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a Bible passage
David’s Kingdom Established and Extended
Some time afterward, David attacked the Philistines and subdued them; he took Gath and its villages from the Philistines.
2 He defeated Moab, and the Moabites became subject to David and brought tribute.
3 David also struck down King Hadadezer of Zobah, toward Hamath, as he went to set up a monument at the river Euphrates. 4David took from him one thousand chariots, seven thousand cavalry, and twenty thousand foot soldiers. David hamstrung all the chariot horses, but left one hundred of them. 5When the Arameans of Damascus came to help King Hadadezer of Zobah, David killed twenty-two thousand Arameans. 6Then David put garrisons in Aram of Damascus; and the Arameans became subject to David, and brought tribute. The Lord gave victory to David wherever he went. 7David took the gold shields that were carried by the servants of Hadadezer, and brought them to Jerusalem. 8From Tibhath and from Cun, cities of Hadadezer, David took a vast quantity of bronze; with it Solomon made the bronze sea and the pillars and the vessels of bronze.
9 When King Tou of Hamath heard that David had defeated the whole army of King Hadadezer of Zobah, 10he sent his son Hadoram to King David, to greet him and to congratulate him, because he had fought against Hadadezer and defeated him. Now Hadadezer had often been at war with Tou. He sent all sorts of articles of gold, of silver, and of bronze; 11these also King David dedicated to the Lord, together with the silver and gold that he had carried off from all the nations, from Edom, Moab, the Ammonites, the Philistines, and Amalek.
12 Abishai son of Zeruiah killed eighteen thousand Edomites in the Valley of Salt. 13He put garrisons in Edom; and all the Edomites became subject to David. And the Lord gave victory to David wherever he went.
14 So David reigned over all Israel; and he administered justice and equity to all his people. 15Joab son of Zeruiah was over the army; Jehoshaphat son of Ahilud was recorder; 16Zadok son of Ahitub and Ahimelech son of Abiathar were priests; Shavsha was secretary; 17Benaiah son of Jehoiada was over the Cherethites and the Pelethites; and David’s sons were the chief officials in the service of the king.
1. David … took Gath and her towns—The full extent of David's conquests in the Philistine territory is here distinctly stated, whereas in the parallel passage (2Sa 8:1) it was only described in a general way. Gath was the "Metheg-ammah," or "arm-bridle," as it is there called—either from its supremacy as the capital over the other Philistine towns, or because, in the capture of that important place and its dependencies, he obtained the complete control of his restless neighbors.
2. he smote Moab—The terrible severities by which David's conquest of that people was marked, and the probable reason of their being subjected to such a dreadful retribution, are narrated (2Sa 8:2).
the Moabites … brought gifts—that is, became tributary to Israel.
1Ch 18:3-17. David Smites Hadadezer and the Syrians.
3. Hadarezer—or, "Hadadezer" (2Sa 8:3), which was probably the original form of the name, was derived from Hadad, a Syrian deity. It seems to have become the official and hereditary title of the rulers of that kingdom.
Zobah—Its situation is determined by the words "unto" or "towards Hamath," a little to the northeast of Damascus, and is supposed by some to be the same place as in earlier times was called Hobah (Ge 14:15). Previous to the rise of Damascus, Zobah was the capital of the kingdom which held supremacy among the petty states of Syria.
as he went to stablish his dominion by the river Euphrates—Some refer this to David, who was seeking to extend his possessions in one direction towards a point bordering on the Euphrates, in accordance with the promise (Ge 15:18; Nu 24:17). But others are of opinion that, as David's name is mentioned (1Ch 18:4), this reference is most applicable to Hadadezer.
4-8. And David took from him a thousand chariots—(See on 2Sa 8:3-14). In 2Sa 8:4 David is said to have taken seven hundred horsemen, whereas here it is said that he took seven thousand. This great discrepancy in the text of the two narratives seems to have originated with a transcriber in confounding the two Hebrew letters which indicate the numbers, and in neglecting to mark or obscure the points over one of them. We have no means of ascertaining whether seven hundred or seven thousand be the more correct. Probably the former should be adopted [Davidson's HERMENUTICS].
but reserved of them an hundred chariots—probably to grace a triumphal procession on his return to Jerusalem, and after using them in that way, destroy them like the rest.
8. from Tibhath and from Chun—These places are called Betah and Berothai (2Sa 8:8). Perhaps the one might be the Jewish, the other the Syrian, name of these towns. Neither their situation nor the connection between them is known. The Arabic version makes them to be Emesa (now Hems) and Baal-bek, both of which agree very well with the relative position of Zobah.
17. the Cherethites and the Pelethites—who formed the royal bodyguard. The Cherethites were, most probably, those brave men who all along accompanied David while among the Philistines, and from that people derived their name (1Sa 30:14; Eze 25:16; Zep 2:5) as well as their skill in archery—while the Pelethites were those who joined him at Ziklag, took their name from Pelet, the chief man in the company (1Ch 12:3), and, being Benjamites, were expert in the use of the sling.