|Title:||Smith's Bible Dictionary|
|CCEL Subjects:||All; Dictionary; Reference|
|LC Call no:||BS440 .S6|
Works about the Bible
(high or holy ground), a mountainous district of Asia mentioned in the Bible in connection with the following events:-- (1) As the resting-place of the ark after the deluge. (Genesis 8:4) (2) As the asylum of the sons of Sennacherib. (2 Kings 19:37; Isaiah 37:38) Authorized Version has "the land of Armenia." (3) As the ally, and probably the neighbor, of Minni and Ashchenaz. (Jeremiah 51:27) [Armenia] The name Ararat was unknown to the geographers of Greece and Rome, as it still is to the Armenians of the present day; but it was an ancient name for a portion of Armenia. In its biblical sense it is descriptive generally of the Armenian highlands--the lofty plateau which over looks the plain of the Araxes on the north and of Mesopotomia on the south. Various opinions have been put forth as to the spot where the ark rested, as described in (Genesis 8:4) (but it is probable that it rested on some of the lower portions of the range than on the lofty peak to which exclusively) Europeans have given the name Ararat, the mountain which is called Massis by the Armenians, Agri-Dagh, i.e. Steep Mountain, by the Turks, and Kuh-i-Nuh, i.e. Noah's Mountain, by the Persians. It rises immediately out of the plain of the Araxes, and terminates in two conical peaks, named the Great and Less Ararat, about seven miles distant from each other; the former of which attain an elevation of 17,260 feet above the level of the sea and about 14,000 above the plain of the Araxes, while the latter is lower by 4000 feet. The summit of the higher is covered with eternal snow for about 3000 feet. Arguri, the only village known to have been built on its slopes, was the spot where, according to tradition, Noah planted his vineyard. "The mountains of Ararat " are co-extensive with the Armenian plateau from the base of Ararat in the north to the range of Kurdistan in the south, we notice the following characteristics of that region as illustrating the Bible narrative; (1) its elevation. It rises to a height of from 6000 to 7000 feet above the level of the sea. (2) Its geographical position . Viewed with reference to the dispersion of the nations, Armenia is the true centre of the world; and at the present day Ararat is the great boundary-stone between the empires of Russia, Turkey and Persia. (3) Its physical character . The plains as well as the mountains supply evidence of volcanic agency. (4) The climate . Winter lasts from October to May, and is succeeded by a brief spring and a summer of intense heat. (5) The vegetation . Grass grows luxuriantly on the plateau, and furnishes abundant pasture during the summer months to the flocks of the nomad Kurds. Wheat, barley and vines ripen at far higher altitudes than on the Alps and the Pyrenees.
(a teacher, or lofty), the son of Amram and Jochebed, and the older brother of Moses and Miriam. (Numbers 26:59; 33:39) (B.C. 1573.) He was a Levite, and is first mentioned in (Exodus 4:14) He was appointed by Jehovah to be the interpreter, (Exodus 4:16) of his brother Moses, who was "slow of speech;" and accordingly he was not only the organ of communication with the Israelites and with Pharaoh, (Exodus 4:30; 7:2) but also the actual instrument of working most of the miracles of the Exodus. (Exodus 7:19) etc. On the way to Mount Sinai, during the battle with Amalek, Aaron with Hur stayed up the weary hands of Moses when they were lifted up for the victory of Israel. (Exodus 17:9) He is mentioned as dependent upon his brother and deriving all his authority from him. Left, on Moses' departure into Sinai, to guide the people, Aaron is tried for a moment on his own responsibility, and he fails from a weak inability to withstand the demand of the people for visible "gods to go before them," by making an image of Jehovah, in the well-known form of Egyptian idolatry (Apis or Mnevis). He repented of his sin, and Moses gained forgiveness for him. (9:20) Aaron was not consecrated by Moses to the new office of the high priesthood. (Exodus 29:9) From this time the history of Aaron is almost entirely that of the priesthood, and its chief feature is the great rebellion of Korah and the Levites. Leaning, as he seems to have done, wholly on Moses, it is not strange that he should have shared his sin at Meribah and its punishment. See Moses. (Numbers 20:10-12) Aaron's death seems to have followed very speedily. It took place on Mount Hor, after the transference of his robes and office to Eleazar. (Numbers 20:28) This mount is still called the "Mountain of Aaron." See Hor. The wife of Aaron was Elisheba, (Exodus 6:23) and the two sons who survived him, Eleazar and Ithamar. The high priesthood descended to the former, and to his descendants until the time of Eli, who, although of the house of Ithamar, received the high priesthood and transmitted it to his children; with them it continued till the accession of Solomon, who took it from Abiathar and restored it to Zadok (of the house of Eleazar). See Abiathar.
(1 Chronicles 12:27) priests of the family of Aaron.
(father), an element in the composition of many proper names, of which Abba is a Chaldaic form, having the sense of "endowed with," "possessed of."
(God-given), one of the seven eunuchs in the Persian court of Ahasuerus. (Esther 1:10)
(perennial, stony), one of the "rivers of Damascus." (2 Kings 5:12) The Barada and the Awaj are now the chief streams of Damascus, the former representing the Abana and the latter the Pharpar of the text. The Barada (Abana) rises in the Antilibanus, at about 23 miles from the city, after flowing through which it runs across the plain, of whose fertility it is the chief source, till it loses itself in the lake or marsh Bahret-el-Kibliyeh.
(regions beyond), a mountain or range of highlands on the east of the Jordan, in the land of Moab, facing Jericho, and forming the eastern wall of the Jordan valley at that part. Its most elevated spot was "the Mount Nebo, head of the Pisgah," from which Moses viewed the Promised Land before his death. These mountains are mentioned in (Numbers 27:12; 33:47,48) and Deuteronomy 32:49
father of Shelemiah. (Jeremiah 36:26)
(the servant of God), son of Guni and father of Ahi, one of the Gadites who were settled in the land of Bashan, (1 Chronicles 5:15), in the days of Jotham king of Judah. (B.C. 758.)
(i.e. servant of Nego, perhaps the same as Nebo), the Chaldean name given to Azariah, one of the three friends of Daniel, miraculously save from the fiery furnace. Dan. 3. (B.C. about 600.)
the name of several places in Palestine, probably signifies a meadow .
(i.e., breath, vapor, transitoriness, probably so called from the shortness of his life), the second son of Adam, murdered by his brother Cain, (Genesis 4:1-16) he was a keeper or feeder of sheep. Our Lord spoke of Abel as the first martyr, (Matthew 23:35) so did the early Church subsequently. The traditional site of his murder and his grave are pointed out near Damascus.
