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Paul’s Visions and Revelations


It is necessary to boast; nothing is to be gained by it, but I will go on to visions and revelations of the Lord. 2I know a person in Christ who fourteen years ago was caught up to the third heaven—whether in the body or out of the body I do not know; God knows. 3And I know that such a person—whether in the body or out of the body I do not know; God knows— 4was caught up into Paradise and heard things that are not to be told, that no mortal is permitted to repeat. 5On behalf of such a one I will boast, but on my own behalf I will not boast, except of my weaknesses. 6But if I wish to boast, I will not be a fool, for I will be speaking the truth. But I refrain from it, so that no one may think better of me than what is seen in me or heard from me, 7even considering the exceptional character of the revelations. Therefore, to keep me from being too elated, a thorn was given me in the flesh, a messenger of Satan to torment me, to keep me from being too elated. 8Three times I appealed to the Lord about this, that it would leave me, 9but he said to me, “My grace is sufficient for you, for power is made perfect in weakness.” So, I will boast all the more gladly of my weaknesses, so that the power of Christ may dwell in me. 10Therefore I am content with weaknesses, insults, hardships, persecutions, and calamities for the sake of Christ; for whenever I am weak, then I am strong.

Paul’s Concern for the Corinthian Church

11 I have been a fool! You forced me to it. Indeed you should have been the ones commending me, for I am not at all inferior to these super-apostles, even though I am nothing. 12The signs of a true apostle were performed among you with utmost patience, signs and wonders and mighty works. 13How have you been worse off than the other churches, except that I myself did not burden you? Forgive me this wrong!

14 Here I am, ready to come to you this third time. And I will not be a burden, because I do not want what is yours but you; for children ought not to lay up for their parents, but parents for their children. 15I will most gladly spend and be spent for you. If I love you more, am I to be loved less? 16Let it be assumed that I did not burden you. Nevertheless (you say) since I was crafty, I took you in by deceit. 17Did I take advantage of you through any of those whom I sent to you? 18I urged Titus to go, and sent the brother with him. Titus did not take advantage of you, did he? Did we not conduct ourselves with the same spirit? Did we not take the same steps?

19 Have you been thinking all along that we have been defending ourselves before you? We are speaking in Christ before God. Everything we do, beloved, is for the sake of building you up. 20For I fear that when I come, I may find you not as I wish, and that you may find me not as you wish; I fear that there may perhaps be quarreling, jealousy, anger, selfishness, slander, gossip, conceit, and disorder. 21I fear that when I come again, my God may humble me before you, and that I may have to mourn over many who previously sinned and have not repented of the impurity, sexual immorality, and licentiousness that they have practiced.

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1. It is not expedient for me to glory Now, when as it were in the middle of the course, he restrains himself from proceeding farther, and in this way he most appropriately reproves the impudence of his rivals and declares that it is with reluctance, that he engages in this sort of contest with them. For what a shame it was to scrape together from every quarter commendations, or rather to go a-begging for them, that they might be on a level with so distinguished a man! As to the latter, he admonishes them by his own example, that the more numerous and the more excellent the graces by which any one of us is distinguished, so much the less ought he to think of his own excellence. For such a thought is exceedingly dangerous, because, like one entering into a labyrinth, the person is immediately dazzled, so as to be too quick-sighted in discerning his gifts, 877877     Ses dons et graces;” — “His gifts and graces.” while in the mean time he is ignorant of himself. Paul is afraid, lest this should befall him. The graces conferred by God are, indeed, to be acknowledged, that we may be aroused, — first, to gratitude for them, and secondly, to the right improvement of them; but to take occasion from them to boast — that is what cannot be done without great danger.

For I will come 878878     “I will come Marg ‘For I will’ Our Translators have omitted (γὰρ), for, in the text, evidently supposing that it is a mere expletive. Doddridge renders it ‘nevertheless.’ But it seems to me that it contains an important sense, and that it should be rendered by then. ‘Since it is not fit that I should glory, then I will refer to visions, etc. I will turn away, then, from that subject, and come to another.’ Thus the word (γὰρ), for, is used in John 7:41, ‘Shall then (μὴ γὰρ) Christ come out of Galilee?’ Acts 8:31, ‘How can I then (τῶς γὰρ) except some man should guide me?’” — Barnes. Granville Penn renders the passage as follows: “Must I needs boast? It is not good indeed, yet I will come to visions and revelations of the Lord.” This rendering he adopts, as corresponding with the reading of the Vat. and most ancient MS. Καυχᾶσθαι δεῖ οὐ συμφέρον μὲν ἐλεύσομαι δὲ εἰς ὀπτασίας καὶ ἀποκαλύψεις Κυρίου Ed. to visions. “I shall not creep on the ground, but will be constrained to mount aloft. Hence I am afraid, lest the height of my gifts should hurry me on, so as to lead me to forget myself.” And certainly, if Paul had gloried ambitiously, he would have fallen headlong from a lofty eminence; for it is humility alone that can give stability to our greatness in the sight of God.

Between visions and revelations there is this distinction — that a revelation is often made either in a dream, or by an oracle, without any thing being presented to the eye, while a vision is scarcely ever afforded without a revelation, or in other words, without the Lord’s discovering what is meant by it. 879879     C’est qu’il signfie en ce qui s’est presente a nous;” — “What he intends in what is presented to our view.”
   “Visions” (ὀπτασίας)symbolical representations of spiritual and celestial things, in which matters of the deepest importance are exhibited to the eve of the mind by a variety of emblems, the nature and properties of which serve to illustrate those spiritual things. — Revelations (ἀποκαλύψεις)a manifestation of things not before known, and such as God alone can make known, because they are a part of his own inscrutable counsels.” — Dr A. Clarke.Ed.

2. I knew a man in Christ As he was desirous to restrain himself within bounds, he merely singles out one instance, and that, too, he handles in such a way as to show, that it is not from inclination that he brings it forward; for why does he speak in the person of another rather than in his own? It is as though he had said, “I should have preferred to be silent, I should have preferred to keep the whole matter suppressed within my own mind, but those persons 880880     Ces opiniastres ambitieux;” — “Those ambitious, obstinate persons.” will not allow me. I shall mention it, therefore, as it were in a stammering way, that it may be seen that I speak through constraint.” Some think that the clause in Christ is introduced for the purpose of confirming what he says. I view it rather as referring to the disposition, so as to intimate that Paul has not here an eye to himself, but looks to Christ exclusively.

