grace, that is, in respect of our not being forsaken by him. For the reason, why he sometimes mercifully refuses to his own people, what, in his wrath, he grants to the wicked, is this — that he foresees better what is expedient for us, than our understanding is able to apprehend.

9. He said to me. It is not certain, whether he had this answer by a special revelation, and it is not of great importance. 910910     Et aussi il n’est pas fort requis de la scauoir;” — “And besides, it is not greatly requisite to know it.” For God answers us, when he strengthens us inwardly by his Spirit, and sustains us by his consolation, so that we do not give up hope and patience. He bids Paul be satisfied with his grace, and, in the mean time, not refuse chastisement. Hence we must bear up under evil of ever so long continuance, because we are admirably well dealt with, when we have the grace of God to be our support. 911911     Et c’est assez;” — “And that is enough.” The term grace, here, does not mean here, as it does elsewhere, the favor of God, but by metonymy, the aid of the Holy Spirit, which comes to us from the unmerited favor of God; and it ought to be sufficient for the pious, inasmuch as it is a sure and invincible support against their ever giving way.

For my strength Our weakness may seem, as if it were an obstacle in the way of God’s perfecting his strength in us. Paul does not merely deny this, but maintains, on the other hand, that it is only when our weakness becomes apparent, that God’s strength is duly perfected. To understand this more distinctly, we must distinguish between God’s strength and ours; for the word my is emphatic. “My strength,” says the Lord, (meaning that which helps man’s need — which raises them up when they have fallen down, and refreshes them when they are faint,) “is perfected in the weakness of men;that is, it has occasion to exert itself, when the weakness of men becomes manifest; and not only so, but it is more distinctly recognized as it ought to be. For the word perfected has a reference to the perception and apprehension of mankind, because it is not perfected unless it openly shines forth, so as to receive its due praise. For mankind have no taste of it, unless they are first convinced of the need of it, and they quickly lose sight of its value, if they are not constantly exercised with a feeling of their own weakness.

Most gladly, therefore This latter statement confirms the exposition that I have given. I will glory, says he, in my infirmities, that the power of Christ may dwell in me 912912     The original word, ἐπισκηνώσὟ, properly means, to pitch a tent, or tabernacle, upon. Raphelius quotes two passages from Polybius, in which the verb is used as meaning — to enter into, and dwell in. Τὸ δὲ τελευτασῖον ἐπισωκηνώσαντες ἐπὶ τὰς οἰκίας “and at last, having entered in, and taken possession of the houses.” Μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα ταῖς οἰκίαις ἐπισκηνώσαντες κατεῖχον τὴν πόλιν — “And after these things, having entered into the houses, they took possession of the city.” — CEcumenius, cited by Parkhurst, considers ἐπίσκηνώσὟ, as employed by the Apostle here, to be equivalent to ὁλη ἐν ὁλω κατοικήσὟ — “may entirely take possession of,me, and dwell in me.” — It is admirably well observed by Dr. Adam Clarke, that “the same Eternal WORD,” (of whom it is said in John 1:14, that he “was made flesh, and made his tabernacle among us, (ἐσκήνωσεν ἐν ἡμῖν,) full of grace and truth,”) “promised to make his tabernacle with the Apostle, and gives him a proof that he was still the samefull of grace and truth, by assuring him that his grace should be sufficient for him.” — Ed. Hence, the man that is ashamed of this glorying, shuts the door upon Christ’s grace, and, in a manner, puts it away from him. For then do we make room for Christ’s grace, when in true humility of mind, we feel and confess our own weakness. The valleys are watered with rain to make them fruitful, while in the mean time, the high summits of the lofty mountains remain dry. 913913     Sees et steriles;” — “Dry and barren.” Let that man, therefore, become a valley, who is desirous to receive the heavenly rain of God’s spiritual grace. 914914     Much in accordance with this beautiful sentiment is Bunyan’s description of the “Valley of Humiliation,” in the second part of his “Pilgrim’s Progress.” “It is the best and most fruitful piece of ground in all these parts. It is fat ground, and, as you see, consisteth much in meadows; and if a man was to come here in the summer-time, as we do now, if he knew not any thing before thereof, and if he also delighted himself in the sight of his eyes, he might see that which would be delightful to him.
   ‘Behold how green this valley is! also how beautiful with lilies!’
(Song of Solomon 2:1.)

   I have known many labouring men that have got good estates in this Valley of Humiliation. (1 Peter 5:5.) ‘For God resisteth the proud, but giveth grace unto the humble.’ (James 4:6.) For indeed it is a very fruitful soil, and doth bring forth by handfuls.” — Bunyan’s Allegorical Works, (Glasgow, 1843,) p. 164. — Ed.

He adds most gladly, to show that he is influenced by such an eager desire for the grace of Christ, that he refuses nothing for the sake of obtaining it. For we see very many yielding, indeed, submission to God, as being afraid of incurring sacrilege in coveting his glory, but, at the same time, not without reluctance, or at least, less cheerfully than were becoming. 915915     “Ce n’est point si nayfuement et franchement qu’il faloit;” — “It is not so ingenuously and frankly, as it ought to be.”

10. I take pleasure in infirmities There can be no doubt, that he employs the term weakness in different senses; for he formerly applied this name to the punctures that he experienced in the flesh. He now employs it to denote those external qualities, which occasion contempt in the view of the world. Having spoken, however, in a general way, of infirmities of every kind, he now returns to that particular description of them, that had given occasion for his turning aside into this general discourse. Let us take notice, then, that infirmity is a general term, and that under it is comprehended the weakness of our nature, as well as all tokens of abasement. Now the point in question was Paul’s outward abasement. He proceeded farther, for the purpose of showing, that the Lord humbled him in every way, that, in his defects, the glory of God might shine forth the more resplendently, which is, in a manner, concealed and buried, when a man is in an elevated position. He now again returns to speak of his excellences, which, at the same time, made him contemptible in public view, instead of procuring for him esteem and commendation.

For when I am weak, that is — “The more deficiency there is in me, so much the more liberally does the Lord, from his strength, supply me with whatever he sees to be needful for me.” For the fortitude of philosophers is nothing else than contumacy, or rather a mad enthusiasm, such as fanatics are accustomed to have. “If a man is desirous to be truly strong, let him not refuse to be at the same time weak Let him,” I say, “be weak in himself that he may be strong in the Lord.” (Ephesians 6:10.) Should any one object, that Paul speaks here, not of a failure of strength, but of poverty, and other afflictions, I answer, that all these things are exercises for discovering to us our own weakness; for if God had not exercised Paul with such trials, he would never have perceived so clearly his weakness. Hence, he has in view not merely poverty, and hardships of every kind, but also those effects that arise from them, as, for example, a feeling of our own weakness, self-distrust, and humility.