(the great abel), the place where the ark rested in the field of Joshua at Beth-shemesh. (1 Samuel 6:18)
(meadow of the house of oppression), a town of some importance, (2 Samuel 20:15) in the extreme north of Palestine, which fell an early prey to the invading kings of Syria, (1 Kings 15:20) and Assyria. (2 Kings 15:29)
(Abel on the waters), also called simply Abel, (2 Samuel 20:14,18) another name for Abel-bethmaachah. (2 Chronicles 16:4)
(meadow of the dance), in the northern pat of the Jordan valley, (1 Kings 4:12) to which the routed Bedouin host fled from Gideon, (Judges 7:22) Here Elisha was found at his plough by Elijah returning up the valley from Horeb. (1 Kings 19:16-19)
(meadow of Egypt), the name given by the Canaanites to the floor of Atad, at which Joseph, his brothers and the Egyptians made their mourning for Jacob. (Genesis 50:11) It was beyond (on the east of) Jordan. See Atad. (Schaff and others say it was on the west bank, for the writer was on the east of Jordan. It was near Jericho, or perhaps Hebron.)
(the meadow of the acacias), in the "plains" of Moab, on the low level of the Jordan valley, opposite Jericho. The last resting-place of Israel before crossing the Jordan. (Numbers 33:49) The place is most frequently mentioned by its shorter name of Shittim. See Shittah Tree, Shittim, Shittim.
(lofty), a town in the possession of Issachar, named between Kishion and Remeth in (Joshua 19:20) only.
mother of King Hezekiah, (2 Kings 18:2) written Abia, Abiah, Or Abijah, Abijah Or Abijam in (2 Chronicles 29:1)
the eighth of the 24 courses or classes into which the priests were divided for serving at the altar. (1 Chronicles 24; Luke 1:5) See Abia, Abiah, Or Abijah, Abijah Or Abijam, 4.
(father of strength). See Abiel Or Abiel.
(father of gathering, i.e. gathered), (Exodus 6:24) otherwise written Ebi/asaph. (1 Chronicles 6:23,37; 9:19) one of the descendants of Korah, and head of the Korhites. Among the remarkable descendants of Abiasaph were Samuel the prophet, (1 Samuel 1:11) and Heman the singer.
(father of abundance, i.e. liberal), High priest and fourth in descent from Eli. (B.C. 1060-1012.) Abiathar was the only one of the all the sons of Ahimelech the high priest who escaped the slaughter inflicted upon his father's house by Saul, in revenge for his father's house by Saul, in revenge of his having inquired of the Lord for David and given him the shew-bread to eat. (1 Samuel 22:1) ... Abiathar having become high priest fled to David, and was thus enabled to inquire of the Lord for him. (1 Samuel 23:9; 30:7; 2 Samuel 2:1; 5:19) etc. He adhered to David in his wanderings while pursued by Saul; he was with him while he reigned in Hebron, and afterwards in Jerusalem. (2 Samuel 2:1-3) He continued faithful to him in Absalom's rebellion. (2 Samuel 15:24,29,35,36; 17:15-17; 19:11) When, however, Adonijah set himself up fro David's successor on the throne, in opposition to Solomon, Abiathar sided with him, while Zadok was on Solomon's side. For this Abiathar was deprived of the high priesthood. Zadok had joined David at Hebron, (1 Chronicles 12:28) so that there was henceforth who high priests in the reign of David, and till the deposition of Abiathar by Solomon, when Zadok became the sole high priest.
(green fruits). [Month]
(father of knowledge), a son of Midian. (Genesis 25:4; 1 Chronicles 1:33)
(father of the judge), chief of the tribe of Benjamin at the time of the Exodus. (B.C. 1491.) (Numbers 1:11; 2:22; 7:60,65; 10:24)
(father of strength, i.e. strong).
(father of help, helpful).
(father, i.e. source, of joy).
(father of, i.e. possessing, strength).
(he (God) is my father), the second son, (Numbers 3:2) of Aaron by Elisheba. (Exodus 6:23) Being, together with his elder brother Nadab, guilty of offering strange fire to the lord, he was consumed by fire from heaven. (Leviticus 10:1,2)
(father of renown, famous), son of Bela and grandson of Benjamin. (1 Chronicles 8:3)
(my father is Jehovah).
[Abia, Abiah, Or Abijah, Abijah Or Abijam, 1]
(land of meadows), (Luke 3:1) a city situated on the eastern slope of Antilibanus, in a district fertilized by the river Barada (Abana). The city was 18 miles from Damascus, and stood in a remarkable gorge called Suk Wady Barada .
(father of Mael), a descendant of Joktan, (Genesis 10:28; 1 Chronicles 1:22) and probably the progenitor of an Arab tribe (Mali).
(father of the king), the name of several Philistine kings, was probably a common title of these kings, like that of Pharaoh among the Egyptians and that of Caesar and Augustus among the Romans. Hence in the title of (Psalms 34:1) ... the name of Abimelech is given to the king, who is called Achish in (1 Samuel 21:11)
(father of light). Same as Abner. (1 Samuel 14:50) margin.
the father of Barak. (Judges 4:6,12; 5:1,12) (B.C. 1300.)
a beautiful Shunammite (from Shunem, in the tribe of Issachar), taken into David's harem to comfort him in his extreme old age. (1 Kings 1:1-4)
(father of a gift), The eldest of the three sons of Zeruiah, David's sister, and brother to Joab and Asahel. (1 Chronicles 2:16) Like his two brothers he was the devoted follower of David. He was his companion in the desperate night expedition to the camp of Saul. (1 Samuel 26:6-9) (B.C. 1055.) On the outbreak of Absalom's rebellion he remained true to the king, and commanded a third part of the army in the decisive battle against Absalom. He rescued David from the hands of the gigantic Philistine, Ishbi-benob. (2 Samuel 21:17) His personal prowess on this, as on another occasion, when he fought singlehanded against three hundred, won for him a place as captain of the second three of David's mighty men. (2 Samuel 23:18; 1 Chronicles 11:20)
(father of peace), father or grandfather of Maachah, who was the wife of Rehoboam and mother of Abijah. (1 Kings 15:2,10) He is called Absalom in (2 Chronicles 11:20,21) This person must be David's son. See LXX.; (2 Samuel 14:27)
(father of deliverance).
(father of the wall), son of Shammai. (1 Chronicles 2:28)
(father of the dew), one of David's wives. (2 Samuel 3:4; 1 Chronicles 3:3)
(father of goodness), son of Shaharaim by Hushim. (1 Chronicles 8:11)
(father of praise), descendant of Zorobabel in the genealogy of Jesus Christ. (Matthew 1:13)
(father of light).