When he confesses, that he does not know whether he was in the body, or out of the body, he expresses thereby the more distinctly the greatness of the revelation. For he means, that God dealt with him in such a way, 881881     Que Dieu a tellement besongne et precede enuers luy;” — That God had in such a manner wrought and acted towards him.” that he did not himself understand the manner of it. Nor should this appear to us incredible, inasmuch as he sometimes manifests himself to us in such a way, that the manner of his doing so is, nevertheless, hid from our view. 882882     Est incomprehensible a nostre sens;” — “Is incomprehensible to our mind.” At the same time, this does not, in any degree, detract from the assurance of faith, which rests simply on this single point — that we are aware that God speaks to us. Nay more, let us learn from this, that we must seek the knowledge of those things only that are necessary to be known, and leave other things to God. (Deuteronomy 29:29.) He says, then, that he does not know, whether he was wholly taken up — soul and body — into heaven, or whether it was his soul only, that was caught up

Fourteen years ago Some 883883     Ne se contentans point de ceci;” — “Not contenting themselves with this.” enquire, also, as to the place, but it does not belong to us to satisfy their curiosity. 884884     Mais nous n’auons point delibere, et aussi il n’est pas en nous de satisfaire a leur curiosite;” — “But we have not determined as to this, and it does not belong to us to satisfy their curiosity.” The Lord manifested himself to Paul in the beginning by a vision, when he designed to convert him from Judaism to the faith of the gospel, but he was not then admitted as yet into those secrets, as he needed even to be instructed by Ananias in the first rudiments. 885885     “Es premiers commencemens de la religion;” — “In the first elements of religion.” (Acts 9:12.) That vision, therefore, was nothing but a preparation, with the view of rendering him teachable. It may be, that, in this instance, he refers to that vision, of which he makes mention also, according to Luke’s narrative. (Acts 22:17.) There is no occasion, however, for our giving ourselves much trouble as to these conjectures, as we see that Paul himself kept silence respecting it for fourteen years, 886886     This vision Paul had kept secret for fourteen years. He had doubtless often thought of it; and the remembrance of that glorious hour was doubtless one of the reasons why he bore trials so patiently, and was willing to endure so much. But before this he had had no occasion to mention it. He had other proofs in abundance that he was called to the work of an Apostle; and to mention this would savour of pride and ostentation. It was only when he was compelled to refer to the evidences of his apostolic mission that he refers to it here.” — Barnes.Ed. and would not have said one word in reference to it, had not the unreasonableness of malignant persons constrained him.

Even to the third heaven. He does not here distinguish between the different heavens in the manner of the philosophers, so as to assign to each planet its own heaven. On the other hand, the number three is made use of (κατ ἐζοχὴν) by way of eminence, to denote what is highest and most complete. Nay more, the term heaven, taken by itself, denotes here the blessed and glorious kingdom of God, which is above all the spheres, 887887     Par dessus tons les cieux;” — “Above all the heavens.” and the firmament itself, and even the entire frame-work of the world. Paul, however, not contenting himself with the simple term, 888888     Non content de nommer simplement le ciel;” — “Not contented with simply employing the term heaven. adds, that he had reached even the greatest height, and the innermost recesses. For our faith scales heaven and enters it, and those that are superior to others in knowledge get higher in degree and elevation, but to reach the third heavens has been granted to very few.

4. In paradise 889889     The word paradise (παράδεισος) occurs but three times in the New Testament, (Luke 23:43, 2 Corinthians 12:4, and Revelation 2:7.) It occurs often in the Septuagint, as the translation of the word garden, (גן) gan; and of the word (פרדס) pardes, in Nehemiah 2:8, Ecclesiastes 2:5, Cant. 2:13. It is a word which had its origin in the language of Eastern Asia, and which has been adopted in the Greek, the Roman, and other western languages. In Sanscrit, the word paradesha means a land elevated and cultivated; in Armenian, pardes denotes a garden around the house, planted with trees, shrubs, grass for use and ornament. In Persia, the word denotes the pleasure-gardens, and parks with wild animals, around the country residences of the monarchs and princes. Hence it denotes, in general, a garden of pleasure; and in the New Testament is applied to the abodes of the blessed after death, the dwelling-place of God, and of happy spirits; or to heaven as a place of blessedness.” — Barnes.Ed. As every region that is peculiarly agreeable and delightful 890890     Toute region delectable et excellente en fertilite et abundance de biens de la terre;” — “Every region that is delightful and distinguished by fertility and abundance of the good things of the earth.” is called in the Scriptures the garden of God, it came from this to be customary among the Greeks to employ the term paradise to denote the heavenly glory, even previously to Christ’s advent, as appears from Ecclesiasticus. (Sirach, 40, 17, 27.) It is also used in this sense in Luke 23:43, in Christ’s answer to the robber — “To-day shalt thou be with me in paradise,” that is, “Thou shalt enjoy the presence of God, in the condition and life of the blessed.”

Heard unspeakable words By words here I do not understand things, as the term is wont to be made use of after the manner of the Hebrews; 891891     Calvin’s meaning evidently is, that ῥήματα, here rendered words, is often made use of, like the corresponding Hebrew word, דברין (dabarim,) to mean things. Accordingly דבר, (dabar,) when employed to denote thing, is very frequently rendered in the Septuagint by ῥήμα, as, for example, in Genesis 18:14, Exodus 18:17, Deuteronomy 17:1. Calvin, when commenting on the expressionwith God nothing shall be impossible, (Luke 1:37,) remarks that “a word often means a thing in the idiom of the Hebrew language, which the Evangelists followed, though they wrote in Greek.” — Calvin’s Harmony, vol. 1, p. 45.— Ed. for the word heard would not correspond with this. Now if any one inquires, what they were, the answer is easy — that it is not without good reason that they are called unspeakable 892892     Secretes, ou impossibles a dire;” — “Secret, or such as it is impossible to utter.” words, and such as it is unlawful to utter. Some one, however, will reply, that what Paul heard was, consequently, needless and useless, for what purpose did it serve to hear, what was to be buried in perpetual silence? I answer, that this took place for the sake of Paul himself, for one who had such arduous difficulties awaiting him, enough to break a thousand hearts, required to be strengthened by special means, that he might not give way, but might persevere undaunted. 893893     Mais qu’il perseuerast constamment, sans se laisser vainere;” — “But might persevere steadfastly, without allowing himself to be overcome.” Let us consider for a little, how many adversaries his doctrine had, and of what sort they were; and farther, with what a variety of artifices it was assailed, and then we shall wonder no longer, why he heard more than it was lawful for him to utter

From this, too, we may gather a most useful admonition as to setting bounds to knowledge. We are naturally prone to curiosity. Hence, neglecting altogether, or tasting but slightly, and carelessly, doctrine that tends to edification, we are hurried on to frivolous questions. Then there follow upon this — boldness and rashness, so that we do not hesitate to decide on matters unknown, and concealed.

From these two sources has sprung up a great part 894894     La plus grande partie;” — “The greatest part.” of scholastic theology, and every thing, which that trifler Dionysius 895895     Calvin refers here to one Dionysius, whose writings appear to have been looked upon by many in Calvin’s times, as having been composed by Dionysius the Areopagite, who was converted by Paul at Athens. (Acts 17:34.) A copy of the work referred to, printed at Paris in 1555, bears the following title: “S. Dionysii Areopagitae, Martyris Inclyti, Athenarum Episcopi, et Galliarum Apostoli, opera-Translatio Noua Ambrosii Florentini,” etc.; — “The works of St. Dionysius the Areopagite, the renowned Martyr, Bishop of Athens, and Apostle of the Gauls — a New Translation by Ambrosius Florentine,” etc. — Calvin, in his Institutes, (volume 1,) when treating of angels, adverts to the writings of Dionysius, in the following terms: “None can deny that Dionysius (whoever he may have been) has many shrewd and subtle disquisitions in his Celestial Hierarchy, but on looking at them more closely, every one must see that they are merely idle talk. The duty of a theologian, however, is not to tickle the ear, but confirm the conscience, by teaching what is true, certain, and useful. When you read the work of Dionysius, you would think that the man had come down from heaven, and was relating, not what he had learned, but what he had actually seen. Paul, however, though he was carried to the third heaven, so far from delivering any thing of the kind positively, declares, that it was not lawful for man to speak the secrets which he had seen. Bidding adieu, therefore, to that nugatory wisdom, let us endeavor to ascertain from the simple doctrine of Scripture, what it is the Lord’s pleasure that we should know concerning angels.” — Beza, in his Annotations on 1 Corinthians 3:15, when expounding the expression — “he himself shall be saved, yet so as by fire,” makes mention of Dionysius, as having been, in his opinion, Bishop of Corinth, and speaks of him as having devoted himself to unprofitable speculations, and as harassing himself, for the most part in vain, in describing the Celestial Hierarchy. — The Rhemish Translators, when commenting on Acts 17:34, contend for the genuineness of the writings referred to. “Dionysius Areopaita This is that famous Denys that first converted France, and wrote those notable and divine works — ’De Ecclesiastica et Caelesti Hierarchia, de diuinis nominibus,’ and others; in which he confirmeth, and proveth plainely, almost all things that the Church now useth in the ministration of the Holy Sacrament, and affirmeth that he learned them of the Apostles, giving also testimony for the Catholike faith in most things now controuersed, so plainely that our adversaries have no shift but to deny this Denys to have been the author of them, raining that they be another’s of later age.” To these statements Dr. Fulke, in his elaborate work in refutation of the errors of the Rhemish Translators, (p. 403,) replies as follows: “That Dionysius Areopagita was author of those bookes which now beare his name, you bring no proofe at all. We alleage that Eusebius, Hierome, Gennadius, neuer heard of his writings, for if they had heard, Dionysius Areopagita should have been registered by them among ecclesiasticall writers.” — It is stated by Mosheim in his Ecclesiastical History, (London 1825,) volume 2, n. (u), that “the spuriousness of these works is now universally granted by the most learned and impartial of the Roman Catholic writers, as they contain accounts of many events that happened several ages after the time of Dionysius, and were not at all mentioned until after the fifth century.” Turretine in his Theology brings forward, at considerable length, evidence to show, that the work referred to was not, as pretended, the production of Dionysius the Areopagite, who was “σύγχρονος Apostolis,” (“a contemporary of the Apostles,”) but was written by an author of much later date — born in the fifth century.Turretini Theologia, (Genevae, 1690,) tom. 3, pp. 233, 234. — Ed. has been so daring as to contrive in reference to the Heavenly Hierarchies, It becomes us so much the more to keep within bounds, 896896     Il faut que nous soyons d’autant plus sobres et modestes;” — “It is necessary, that we should be so much the more sober and modest.” so as not to seek to know any thing, but what the Lord has seen it good to reveal to his Church. Let this be the limit of our knowledge.

5. Of such a man It is as though he had said “I have just ground for glorying, but I do not willingly avail myself of it. For it is more in accordance with my design, to glory in my infirmities If, however, those malicious persons harass me any farther, and constrain me to boast more than I am inclined to do, they shall feel that they have to do with a man, whom God has illustriously honored, and raised up on high, with a view to his exposing their follies.

6. For if I should desire. Lest what he had said, as to his having no inclination to glory, should be turned into an occasion of calumny, and malevolent persons should reply — “You are not inclined for it, because it is not in your power, he anticipates such a reply. “I would have it quite in my power,” says he, “on good grounds; nor would I be justly accused of vanity, for I have ground to go upon, but I refrain from it.” He employs the term folly here in a different sense from what he had done previously, for even those that boast on good grounds act a silly and disgusting part, if there appears any thing of boasting or ambition. The folly, however, is more offensive and insufferable, if any one boasts groundlessly, or, in other words, pretends to be what he is not; for in that case there is impudence in addition to silliness. The Apostle here proceeded upon it as a set, tied matter, that his glorying was as humble as it was well founded. Erasmus has rendered it — “I spare you,” 897897     The same rendering is given in Cranmer’s version, (1539,) “Neuerthelesse I spare you.” The Vulgate reads: “Parco autem;” — (“But I spare.”) This rendering is followed in Wiclif’s version, (1380,) Tyndale’s (1534,) and the Rheims version, (1582.) The Geneva version (1557) has: “but I refraine.” — Joachim Camerarius remarks, that φείδομαι, is elliptical, as being used instead of φείδομαι τοῦ ἐρεῖν, or, τοῦ μεγαλαυχεῖν; — “I refrain from speaking, or from boasting.” — Ed. but I prefer to understand it as meaning — “I refrain,” or, as I have rendered it, “I forbear.”

Lest any one should think of me He adds the reason — because he is contented to occupy the station, which God has assigned him. “My appearance,” says he, “and speech do not give promise of any thing illustrious in me: I have no objection, therefore, to be lightly esteemed.” Here we perceive what great modesty there was in this man, inasmuch as he was not at all concerned on account of his meanness, which he discovered in his appearance and speech, while he was replenished with such a superiority of gifts. There would, however, be no inconsistency in explaining it in this way, that satisfied with the reality itself, he says nothing respecting himself, that he may thus reprove indirectly the false Apostles, who gloried in themselves as to many things, none of which were to be seen. What I mentioned first, however, is what I rather approve of.