Mentioned by our Saviour, (Matthew 24:15) as a sign of the approaching destruction of Jerusalem, with reference to (Daniel 9:27; 11:31; 12:11) The prophecy referred ultimately to the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans, and consequently the "abomination" must describe some occurrence connected with that event. It appears most probable that the profanities of the Zealots constituted the abomination, which was the sign of the impending ruin; but most people refer it to the standards or banners of the Roman army. They were abomination because there were idolatrous images upon them.
(father of a multitude) was the son of Terah, and founder of the great Hebrew nation. (B.C. 1996-1822.) His family, a branch of the descendants of Shem, was settled in Ur of the Chaldees, beyond the Euphrates, where Abraham was born. Terah had two other sons, Nahor and Haran. Haran died before his father in Ur of the Chaldees, leaving a son, Lot; and Terah, taking with him Abram, with Sarai his wife and his grandson Lot, emigrated to Haran in Mesopotamia, where he died. On the death of his father, Abram, then in the 75th year of his age, with Sarai and Lot, pursued his course to the land of Canaan, whither he was directed by divine command, (Genesis 12:5) when he received the general promise that he should become the founder of a great nation, and that all the families of the earth should be blessed in him. He passed through the heart of the country by the great highway to Shechem, and pitched his tent beneath the terebinth of Moreh. (Genesis 12:6) Here he received in vision from Jehovah the further revelation that this was the land which his descendants should inherit. (Genesis 12:7) The next halting-place of the wanderer was on a mountain between Bethel and Ai, (Genesis 12:8) but the country was suffering from famine, and Abram journeyed still southward to the rich cornlands of Egypt. There, fearing that the great beauty of Sarai might tempt the powerful monarch of Egypt and expose his own life to peril, he arranged that Sarai should represent herself as his sister, which her actual relationship to him, as probably the daughter of his brother Haran, allowed her to do with some semblance of truth. But her beauty was reported to the king, and she was taken into the royal harem. The deception was discovered, and Pharaoh with some indignation dismissed Abram from the country. (Genesis 12:10-20) He left Egypt with great possessions, and, accompanied by Lot, returned by the south of Palestine to his former encampment between Bethel and Ai. The increased wealth of the two kinsmen was the ultimate cause of their separation. Lot chose the fertile plain of the Jordan near Sodom, while Abram pitched his tent among the groves of Mamre, close to Hebron. (Genesis 13:1) ... Lot with his family and possessions having been carried away captive by Chedorlaomer king of Elam, who had invaded Sodom, Abram pursued the conquerors and utterly routed them not far from Damascus. The captives and plunder were all recovered, and Abram was greeted on his return by the king of Sodom, and by Melchizedek king of Salem, priest of the most high God, who mysteriously appears upon the scene to bless the patriarch and receive from him a tenth of the spoil. (Genesis 14:1) ... After this the thrice-repeated promise that his descendants should become a mighty nation and possess the land in which he was a stranger was confirmed with all the solemnity of a religious ceremony. (Genesis 15:1) ... Ten years had passed since he had left his father's house, and the fulfillment of the promise was apparently more distant than at first. At the suggestion of Sarai, who despaired of having children of her own, he took as his concubine Hagar, her Egyptian main, who bore him Ishmael in the 86th year of his age. (Genesis 16:1) ... [Hagar; Ishmael] But this was not the accomplishment of the promise. Thirteen years elapsed, during which Abram still dwelt in Hebron, when the covenant was renewed, and the rite of circumcision established as its sign. This most important crisis in Abram's life, when he was 99 years old, is marked by the significant change of his name to Abraham, "father of a multitude;" while his wife's from Sarai became Sarah. The promise that Sarah should have a son was repeated in the remarkable scene described in ch. 18. Three men stood before Abraham as he sat in his tent door in the heat of the day. The patriarch, with true Eastern hospitality, welcomed the strangers, and bade them rest and refresh themselves. The meal ended, they foretold the birth of Isaac, and went on their way to Sodom. Abraham accompanied them, and is represented as an interlocutor in a dialogue with Jehovah, in which he pleaded in vain to avert the vengeance threatened to the devoted cities of the plain. (Genesis 18:17-33) In remarkable contrast with Abraham's firm faith with regard to the magnificent fortunes of his posterity stand the incident which occurred during his temporary residence among the Philistines in Gerar, whither he had for some cause removed after the destruction of Sodom. It was almost a repetition of what took place in Egypt a few years before. At length Isaac, the long-looked for child, was born. Sarah's jealousy aroused by the mockery of Ishmael at the "great banquet" which Abram made to celebrate the weaning of her son, (Genesis 21:9) demanded that, with his mother Hagar, he should be driven out. (Genesis 21:10) But the severest trial of his faith was yet to come. For a long period the history is almost silent. At length he receives the strange command to take Isaac, his only son, and offer him for a burnt offering at an appointed place Abraham hesitated not to obey. His faith, hitherto unshaken, supported him in this final trial, "accounting that God was able to raise up his son, even from the dead, from whence also he received him in a figure." (Hebrews 11:19) The sacrifice was stayed by the angel of Jehovah, the promise of spiritual blessing made for the first time, and Abraham with his son returned to Beersheba, and for a time dwelt there. (Genesis 22:1) ... But we find him after a few years in his original residence at Hebron, for there Sarah died, (Genesis 23:2) and was buried in the cave of Machpelah. The remaining years of Abraham's life are marked by but few incidents. After Isaac's marriage with Rebekah and his removal to Lahai-roi, Abraham took to wife Keturah, by whom he had six children, Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbok and Shuah, who became the ancestors of nomadic tribes inhabiting the countries south and southeast of Palestine. Abraham lived to see the gradual accomplishment of the promise in the birth of his grandchildren Jacob and Esau, and witnessed their growth to manhood. (Genesis 25:26) At the goodly age of 175 he was "gathered to his people," and laid beside Sarah in the tomb of Machpelah by his sons Isaac and Ishmael. (Genesis 25:7-10)
(a high father), the earlier name of Abraham.
(father of peace), third son of David by Maachah, daughter of Tamai king of Geshur, a Syrian district adjoining the northeast frontier of the Holy Land. (Born B.C. 1050.) Absalom had a sister, Tamar, who was violated by her half-brother Amnon. The natural avenger of such an outrage would be Tamar's full brother Absalom. He brooded over the wrong for two years, and then invited all the princes to a sheep-shearing feast at his estate in Baalhazor, on the borders of Ephraim and Benjamin. Here he ordered his servants to murder Amnon, and then fled for safety to his grandfather's court at Geshur, where he remained for three years. At the end of that time he was brought back by an artifice of Joab. David, however, would not see Absalom for two more years; but at length Joab brought about a reconciliation. Absalom now began at once to prepare for rebellion. He tried to supplant his father by courting popularity, standing in the gate, conversing with every suitor, and lamenting the difficulty which he would find in getting a hearing. He also maintained a splendid retinue, (2 Samuel 15:1) and was admired for his personal beauty. It is probable too that the great tribe of Judah had taken some offence at David's government. Absalom raised the standard of revolt at Hebron, the old capital of Judah, now supplanted by Jerusalem. The revolt was at first completely successful; David fled from his capital over the Jordan to Mahanaim in Gilead, and Absalom occupied Jerusalem. At last, after being solemnly anointed king at Jerusalem, (2 Samuel 19:10) Absalom crossed the Jordan to attack his father, who by this time had rallied round him a considerable force. A decisive battle was fought in Gilead, in the wood of Ephraim. Here Absalom's forces were totally defeated, and as he himself was escaping his long hair was entangled in the branches of a terebinth, where he was left hanging while the mule on which he was riding ran away from under him. He was dispatched by Joab in spite of the prohibition of David, who, loving him to the last, had desired that his life might be spared. He was buried in a great pit in the forest, and the conquerors threw stones over his grave, an old proof of bitter hostility. (Joshua 7:26)
A monument of tomb which Absalom had built during his lifetime in the king's dale, i.e. the valley of the Kedron, at the foot of Mount Olivet, near Jerusalem, (2 Samuel 18:18) comp. with 2Sam 14:27 For his three sons, and where he probably expected to be buried. The tomb there now, and called by Absalom's name was probably built at a later date.
one of the cities in the land of Shinar. (Genesis 10:10) Its position is quite uncertain.
(the Ptolemais of the Maccabees and New Testament), Now called Acca, or more usually by Europeans St. Jean d'Acre, the most important seaport town on the Syrian coast, about 30 miles south of Tyre. It was situated on a slightly projecting headland, at the northern extremity of that spacious bay which is formed by the bold promontory of Carmel on the opposite side. Later it was named Ptolemais, after one of the Ptolemies, probably Soter. The only notice of it in the New Testament is in (Acts 21:7) where it is called Ptolemais .
(the field of blood) (Akeldama in the Revised Version), the name given by the Jews of Jerusalem to a field near Jerusalem purchased by Judas with the money which he received for the betrayal of Christ, and so called from his violent death therein. (Acts 1:19) The "field of blood" is now shown on the steep southern face of the valley or ravine of Hinnom, "southwest of the supposed pool of Siloam."
(trouble) signifies in the New Testament a Roman province which included the whole of the Peloponnesus and the greater part of Hellas proper, with the adjacent islands. This province, with that of Macedonia, comprehended the while of Greece; hence Achaia and Macedonia are frequently mentioned together in the New Testament to indicate all Greece. (Acts 18:12; 19:21; Romans 15:26; 16:5; 1 Corinthians 16:15; 2 Corinthians 7:5; 9:2; 11:10; 1 Thessalonians 1:7,8) In the time of the emperor Claudius it was governed by a proconsul, translated in the Authorized Version "deputy," of Achaia. (Acts 18:12)
(belonging to Achaia), a name of a Christian. (1 Corinthians 16:17)
(troubler), an Israelite of the tribe of Judah, who, when Jericho and all that it contained were accursed and devoted to destruction, secreted a portion of the spoil in his tent. For this sin he was stoned to death with his whole family by the people, in a valley situated between Ai and Jericho, and their remains, together with his property, were burnt. (Joshua 7:19-26) From this event the valley received the name of Achor (i.e. trouble). [Achor, Valley Of] (B.C. 1450.)
(1 Chronicles 2:7)
king of Judah, (Matthew 1:9)
son of Sadoc and father of Eliud in our Lord's genealogy. (Matthew 1:14) The Hebrew form of the name would be Jachin, which is a short form of Jehoiachin, the Lord will establish.
(angry), a Philistine king of Gath, who in the title of the 34th Psalm is called Abimelech. David twice found a refuge with him when he fled from Saul. (B.C. 1061.) On the first occasion he was alarmed for his safety, feigned madness, and was sent away.
(valley of trouble), the spot at which Achan was stoned. (Joshua 7:24,26) On the northern boundary of Judah, (Joshua 15:7) near Jericho.
(1 Chronicles 2:49) [Achsah]
(ankle-chain, anklet), daughter of Caleb. Her father promised her in marriage to whoever should take Debir. Othniel, her father's younger brother, took that city, and accordingly received the hand of Achsah as his reward. Caleb added to her dowry the upper and lower springs. (B.C. 1450-1426.) (Joshua 15:15-19; Judges 1:11-15)
(fascination), a city within the territory of Asher, named between Beten and Alammelech, (Joshua 19:25) originally the seat of a Canaanite king. (Joshua 11:1; 12:20)
See MAALEH-ACRABBIM, (Joshua 15:3) in the margin.
the fifth book in the New testament and the second treatise by the author of the third Gospel, traditionally known as Luke. The book commences with an inscription to one Theophilus, who was probably a man of birth and station. The readers were evidently intended to be the members of the Christian Church, whether Jews or Gentiles; for its contents are such as are of the utmost consequence to the whole Church. They are the fulfillment of the promise of the Father by the descent of the Holy Spirit, and the results of that outpouring by the dispersion of the gospel among the Jews and Gentiles. Under these leading heads all the personal and subordinate details may be arranged. First St. Peter becomes the prime actor under God int he founding of the Church. He is the centre of the first group of sayings and doings. The opening of the door to Jews, ch. 2, and Gentiles, ch. 10, is his office, and by him, in good time, is accomplished. Then the preparation of Saul of Tarsus for the work to be done, the progress, in his hand, of that work, his journeyings, preachings and perils, his stripes and imprisonments, his testifying in Jerusalem and being brought to testify in Rome,--these are the subjects of the latter half of the book, of which the great central figure is the apostle Paul. The history given in the Acts occupies about 33 years, and the reigns of the Roman emperors Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius and Nero. It seems most probable that the place of writing was Roma, and the time about two years from the date of St. Paul's arrival there, as related in (Acts 28:30) This would give us fro the publication about 63 A.D.
(festival or boundary), one of the cities in the extreme south of Judah, named with Dimonah and Kedesh. (Joshua 15:22)
(adorned by Jehovah).