7. And lest through the superiority of revelations. Here we have a second reason — that God, designing to repress in him every approach to insolence, subdued him with a rod. That rod he calls a goad, by a metaphor taken from oxen. The word flesh is, in the Greek, in the dative 898898     Selon le Grec il faudroit dire A la chair;” — “According to the Greek, we would require to say, To the flesh. Hence Erasmus has rendered it “by the flesh.” I prefer, however, to understand him as meaning, that the prickings of this goad were in his flesh.

Now it is asked, what this goad was. Those act a ridiculous part, who think that Paul was tempted to lust. We must therefore repudiate that fancy. 899899     Il faut reietter loin ce songe;” — “We must put far away from us that dream.” Some have supposed, that he was harassed with frequent pains in the head. Chrysostom is rather inclined to think, that the reference is to Hymeneus and Alexander, and the like, because, instigated by the devil, they occasioned Paul very much annoyance. My opinion is, that under this term is comprehended every kind of temptation, with which Paul was exercised. For flesh here, in my opinion, denotes — not the body, but that part of the soul which has not yet been regenerated. “There was given to me a goad that my flesh might be spurred up by it, for I am not yet so spiritual, as not to be exposed to temptations according to the flesh.”

He calls it farther the messenger of Satan on this ground, that as all temptations are sent by Satan, so, whenever they assail us, they warn us that Satan is at hand. Hence, at every apprehension of temptation, it becomes us to arouse ourselves, and arm ourselves with promptitude for repelling Satan’s assaults. It was most profitable for Paul to think of this, because this consideration did not allow him to exult like a man that was off his guard. 900900     Ceste consideration ne luy donnoit point le loisir de s’egayer, comme vn homme sans souci, mais l’admonestoit de se tenir sur ses gardes;” — “This consideration did not allow him leisure to sport himself, like a man that is devoid of care, but warned him to be upon his guard.” For the man, who is as yet beset with dangers, and dreads the enemy, is not prepared to celebrate a triumph. “The Lord, says he, has provided me with an admirable remedy, against being unduly elated; for, while I am employed in taking care that Satan may not take advantage of me, I am kept back from pride.”

At the same time, God did not cure him by this means exclusively, but also by humbling him. For he adds, to buffet me; by which expression he elegantly expresses this idea. — that he has been brought under control. 901901     “Qu’il a este reprime et range a humilite;” — “That he has been restrained and brought down to subjection.” For to be buffeted is a severe kind of indignity. Accordingly, if any one has had his face made black and blue, 902902     Si quelq’vn a este tellement frappe au visage, que les taches noires y demeurent;” — “If any one has been struck on the face, in such a way, as to leave black marks upon it.” he does not, from a feeling of shame, venture to expose himself openly in the view of men. In like manner, whatever be the infirmity under which we labor, let us bear in mind, that we are, as it were, buffeted by the Lord, with the view of making us ashamed, that we may learn humility. Let this be carefully reflected upon by those, especially, who are otherwise distinguished by illustrious virtues, if they have any mixture of defects, if they are persecuted by any with hatred, if they are assailed by any revilings — that these things are not merely rods of the Heavenly Master, but buffetings, to fill them with shame, and beat down all forwardness. 903903     Toute orgueil et insolence;” — “All pride and insolence.” Now let all the pious take notice as to this, that they may see 904904     “Or ie prie maintenant sur cepassage tous fideles, qu’ils auisent;” — “But I entreat now in connection with this passage all believers to take notice.” how dangerous a thing the “poison of pride” is, as Augustine speaks in his third sermon “On the words of the Apostle,” inasmuch as it “cannot be cured except by poison.” 905905     “Veu qu’il ne pent estre guari que par d’autre poison;” — “Inasmuch as it cannot be cured except by another poison. And unquestionably, as it was the cause of man’s ruin, so it is the last vice with which we have to contend, for other vices have a connection with evil deeds, but this is to be dreaded in connection with the best actions; and farther, it naturally clings to us so obstinately, and is so deeply rooted, that it is extremely difficult to extirpate it.

Let us carefully consider, who it is that here speaks — He had overcome so many dangers, tortures, and other evils — had triumphed over all the enemies of Christ — had driven away the fear of death — had, in fine, renounced the world; and yet he had not altogether subdued pride. Nay more, there awaited him a conflict so doubtful, that he could not overcome without being buffeted. Instructed by his example, let us wage war with other vices in such a way, as to lay out our main efforts for the subduing of this one.

But what does this mean — that Satan, who was a

man-slayer 906906     Dr. Campbell, in his Translation of the Gospels, makes use of the term manslayer, as Calvin does here, and makes the following observations in support of this rendering: “The common term for murderer in the New Testament is φονεὺς. I have here made choice of a less usual name, not from any disposition to trace etymologies, but because I think it is not without intention, that the devil, as being not of earthly extraction, is rather called ἀνθρωποκτόνος than φονεὺς, as marking, with greater precision, his ancient enmity to the human race. When the name murderer is applied to a rational being of a species different from ours, it naturally suggests, that the being so denominated is a destroyer of others of his own species. As this is not meant here, the Evangelist’s term is peculiarly apposite. At the same time, I am sensible, that our word manslaughter means, in the language of the law, such killing as is, indeed, criminal, though not so atrocious as murder. But, in common use, it is not so limited. Heylyn says, to the same purpose — a slayer of men.” — Campbell on the Gospels, (Edin. 1807,) volume 2. — Ed. from the beginning, (John 8:44,)

was a physician to Paul, and that too, not merely in the cure of the body, but — what is of greater importance — in the cure of the soul? I answer, that Satan, in accordance with his disposition and custom, had nothing else in view than to kill and to destroy, (John 10:10,) and that the goad, that Paul makes mention of, was dipt in deadly poison; but that it was a special kindness from the Lord, to render medicinal what was in its own nature deadly.

8. For this thing I besought the Lord thrice. Here, also, 907907     Calvin alludes to what he had said as to the number three, when commenting on an expression, which occurs in 2 Corinthians 12:2third heavens. See p. 368. — Ed. the number three is employed to denote frequent repetition. 908908     Τρὶς; is considered by the commentators as a certain for an uncertain, but large number, (i.e., oftentimes.) To the passages cited by them I add Eurip. Hippol. 46; and Job 33:29, which I would render — ‘So all these things doth God work with man unto three times,’ namely, by divinely sent disorders, by nocturnal visions, and by divine messengers.” — Bloomfield.Ed. He means, however, to intimate, that this annoyance had been felt by him distressing, inasmuch as he had so frequently prayed to be exempted from it. For if it had been slight, or easy to be endured, he would not have been so desirous to be freed from it; and yet he says that he had not obtained this: hence it appears, how much need he had of being humbled. He confirms, therefore, what he had said previously — that he had, by means of this bridle, been held back from being haughty; for if relief from it had been for his advantage, he would never have met with a refusal.