(a fire-god), the fifth son of Haman. (Esther 9:8)
a city on the Jordan, "beside Zaretan," in the time of Joshua. (Joshua 3:16)
Man, generically, for the name Adam was not confined to the father of the human race, but like homo was applicable to woman as well as to man . (Genesis 5:2)
(red earth), the name given in Scripture to the first man. It apparently has reference to the ground from which he was formed, which is called in Hebrew Adamah . The idea of redness of color seems to be inherent in either word. The creation of man was the work of the sixth day--the last and crowning act of creation. Adam was created (not born) a perfect man in body and spirit, but as innocent and completely inexperienced as a child. The man Adam was placed in a garden which the Lord God had planted "eastward in Eden," for the purpose of dressing it and keeping it. [Eden] Adam was permitted to eat of the fruit of every tree in the garden but one, which was called ("the tree of the knowledge of good and evil," because it was the test of Adam's obedience. By it Adam could know good and evil int he divine way, through obedience; thus knowing good by experience in resisting temptation and forming a strong and holy character, while he knew evil only by observation and inference. Or he could "know good and evil," in Satan's way, be experiencing the evil and knowing good only by contrast. -ED.) The prohibition to taste the fruit of this tree was enforced by the menace of death. There was also another tree which was called "the tree of life." While Adam was in the garden of Eden, the beasts of the field and the fowls of the air were brought to him to be named. After this the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon him, and took one of his ribs from him, which he fashioned into a woman and brought her to the man. At this time they were both described as being naked without the consciousness of shame. By the subtlety of the serpent the woman who was given to be with Adam was beguiled into a violation of the one command which had been imposed upon them. She took of the fruit of the forbidden tree and gave it to her husband. The propriety of its name was immediately shown in the results which followed; self-consciousness was the first-fruits of sin their eyes were opened and they knew that they were naked. Though the curse of Adam's rebellion of necessity fell upon him, yet the very prohibition to eat of the tree of life after his transgression was probably a manifestation of divine mercy, because the greatest malediction of all would have been to have the gift of indestructible life super-added to a state of wretchedness and sin. The divine mercy was also shown in the promise of a deliverer given at the very promise of a deliverer given at the very time the curse was imposed, (Genesis 3:15) and opening a door of hope to Paradise, regained for him and his descendants. Adam is stated to have lived 930 years. His sons mentioned in Scripture are Cain, Abel and Seth; it is implied, however, that he had others.
(red earth), one of the "fenced cities" of Naphtali, named between Chinnereth and Ramah. (Joshua 19:36)
the translation of the Hebrew word Shamir in (Ezekiel 3:9) and Zech 7:12 In (Jeremiah 17:1) it is translated "diamond." In these three passages the word is the representative of some stone of excessive hardness, and is used metaphorically. It is very probable that by Shamir is intended emery, a variety of corundum, a mineral inferior, only to the diamond in hardness.
(my man, earth), a place on the border of Naphtali. (Joshua 19:33)
(high), a place on the south boundary of Judah. (Joshua 15:3)
(new), a place in Judea, about four miles from Beth-horon. 1Ma 7:40,45 [Hadashah]
(offspring of God), a son of Ishmael, (Genesis 25:13; 1 Chronicles 1:29) and probably the progenitor of an Arab tribe. (B.C. about 1850.)
(strong or stony), one of the places from which some of the captivity returned with Zerubbabel to Judea who could not show their pedigree as Israelites. (Ezra 2:59) Called Addon (Nehemiah 7:61)
(mighty one), son of Bela, (1 Chronicles 8:3) called Ard in (Numbers 26:40)
This word is used for any poisonous snake, and is applied in this general sense by the translators of the Authorized Version. The word adder occurs five times in the text of the Authorized Version (see below), and three times int he margin as synonymous with cockatrice, viz., (Isaiah 11:8; 14:29; 59:5) It represents four Hebrew words:
(ornament). (Luke 3:28) Son of Cosam, and father of Melchi in our Lord's genealogy; the third above Salathiel.
(flock), a Benjamites, son of Beriah, chief of the inhabitants of Aijalon. (1 Chronicles 8:15) The name is more correctly Eder.
a fortified town near Jerusalem, probably the Hadid of (Ezra 2:33) and referred to in 1Ma 12:38
(ornament of God).
(dainty, delicate), ancestor of a family who returned form Babylon with Zerubbabel, to the number of 454, (Ezra 2:15) or 655 according to the parallel list in (Nehemiah 7:20) (B.C. 536.) They joined with Nehemiah in a covenant to separate themselves from the heathen. (Nehemiah 10:16) (B.C. 410.)
(slender), one of David's captains beyond the Jordan, and a chief of the Reubenites. (1 Chronicles 11:42)
(2 Samuel 23:8) See Jashobeam.
(double ornament), a town belonging to Judah, lying in the low country, and named, between Sharaim and hag-Gederah, in (Joshua 15:36) only.
(justice of Jehovah), Ancestor of Shaphat, the overseer of David's herds that fed in the broad valleys. (1 Chronicles 27:29) (B.C. before 1050.)
(earthy, fortress), one of the "cities of the plain," always coupled with Zeboim. (Genesis 10:19; 14:2,8; 29:23; Hosea 11:8)
(given by the highest), one of the seven princes of Persia. (Esther 1:14)
(lord of Bezek), king of Bezek, a city of the Canaanites. [Bezek] This chieftain was vanquished by the tribe of Judah, (Judges 1:3-7) who cut off his thumbs and great toes, and brought him prisoner to Jerusalem, where he died. He confessed that he had inflicted the same cruelty upon 70 petty kings whom he had conquered. (B.C. 1425).
(my Lord is Jehovah).
The sons of Adonikam, 666 in number, were among those who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:13; Nehemiah 7:18); 1Esd 5:14 (B.C. 506-410.) The name is given as Adonijah in (Nehemiah 10:16)
(lord of heights), (1 Kings 4:6) by an unusual contraction Adoram, (2 Samuel 20:24) and 1Kin 12:18 Also Hadoram, (2 Chronicles 10:18) chief receiver of the tribute during the reigns of David, (2 Samuel 20:24) Solomon, (1 Kings 4:6) and Rehoboam. (1 Kings 12:18) This last monarch sent him to collect the tribute from the rebellious Israelites, by whom he was stoned to death, (B.C. 1014-973.)