It may seem, however, to follow from this, that Paul had not by any means prayed in faith, if we would not make void all the promises of God. 909909     “Si nous ne voulons faire toutes les promesses de Dieu vaines et in u-tiles;” — “If we would not make all the promises of God vain and useless.” “We read everywhere in Scripture, that we shall obtain whatever we ask in faith: Paul prays, and does not obtain.” I answer, that as there are different ways of asking, so there are different ways of obtaining. We ask in simple terms those things as to which we have an express promise — as, for example, the perfecting of God’s kingdom, and the hallowing of his name, (Matthew 6:9,) the remission of our sins, and every thing that is advantageous to us; but, when we think that the kingdom of God can, nay must be advanced, in this particular manner, or in that, and that this thing, or that, is necessary for the hallowing of his name, we are often mistaken in our opinion. In like manner, we often fall into a serious mistake as to what tends to promote our own welfare. Hence we ask those former things confidently, and without any reservation, while it does not belong to us to prescribe the means. If, however, we specify the means, there is always a condition implied, though not expressed. Now Paul was not so ignorant as not to know this. Hence, as to the object of his prayer, there can be no doubt that he was heard, although he met with a refusal as to the express form. By this we are admonished not to give way to despondency, as if our prayers had been lost labor, when God does not gratify or comply with our wishes, but that we must be satisfied with his grace, that is, in respect of our not being forsaken by him. For the reason, why he sometimes mercifully refuses to his own people, what, in his wrath, he grants to the wicked, is this — that he foresees better what is expedient for us, than our understanding is able to apprehend.

9. He said to me. It is not certain, whether he had this answer by a special revelation, and it is not of great importance. 910910     Et aussi il n’est pas fort requis de la scauoir;” — “And besides, it is not greatly requisite to know it.” For God answers us, when he strengthens us inwardly by his Spirit, and sustains us by his consolation, so that we do not give up hope and patience. He bids Paul be satisfied with his grace, and, in the mean time, not refuse chastisement. Hence we must bear up under evil of ever so long continuance, because we are admirably well dealt with, when we have the grace of God to be our support. 911911     Et c’est assez;” — “And that is enough.” The term grace, here, does not mean here, as it does elsewhere, the favor of God, but by metonymy, the aid of the Holy Spirit, which comes to us from the unmerited favor of God; and it ought to be sufficient for the pious, inasmuch as it is a sure and invincible support against their ever giving way.

For my strength Our weakness may seem, as if it were an obstacle in the way of God’s perfecting his strength in us. Paul does not merely deny this, but maintains, on the other hand, that it is only when our weakness becomes apparent, that God’s strength is duly perfected. To understand this more distinctly, we must distinguish between God’s strength and ours; for the word my is emphatic. “My strength,” says the Lord, (meaning that which helps man’s need — which raises them up when they have fallen down, and refreshes them when they are faint,) “is perfected in the weakness of men;that is, it has occasion to exert itself, when the weakness of men becomes manifest; and not only so, but it is more distinctly recognized as it ought to be. For the word perfected has a reference to the perception and apprehension of mankind, because it is not perfected unless it openly shines forth, so as to receive its due praise. For mankind have no taste of it, unless they are first convinced of the need of it, and they quickly lose sight of its value, if they are not constantly exercised with a feeling of their own weakness.

Most gladly, therefore This latter statement confirms the exposition that I have given. I will glory, says he, in my infirmities, that the power of Christ may dwell in me 912912     The original word, ἐπισκηνώσὟ, properly means, to pitch a tent, or tabernacle, upon. Raphelius quotes two passages from Polybius, in which the verb is used as meaning — to enter into, and dwell in. Τὸ δὲ τελευτασῖον ἐπισωκηνώσαντες ἐπὶ τὰς οἰκίας “and at last, having entered in, and taken possession of the houses.” Μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα ταῖς οἰκίαις ἐπισκηνώσαντες κατεῖχον τὴν πόλιν — “And after these things, having entered into the houses, they took possession of the city.” — CEcumenius, cited by Parkhurst, considers ἐπίσκηνώσὟ, as employed by the Apostle here, to be equivalent to ὁλη ἐν ὁλω κατοικήσὟ — “may entirely take possession of,me, and dwell in me.” — It is admirably well observed by Dr. Adam Clarke, that “the same Eternal WORD,” (of whom it is said in John 1:14, that he “was made flesh, and made his tabernacle among us, (ἐσκήνωσεν ἐν ἡμῖν,) full of grace and truth,”) “promised to make his tabernacle with the Apostle, and gives him a proof that he was still the samefull of grace and truth, by assuring him that his grace should be sufficient for him.” — Ed. Hence, the man that is ashamed of this glorying, shuts the door upon Christ’s grace, and, in a manner, puts it away from him. For then do we make room for Christ’s grace, when in true humility of mind, we feel and confess our own weakness. The valleys are watered with rain to make them fruitful, while in the mean time, the high summits of the lofty mountains remain dry. 913913     Sees et steriles;” — “Dry and barren.” Let that man, therefore, become a valley, who is desirous to receive the heavenly rain of God’s spiritual grace. 914914     Much in accordance with this beautiful sentiment is Bunyan’s description of the “Valley of Humiliation,” in the second part of his “Pilgrim’s Progress.” “It is the best and most fruitful piece of ground in all these parts. It is fat ground, and, as you see, consisteth much in meadows; and if a man was to come here in the summer-time, as we do now, if he knew not any thing before thereof, and if he also delighted himself in the sight of his eyes, he might see that which would be delightful to him.
   ‘Behold how green this valley is! also how beautiful with lilies!’
(Song of Solomon 2:1.)

   I have known many labouring men that have got good estates in this Valley of Humiliation. (1 Peter 5:5.) ‘For God resisteth the proud, but giveth grace unto the humble.’ (James 4:6.) For indeed it is a very fruitful soil, and doth bring forth by handfuls.” — Bunyan’s Allegorical Works, (Glasgow, 1843,) p. 164. — Ed.