(lord of justice), the Amorite king of Jerusalem who organized a league with four other Amorite princes against Joshua. The confederate kings having laid siege to Gibeon, Joshua marched to the relief of his new allies and put the besiegers to flight. The five kings took refuge in a cave at Makkedah, whence they were taken and slain, their bodies hung on trees, and then buried in the place of their concealment. (Joshua 10:1-27) (B.C. 1450.)
an expression used by St. Paul in reference to the present and prospective privileges of Christians. (Romans 8:15,23; Galatians 4:5; Ephesians 1:5) He probably alludes to the Roman custom by which a person not having children of his own might adopt as his son one born of other parents. The relationship was to all intents and purposes the same as existed between a natural father and son. The term is used figuratively to show the close relationship to God of the Christian. (Galatians 4:4,5; Romans 8:14-17) He is received into God's family from the world, and becomes a child and heir of God.
(double mound), a fortified city built by Rehoboam, (2 Chronicles 11:9) in Judah. Adoraim is probably the same place with Adora, 1Ma 13:20 Unless that be Dor, on the seacoast below Carmel. Robinson identifies it with Dura, a "large village" on a rising ground west of Hebron.
The acts and postures by which the Hebrews expressed adoration bear a great similarity to those still in use among Oriental nations. To rise up and suddenly prostrate the body was the most simple method; but, generally speaking, the prostration was conducted in a more formal manner, the person falling upon the knee and then gradually inclining the body until the forehead touched the ground. Such prostration was usual in the worship of Jehovah, (Genesis 17:3; Psalms 95:6) it was the formal mode of receiving visitors, (Genesis 18:2) of doing obeisance to one of superior station, (2 Samuel 14:4) and of showing respect to equals. (1 Kings 2:19) It was accompanied by such acts as a kiss, (Exodus 18:7) laying hold of the knees or feet of the person to whom the adoration was paid, (Matthew 28:9) and kissing the ground on which he stood. (Psalms 72:9; Micah 7:17) Similar adoration was paid to idols, (1 Kings 19:18) sometimes, however, the act consisted simply in kissing the hand to the object of reverence, (Job 31:27) and in kissing the statue itself. (Hosea 13:2)
(splendor of the king).
named form Adramys, brother of Croesus king of Lydia, a seaport in the province of Asia [Asia], situated on a bay of the Aegean Sea, about 70 miles north of Smyrna, in the district anciently called Aeolis, and also Mysia. See (Acts 16:7) [Mitylene] (Acts 27:2) The modern Adramyti is a poor village.
more properly A'drias, the Adriatic Sea. (Acts 27:27) The word seems to have been derived from the town of Adria, near the Po. In Paul's time it included the whole sea between Greece and Italy, reaching south from Crete to Sicily. [Melita]
(flock of God), son of Barzillai, to whom Saul gave his daughter Merab, although he had previously promised her to David. (1 Samuel 18:19) (B.C. about 1062.) His five sons were amongst the seven descendants of Saul whom David surrendered to the Gibeonites. (2 Samuel 21:8)
(justice of the people), Apocr. Odollam, a city of Judah int he lowland of the Shefelah, (Joshua 15:35) the seat of a Canaanite king, (Joshua 12:15) and evidently a place of great antiquity. (Genesis 38:1,12,20) Fortified by Rehoboam, (2 Chronicles 11:7) it was one of the towns reoccupied by the Jews after their return from Babylon, (Nehemiah 11:30) and still a city in the time of the Macabees. 2Ma 12:38 Adullam was probably near Deir Dubban, five or six miles north of Eleutheropolis. The limestone cliffs of the whole of that locality are pierced with extensive excavations, some one of which is doubtless the "cave of Adullam," the refuge of David. (1 Samuel 22:1; 2 Samuel 23:13; 1 Chronicles 11:15)
(Exodus 20:14) The parties to this crime, according to Jewish law, were a married woman and a man who was not her husband. The Mosaic penalty was that both the guilty parties should be stoned, and it applied as well to the betrothed as to the married woman, provided she were free. (22:22-24) A bondwoman so offending was to be scourged, and the man was to make a trespass offering. (Leviticus 19:20-22) At a later time, and when owing, to Gentile example, the marriage tie became a looser bond of union, public feeling in regard to adultery changed, and the penalty of death was seldom or never inflicted. The famous trial by the waters of jealousy, (Numbers 5:11-29) was probably an ancient custom, which Moses found deeply seated--(But this ordeal was wholly in favor of the innocent, and exactly opposite to most ordeals. For the water which the accused drank was perfectly harmless, and only by a miracle could it produce a bad effect; while in most ordeals the accused must suffer what naturally produces death, and be proved innocent only by a miracle. Symbolically adultery is used to express unfaithfulness to covenant vows to God, who is represented as the husband of his people.)
(the going up to), a rising ground or pass over against Gilgal," and "on the south side of the 'torrent'" (Joshua 15:7; 18:17) which is the position still occupied by the road leading up from Jericho and the Jordan valley to Jerusalem, on the south face of the gorge of the Wady Kelt. (Luke 10:30-36)
or Paraclete, one that pleads the cause of another. (1 John 2:1) Used by Christ, (John 14:16; 15:26; 16:7) to describe the office and work of the Holy Spirit, and translated Comforter, i.e. (see margin of Revised Version) Advocate, Helper, Intercessor. This use of the word is derived from the fact that the Jews, being largely ignorant of the Roman law and the Roman language, had to employ Roman advocates in their trials before Roman courts. Applied to Christ, (1 John 2:1)
(laudble), a paralytic at Lydda healed by St. Peter. (Acts 9:33,34)
(springs) a place "near to Salim," at which John baptized. (John 3:23) It was evidently west of the Jordan, comp. (John 3:22) with John 3:26 and with John 1:28 And abounded in water. It is given in the Omomasticon as eight miles south of Scythopolis "near Salem and the Jordan."
(a locust), a Christian prophet in the apostolic age, mentioned in (Acts 11:28) and Acts 21:10 He predicted, (Acts 11:28) that a famine would take place in the reign of Claudius. Josephus mentions a famine which prevailed in Judea in the reign of Claudius, and swept away many of the inhabitants. (In (Acts 21:10) we learn that Agabus and Paul met at Caesarea some time after this.)
(flame), possibly the title of the kings of Amalek, like Pharaoh of Egypt. One king of this name is mentioned in (Numbers 24:7) and another in 1Sam 15:8,9,20,32 The latter was the king of the Amalekites, whom Saul spared contrary to Jehovah's well-known will. (Exodus 17:14; 25:17) For this act of disobedience Samuel was commissioned to declare to Saul his rejection, and he himself sent for Agag and cut him in pieces. (B.C. about 1070.) [Samuel]. Haman is called the Agagite in (Esther 3:1,10; 8:3,5) The Jews consider him a descendant of Agag the Amalekite.
a beautifully-veined semi-transparent precious stone, a variety of quartz. Its colors are delicately arranged in stripes or bands or blended in clouds. It is mentioned four times in the text of the Authorized Version, viz., in (Exodus 28:19; 39:12; Isaiah 54:12; Ezekiel 27:16) In the two former passages; where it is represented by the Hebrew word shebo it is spoken of as forming the second stone in the third row of the high priest's breastplate; in each of the two latter places the original word is cadced, by which, no doubt, is intended a different stone. [RUBY] Our English agate derives its name from the Achates, on the banks of which it was first found.
The aged occupied a prominent place in the social and political system of the Jews. In private life they were looked up to as the depositaries of knowledge, (Job 15:10) the young were ordered to rise up in their presence, (Leviticus 19:32) they allowed them to give their opinion first, (Job 32:4) they were taught to regard gray hair as a "crown of glory," (Proverbs 16:31; 20:29) The attainment of old age was regarded as a special blessing. (Job 5:26) In pubic main qualification of those who acted as the representatives of the people in all matter of difficulty and deliberation. [ELDERS]
(fugitive), a Hararite, father of Shammah, one of David's three mightiest heroes. (2 Samuel 23:11) (B.C. 1050.)
This was little cared for by the patriarchs. The pastoral life, however, was the means of keeping the sacred race, whilst yet a family, distinct from mixture and locally unattached, especially whilst in Egypt. When grown into a nation it supplied a similar check on the foreign intercourse, and became the basis of the Mosaic commonwealth. "The land is mine," (Leviticus 25:23) was a dictum which made agriculture likewise the basis of the theocratic relation. Thus every family felt its own life with intense keenness, and had its divine tenure which it was to guard from alienation. The prohibition of culture in the sabbatical year formed a kind of rent reserved by the divine Owner. Landmarks were deemed sacred, (19:14) and the inalienability of the heritage was insured by its reversion to the owner in the year of jubilee; so that only so many years of occupancy could be sold. (Leviticus 25:8-16; 23-35) Rain.--Water was abundant in Palestine from natural sources. (8:7; 11:8-12) Rain was commonly expected soon after the autumnal equinox. The period denoted by the common scriptural expressions of the "early" and the "latter rain," (11:1; Jeremiah 5:24; Hosea 6:3; Zechariah 10:1; James 5:7) generally reaching from November to April, constituted the "rainy season," and the remainder of the year the "dry season." Crops.--The cereal crops of constant mention are wheat and barley, and more rarely rye and millet(?). Of the two former, together with the vine, olive and fig, the use of irrigation, the plough and the harrow, mention is made ln the book of (Job 31:40; 15:33; 24:6; 29:19; 39:10) Two kinds of cumin (the black variety called fitches), (Isaiah 28:27) and such podded plants as beans and lentils may be named among the staple produce. Ploughing and Sowing.--The plough was probably very light, one yoke of oxen usually sufficing to draw it. Mountains and steep places were hoed. (Isaiah 7:25) New ground and fallows, (Jeremiah 4:3; Hosea 10:12) were cleared of stones and of thorns, (Isaiah 5:2) early in the year, sowing or gathering from "among thorns" being a proverb for slovenly husbandry. (Job 5:5; Proverbs 24:30,31) Sowing also took place without previous ploughing, the seed being scattered broad cast and ploughed in afterwards. The soil was then brushed over with a light harrow, often of thorn bushes. In highly-irrigated spots the seed was trampled by cattle. (Isaiah 32:20) Seventy days before the passover was the time prescribed for sowing. The oxen were urged on by a goad like a spear. (Judges 3:31) The proportion of harvest gathered to seed sown was often vast; a hundred fold is mentioned, but in such a way as to signify that it was a limit rarely attained. (Genesis 26:12; Matthew 13:8) Sowing a field with divers seed was forbidden. (22:9) Reaping and Threshing.--The wheat etc., was reaped by the sickle or pulled by the roots. It was bound in sheaves. The sheaves or heaps were carted, (Amos 2:13) to the floor--a circular spot of hard ground, probably, as now, from 50 to 80 or 100 feet in diameter. (Genesis 1:10,11; 2 Samuel 24:16,18) On these the oxen, etc., forbidden to be muzzled, (25:4) trampled out the grain. At a later time the Jews used a threshing sledge called morag, (Isaiah 41:15; 2 Samuel 24:22; 1 Chronicles 21:23) probably resembling the noreg, still employed in Egypt--a stage with three rollers ridged with iron, which, aided by the driver's weight crushed out, often injuring, the grain, as well as cut or tore the straw, which thus became fit for fodder. Lighter grains were beaten out with a stick. (Isaiah 28:27) The use of animal manure was frequent. (Psalms 83:10; 2 Kings 9:37; Jeremiah 8:2) etc. Winnowing.--The shovel and fan, (Isaiah 30:24) indicate the process of winnowing--a conspicuous part of ancient husbandry. (Psalms 35:5; Job 21:18; Isaiah 17:13) Evening was the favorite time, (Ruth 3:2) when there was mostly a breeze. The fan, (Matthew 3:12) was perhaps a broad shovel which threw the grain up against the wind. The last process was the shaking in a sieve to separate dirt and refuse. (Amos 9:9) Fields and floors were not commonly enclosed; vineyard mostly were, with a tower and other buildings. (Numbers 22:24; Psalms 80:13; Isaiah 5:5; Matthew 21:33) comp. Judg 6:11 The gardens also and orchards were enclosed, frequently by banks of mud from ditches. With regard to occupancy, a tenant might pay a fixed money rent, (Song of Solomon 8:11) or a stipulated share of the fruits. (2 Samuel 9:10; Matthew 21:34) A passer by might eat any quantity of corn or grapes, but not reap or carry off fruit. (23:24,25; Matthew 12:1) The rights of the corner to be left, and of gleaning [Corner; Gleaning], formed the poor man's claim on the soil for support. For his benefit, too, a sheaf forgotten in carrying to the floor was to be left; so also with regard to the vineyard' and the olive grove. (Leviticus 19:9,10; 24:19)
(a gatherer, i.e. together of wise men), The son of Jakeh, an unknown Hebrew sage who uttered or collected the sayings of wisdom recorded in Prov 30.
(after the brother), third son of Benjamin. (1 Chronicles 8:1) [Aher; Ahiram]
(behind the breastwork), a name occurring in an obscure fragment of the genealogies of Judah. (1 Chronicles 4:8)
(whom Jehovah holds), a priest, ancestor of Maasiai, (Nehemiah 11:13) called Jahzerah in (1 Chronicles 9:12)
(blooming), father of Eli-phelet, one of David's thirty-seven captains. (2 Samuel 23:34) In the corrupt list in (1 Chronicles 11:35) Eliphelet appears as "Eliphal the son of Ur." (B.C. about 1050.)