He adds most gladly, to show that he is influenced by such an eager desire for the grace of Christ, that he refuses nothing for the sake of obtaining it. For we see very many yielding, indeed, submission to God, as being afraid of incurring sacrilege in coveting his glory, but, at the same time, not without reluctance, or at least, less cheerfully than were becoming. 915915     “Ce n’est point si nayfuement et franchement qu’il faloit;” — “It is not so ingenuously and frankly, as it ought to be.”

10. I take pleasure in infirmities There can be no doubt, that he employs the term weakness in different senses; for he formerly applied this name to the punctures that he experienced in the flesh. He now employs it to denote those external qualities, which occasion contempt in the view of the world. Having spoken, however, in a general way, of infirmities of every kind, he now returns to that particular description of them, that had given occasion for his turning aside into this general discourse. Let us take notice, then, that infirmity is a general term, and that under it is comprehended the weakness of our nature, as well as all tokens of abasement. Now the point in question was Paul’s outward abasement. He proceeded farther, for the purpose of showing, that the Lord humbled him in every way, that, in his defects, the glory of God might shine forth the more resplendently, which is, in a manner, concealed and buried, when a man is in an elevated position. He now again returns to speak of his excellences, which, at the same time, made him contemptible in public view, instead of procuring for him esteem and commendation.

For when I am weak, that is — “The more deficiency there is in me, so much the more liberally does the Lord, from his strength, supply me with whatever he sees to be needful for me.” For the fortitude of philosophers is nothing else than contumacy, or rather a mad enthusiasm, such as fanatics are accustomed to have. “If a man is desirous to be truly strong, let him not refuse to be at the same time weak Let him,” I say, “be weak in himself that he may be strong in the Lord.” (Ephesians 6:10.) Should any one object, that Paul speaks here, not of a failure of strength, but of poverty, and other afflictions, I answer, that all these things are exercises for discovering to us our own weakness; for if God had not exercised Paul with such trials, he would never have perceived so clearly his weakness. Hence, he has in view not merely poverty, and hardships of every kind, but also those effects that arise from them, as, for example, a feeling of our own weakness, self-distrust, and humility.

11. I have become a fool Hitherto he had, by various apologies, solicited their forgiveness for what was contrary to his own custom and manner of acting, and contrary, also, to propriety, and what was due to his office as an Apostle — the publishing of his own praises. Now, instead of soliciting, he upbraids, throwing the blame upon the Corinthians, who ought to have been beforehand in this. 916916     “Qui deuoyent les premiers faire cet office — ascauoir de le loyer;” — “Who ought to have been the first to discharge that office — that of praising him.” For when the false Apostles calumniated Paul, they should have set themselves vigorously in opposition to them, and should have faithfully borne the testimony that was due to his excellences. He chides them, however, thus early, lest those, who were unfavorably disposed towards them, should put a wrong construction upon the defense which he brought forward, in consequence of his being constrained to it by their ingratitude, 917917     “The Apostle, in defending himself, was aware how near he approached the language of a fool, that is, a man desirous of vain glory, and how liable what he had written was to be attributed to that motive. It is on this account that he obviates the charge which he knew his adversaries would allege. ‘Yes,’ says he, ‘I speak as a fool [...] but ye have compelled me.’ This was owning that, as to his words, they might, indeed, be considered as vain glorying, if the occasion were overlooked: but, if that were justly considered, it would be found that they ought rather to be ashamed than he, for having reduced him to the disagreeable necessity of speaking in his own behalf.” — Fuller s Works, volume 3. — Ed. or should persist in calumniating him.

For in nothing We are ungrateful to God, if we allow his gifts, of which we are witnesses, to be disparaged, or contemned. He charges the Corinthians with this fault, for they knew him to be equal to the chiefest Apostles, and yet they lent an ear to calumniators, when they slandered him.

By the chiefest Apostles some understand his rivals, who arrogated to themselves the precedence. 918918     Qui s’attribuoyent le premier lieu et souuerain degre;” — “Who claimed for themselves the first place and highest rank.” I understand it, however, as meaning — those that were chief among the twelve. “Let me be compared with any one of the Apostles, 919919     “Qu’on m’accompare auec lequel qu’on voudra des Apostres;” — “Let them compare me with whom they choose among the Apostles.” I have no fear, that I shall be found inferior.” For, although Paul was on the best of terms with all the Apostles, so that he was prepared to extol them above himself, he, nevertheless, contended against their names when falsely assumed. 920920     Faussement vsurpez et controuuez;” — “When falsely claimed and counterfeited.” For the false Apostles abused this pretext, that they had been in the company of the twelve — that they were in possession of all their views 921921     Qu’ils entendoyent bien toute leur intention;” — “That they understood well their entire design.” — that they were fully acquainted with all their institutions, and the like. Hence Paul, perceiving that they falsely gloried in these masks and counterfeit titles, and were successful, to some extent, among unlearned persons, 922922     Et par ce moyen ils acqueroyent credit enuers les simples et idiots“ — “And by this means they gained credit among the simple and unlearned.” reckoned it necessary to enter upon a comparison of that nature. 923923     Ne pouuoit faire autrement qu’il ne veinst a faire ceste comparaison de soy et des plus excellens Apostres;” — “Could not do otherwise than enter upon this comparison between himself and the most eminent of the Apostles.”

The correction that he adds — though I am nothing, means, that Paul was not disposed to claim any thing as his own, but simply gloried in the Lord, (2 Corinthians 10:17,) unless, perhaps, you prefer to consider this as a concession, in which he makes mention of what is thrown out against him by adversaries and slanderers. 924924     Ce que les malueillans et detracteurs gazouilloyent de luy;” — “What malevolent persons and slanderers chirped respecting him.”

12. The signs of an Apostle By the signs of an Apostle he means — the seals, that tend to confirm the evidence of his Apostleship, or, at least, for the proofs and evidences of it. “God has confirmed my Apostleship among you to such a degree, that it stands in no need of proof being adduced.” The first sign he makes mention of is patience — either because he had remained invincible, 925925     Il a tousiours demure inuincible, et ferme sans se reculer;” — “He has always remained invincible and firm, without shrinking back.” by nobly withstanding all the assaults of Satan and his enemies, and on no occasion giving way; or because, regardless of his own distinction, he suffered all injuries patiently, endured in silence countless grievances, 926926     “Il a laisse passer beaucoup de fascheries sans en faire semblant de rien;” — “He has allowed many grievances to pass, without seeming to take any notice of them.” and, by patience, overcame indignities. 927927     Beaucoup de lasches tours;” — “Many base tricks.” For a virtue so heroic is, as it were, a heavenly seal, by which the Lord marks out his Apostles.

He assigns the second place to miracles, for while he makes mention of signs and wonders and mighty deeds, he makes use of three terms, as he does elsewhere, (2 Thessalonians 2:9,) for expressing one and the same thing. Now he calls them signs, because they are not empty shows, but are appointed for the instruction of mankindwonders, because they ought, by their novelty, to arouse men, and strike them with astonishment — and powers or mighty deeds, because they are more signal tokens of Divine power, 928928     Ce sont exemples et tesmoignages plus excellent et euidens de la vertu Diuine;” — “Those are signal and manifest instances and evidences of Divine power.” than what we behold in the ordinary course of nature. Farther, we know that this was the main design of miracles, when the gospel began to be preached — that its doctrine might have greater authority given to it. Hence, the more that any one was endowed with the power of working miracles, so much the more was his ministry confirmed, as has been stated in the fifteenth chapter of the Epistle to the Romans. 929929     Calvin seems to refer here more particularly to the observations made by him, when commenting on Romans 15:18. “Hie nobilis est locus de miraculorum usu: nempe ut reverentiam obedientiamque Deo apud homines comparent. Sic apud Marcum (Mark 16:20,) legis, Dominum confirmasse doetrinam subsequentibus signis. Sic Lucas in Actis (Acts 14:3,) narrat, Dominum per miracula testimonium reddidisse sermoni gratiae suoe;” — “This is an admirable passage in reference to the use of miracles — that they may secure among men reverence and obedience towards God. Thus you read in Mark 16:20, that the Lord confirmed their doctrine by signs following. So also Luke, in Acts 14:3, relates that the Lord by miracles gave testimony to the word.of his grace.” — Ed.

13. What is there in which. Here is an aggravation of their ingratitude — that he had been distinguished, that they might receive benefit — that they had derived advantage from the attestation furnished of his Apostleship, and had, notwithstanding, given their concurrence to the slanders 930930     Aux injures et detractions;” — “The insults and slanders.” of the false Apostles. He subjoins one exception — that he had not been burdensome to them; and this, by way of irony, for in reality this was over and above so many acts of kindness, which he had conferred upon them — that he had served them gratuitously. To busy themselves after this, as they did, in pouring contempt upon him, what was this but to insult his modesty? Nay, what cruelty there was in it! Hence, it is not without good reason, that he sharply reproves pride so frantic. Forgive me this wrong, says he. For they were doubly ungrateful, inasmuch as they not only contemned the man, by whose acts of kindness they had been brought under obligation, but even turned his kind disposition into an occasion of reproach. Chrysostom is of opinion, that there is no irony implied, and that, instead of this, there is an expression of apology; but, if any one examines the entire context more narrowly, he will easily perceive, that this gloss is quite foreign to Paul’s intention.

14. Behold, this third time He commends his own deed, for which he had received a very poor requital from the Corinthians. For he says, that he refrained from taking their worldly substance for two reasons first, because he sought them, not their wealth; and secondly, because he was desirous to act the part of a father towards them. From this it appears, what commendation was due to his modesty, which occasioned him contempt among the Corinthians.

I seek not yours. It is the part of a genuine and upright pastor, not to seek to derive gain from his sheep, but to endeavor to promote their welfare; though, at the same time, it is to be observed, that men are not to be sought with the view of having 931931     Que les Ministres ne doyuent pas cercher les hommes a ceste intention d’auoir, chacun des disciples a soy en particulier;” — “That Ministers ought not to seek men with the intention of having, each one, disciples to himself peculiarly.” every one his own particular followers. It is a bad thing, to be devoted to gain, or to undertake the office of a pastor with the view of making a trade of it; but for a person to draw away disciples after him, (Acts 20:30,) for purposes of ambition, is greatly worse. Paul, however, means, that he is not greedy of hire, but is concerned only for the welfare of souls. There is, however, still more of elegance in what he says, for it is as though he had said: “I am in quest of a larger hire than you think of. I am not contented with your wealth, but I seek to have you wholly, that I may present a sacrifice to the Lord of the fruits of my ministry.” But, what if one is supported by his labors? Will he in that case seek the worldly substance of the people. 932932     Est-ce pourtant a dire que vn tel cerche la substance du peuple?” — “Must we then say, that such a man seeks the worldly substance of the people?” Unquestionably, if he is a faithful Pastor, he will always seek the welfare of the sheep — nothing else. His pay will, it is true, be an additional thing; but he ought to have no other aim, than what we have mentioned. Woe to those, that have an eye to any thing else!

Parents for their children Was he then no father to the Philippians, who supported him even when absent from them? (Philippians 4:15, 16.) Was there no one of the other Apostles that was a father, inasmuch as the Churches ministered to their support? He did not by any means intend this; for it is no new thing for even parents to be supported by their children in their old age. Hence, those are not necessarily unworthy of the honor due to fathers, who live at the expense of the Church; but Paul simply wished to show from the common law of nature, that what he had done proceeded from fatherly affection. This argument, therefore, ought not to be turned in a contrary direction. For he did this as a father; but, though he had acted otherwise, he would, notwithstanding, have been a father still.

15. And I will most gladly spend This, certainly, was an evidence of a more than fatherly affection — that he was prepared to lay out in their behalf not merely his endeavors, and everything in his power to do, but even life itself. Nay more, while he is regarded by them with coldness, he continues, nevertheless, to cherish this affection. What heart, though even as hard as iron, would such ardor of love not soften or break, especially in connection with such constancy? Paul, however, does not here speak of himself, merely that we may admire him, but that we may, also, imitate him. Let all Pastors, therefore, learn from this, what they owe to their Churches.

16. But be it so. These words intimate, that Paul had been blamed by malevolent persons, as though he had in a clandestine way procured, through means of hired persons, what he had refused to receive with his own hands 934934     This passage is so far from being friendly to the exercise of guile, that it is a manifest disavowal of it. It is an irony. The Apostle does not describe what had actually been his conduct, but that of which he stood accused by the Corinthian teachers. They insinuated, that he was a sly, crafty man, going about preaching, persuading, and catching people with guile. Paul acknowledges, that he and his colleagues did, indeed, ‘persuade men,’ and could not do otherwise, for ‘the love of Christ constrained them.’ (2 Corinthians 5:11, 14.) But he indignantly repels the insinuation of its being from mercenary motives. ‘We have wronged no man,’ says he, ‘we have corrupted no man; we have defrauded no man.’ (2 Corinthians 7:2.) Having denied the charge, he shows the absurdity of it. Mercenary men, who wish to draw people after them, have an end to answer: and ‘What end,’ says Paul, ‘could I have in view, in persuading you to embrace the gospel? Have I gained any thing by you? When I was with you, was I burdensome to you? No: nor, as things are, will I be burdensome. Yet being crafty, forsooth, I caught you with guile.’” — Fuller’ s Works, volume 3. — Ed. — not that he had done any such thing, but they “measure others,” as they say, “by their own ell.” 935935     The reader will find the same proverb made use of by Calvin, when commenting on 1 Corinthians 7:36. (See vol. 1, p. 265.) He probably alludes, in both instances, to a sentiment of Horace: “Metiri se quenquam suo modulo ac pede verum est;” — “It is proper, that every one should measure himself by his own measure and foot.” (Hor. Epist. 1.7. 98.) — Ed. For it is customary for the wicked impudently to impute to the servants of God, whatever they would themselves do, if they had it in their power. Hence, Paul is constrained, with the view of clearing himself of a charge impudently fabricated, 936936     “Pour refuter et repousser loin de soy le blasme qu’on auoit controuue impudemment;” — “With the view of repelling, and putting far away from himself the blame which they had inpudently contrived.” to defend the integrity of those whom he sent, for if they had committed any error, it would have been reckoned to his account. Now, who would be surprised at his being so cautious as to alms, when he had been harassed by such unfair judgments as to his conduct, after having made use of every precaution? 937937     Veu qu’on semoit de luy des souspectons et iugemens si iniques, apres qu’il auoit si diligemment pourueu a toutes choses?” — “Inasmuch as they propagated such unfair surmises and judgments respecting him, after he had so carefully used precaution as to every thing?” Let his case, however, be a warning to us, not to look upon it as a thing that is new and intolerable, if at any time we find occasion to answer similar calumnies; but, more especially, let this be an admonition to us to use strict caution, not to furnish any handle to revilers. For we see, that it is not enough to give evidence of being ourselves upright, if those, whose assistance we have made use of, are not, also, found to be so. Hence, our choice of them must not be made lightly, or as a matter of mere form, but with the utmost possible care.

19. Do you again think. As those that are conscious to themselves of something wrong are sometimes more anxious than others to clear themselves, it is probable, that this, also, was turned into a ground of calumny — that Paul had in the former Epistle applied himself to a defense of his ministry. Farther, it is a fault in the servants of Christ, to be too much concerned as to their own reputation. With the view, therefore, of repelling those calumnies, he declares in the first place, that he speaks in the presence of God, whom evil consciences always dread. In the second place, he maintains, that he has not so much a view to himself, as to them. He was prepared to go through good report and bad report, (2 Corinthians 6:8,) nay, even to be reduced to nothing; but it was of advantage to the Corinthians, that he should retain the reputation that he deserved, that his ministry might not be brought into contempt.

20. For I fear He declares, in what way it tends to their edification, that his integrity should be vindicated, for, on the ground that he had come into contempt, many grew wanton, as it were, with loosened reins. Now respect for him would have been a means of leading them to repentance, for they would have listened to his admonitions.

I fear, says he. This fear proceeded from love, for, unless he had been concerned as to their welfare, he would very readily have overlooked all this, from which he sought to obtain no personal advantage. For otherwise we are afraid to give occasion of offense, when we foresee that it will be hurtful to ourselves.

And I shall be found by you. Here is a second ground of fear — lest he should be constrained to act with greater severity. Now it is a token not merely of love, but even of indulgence, to shun severity, and have recourse to milder measures. “As to my striving at present to maintain my authority, and endeavoring to bring you back to obedience, I do this, lest I should find occasion to punish your obstinacy more severely, if I come, and find among you nothing of amendment.” He teaches, accordingly, by his example, that mild remedies must always be resorted to by Pastors, for the correction of faults, before they have recourse to extreme severity; and, at the same time, that we must, by admonitions and reproofs, prevent the necessity of having recourse to the utmost rigor.

Lest, by any means, there be contentions. He enumerates the vices, which chiefly prevailed among the Corinthians; almost all of which proceeded from the same source. For had not every one been devoted to self, they would never have contended with each other — they would never have envied one another — there would have been no slandering among them. 938938     Ils n’eussent iamais mesdit l’vn de l’autre;” — “They would never have slandered one another.” Thus the sum and substance of the first catalogue 939939     Du premier denombrement de leur vices qu’il fait yci;” — “Of the first enumeration that he makes here of their vices.” is want of love, because (φιλαυτία) self-love, 940940     Calvin has here very probably in his eye 2 Timothy 3:2, in commenting on which, he calls his readers to remark, that the vice first noticed by the Apostle in that passage — self-love (φιλαυτία), may be considered to be the fountain, as it were, of all the other vices there enumerated by him — avarice, boasting, pride, etc. — See Calvin’s Harmony, vol. 2, p. 69, and vol. 3, p. 60; also Calvin’s Institutes, volume 1. and ambition prevailed.

21. Lest, when I come, my God should humble me His abasement was reckoned to him as a fault. The blame of it he throws back upon the Corinthians, who, when they should have honored his Apostleship, loaded it, on the contrary, with disgrace; for their proficiency 941941     Qu’ils eussent proufite en sainctete de vie;” — “That they had made progress in holiness of life.” would have been the glory and honor of Paul’s Apostleship. When, therefore, they were, instead of this, overrun with many vices, they heaped disgrace upon him to the utmost of their power. He does not, indeed, charge them all with this crime, but only a few, who had impudently despised all his admonitions. The meaning, then, is this: “They think contemptuously of me, because I appear contemptible. Let them, then, give me no occasion of abasement: nay more, let them, on the contrary, laying aside their forwardness, begin to feel shame; and let them, confounded at their iniquities, prostrate themselves on the ground, instead of looking down upon others with disdain.”

In the mean time, he lets us know the disposition of a true and genuine Pastor, when he says that he will look upon the sins of others with grief. And, undoubtedly, the right way of acting is this — that every Christian shall have his Church inclosed within his heart, and be affected with its maladies, as if they were his own, — sympathize with its sorrows, and bewail its sins. We see, how Jeremiah entreats, that there may be given him a fountain of tears, (Jeremiah 9:1,) that he may bewail the calamity of his people. We see, how pious kings and prophets, to whom the government of the people was committed, were touched with similar feelings. It is, indeed, a thing that is common to all the pious, to be grieved in every case in which God is offended, and to bewail the ruin of brethren, and present themselves before God in their room as in a manner guilty, but it is more particularly requisite on the part of Pastors. 942942     Des Pasteurs et Ministres;” — “Of Pastors and Ministers.” Farther, Paul here brings forward a second catalogue of vices, which, however, belong to one general head — unchastity.