Another (the Hebrew) form of AHASUERIUS. (Ezra 4:6) in margin.
(lion-king), the name of one Median and two Persian kings mentioned in the Old Testament.
(water), a place, (Ezra 8:15) or a river, Ezra 8:21 On the banks of which Ezra collected the second expedition which returned with him from Babylon to Jerusalem. Perhaps it is the modern Hit, on the Euphrates due east of Damascus.
(possessor), eleventh king of Judah, son of Jotham, reigned 741-726, about sixteen years. At the time of his accession, Rezin king of Damascus and Pekah king of Israel had recently formed a league against Judah, and they proceeded to lay siege to Jerusalem. Upon this Isaiah hastened to give advice and encouragement to Ahaz, and the allies failed in their attack on Jerusalem. Isai 7,8,9. But, the allies inflicted a most severe injury on Judah by the capture of Elath, a flourishing port on the Red Sea, while the Philistines invaded the west and south. 2Kin 16; 2Chr 28. Ahaz, having forfeited God's favor by his wickedness, sought deliverance from these numerous troubles by appealing to Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria, who forced him from his most formidable enemies. But Ahaz had to purchase this help at a costly price; he became tributary to Tiglath-pileser. He was weak, a gross idolater, and sought safety in heathen ceremonies, making his son pass through the fire to Molech, consulting wizards and necromancers. (Isaiah 8:19) and other idolatrous practices. (2 Kings 23:12) His only service of permanent value was the introduction of the sun-dial. He died at the age of 36, but was refused a burial with the kings his ancestors. (2 Chronicles 28:27)
(sustained by the Lord).
(brother of the wise, discreet), son of Abishur by his wife Abihail. (1 Chronicles 2:29) He was of the tribe of Judah.
(following), ancestor of Hushim a Benjamite. The name occurs in the genealogy of Benjamin. (1 Chronicles 7:12) It is not improbable that Aher and Ahiram, (Numbers 26:38) are the same.
(friend of Jehovah).
son of Sharar the Hararite (or of Sacar,) (1 Chronicles 11:35) one of David's thirty mighty men. (2 Samuel 23:33) (B.C. 1050.)
a Manassite of the family of Shemidah. (1 Chronicles 7:19)
(brother of help).
(brother of renown).
[Ahiah, Or Ahijah]
(a brother who raises up), son of Shaphan the scribe, an influential officer at the court of Josiah, was one of the delegates sent by Hilkaih to consult Huldah. (2 Kings 22:12-14) In the reign of Jehoiakim he successfully used his influence to protect the prophet Jeremiah. (Jeremiah 26:24) He was the father of Gedaliah. [Gedaliah] (B.C. 641).
(a brother of one born, i.e. before him).
(brother of anger).
(brother of the right hand).
(brother of the king).
(brother of death), a Levite apparently in the time of David. (1 Chronicles 6:25) In v. (1 Chronicles 6:35) for Ahimoth we find Mahath, as in (Luke 3:26)
(brother the noble, i.e. a noble brother), Son of Iddo, one of Solomon's twelve commissaries who supplied provisions for the royal household. (1 Kings 4:14) (B.C. 1014-975.)
(brother of grace, i.e. gracious).
(brother of evil, i.e. unlucky), Chief of the tribe of Naphtali. (Numbers 1:15; 2:29; 7:78,83; 10:27)
(brother of height, lofty), one of the sons of Benjamin, and ancestor of the AHIRAMITES (Numbers 26:38) In (Genesis 46:21) the name appears as "Ehi and Rosh." It is uncertain whether Ahiram is the same as Aher, (1 Chronicles 7:12) or Aharah, (1 Chronicles 8:1)
(brother of help), a Danite, father of Aholiab one of the architects of the tabernacle. (Exodus 31:6; 35:34; 38:23) (B.C. 1490)
(brother of the dawn), one of the sons of Bilhan, the grandson of Benjamin. (1 Chronicles 7:10)
the controller of Solomon's household. (1 Kings 4:6)
(brother of foolishness), a native of Giloh, was a privy councillor of David, whose wisdom was highly esteemed, though his name had an exactly opposite signification. (2 Samuel 16:23) (B.C. 1055-1023.) He was the grandfather of Bathsheba. Comp. (2 Samuel 11:3) with 2Sam 23:34 Ahithophel joined the conspiracy of Absalom against David, and persuaded him to take possession of the royal harem, (2 Samuel 16:21) and recommended an immediate pursuit of David. His advice was wise; but Hushai advised otherwise. When Ahithophel saw that Hushai's advice prevailed, he despaired of success, and returning to his own home "put his household in order and hanged himself." (2 Samuel 17:1-23)
(brother of goodness).
(fertile), a city of Asher from which the Canaanites were not driven out. (Judges 1:31)
(ornamental) daughter of Sheshan, whom, having no issue, he gave in marriage to his Egyptian slave Jarha. (1 Chronicles 2:31,35) From her were descended Zabad, one of David's mighty men, (1 Chronicles 11:41) and Aza-riah, one of the captains of hundreds in the reign of Joash. (2 Chronicles 23:1)
(brothely), son of Bela the son of Benjamin. (1 Chronicles 8:4) In (1 Chronicles 8:7) he is called Ahiah, Or Ahijah. The patronymic, Ahohite, is found in (2 Samuel 23:9,28; 1 Chronicles 11:12,29; 27:4)
(my tabernacle) two symbolical names, are described as harlots, the former representing Samaria and the latter Judah. Ezek. 23.
a Danite of great skill as a weaver and embroiderer, whom Moses appointed with Bezaleel to erect the tabernacle. (Exodus 35:30-35) (B.C. 1490.)
(my tabernacle is exulted), One of the three wives of Esau. (B.C. 1797.) She was the daughter of Anah. (Genesis 36:2,26) In the earlier narrative, (Genesis 26:34) Aholi-bamah is called Judith, which may have been her original name.
(brother of water, i.e. cowardly), Son of Jabath, a descendant of Judah, and head of one of the families of the Zorathites. (1 Chronicles 4:2)
(possession), properly Ahuzzam son of Ashur, the father or founder of Tekoa, by his wife Naarah. (1 Chronicles 4:6)
(possesions) one of the friends of the Philistine king Abimelech, who accompanied him at his interview with Isaac. (Genesis 26:26) (B.C. about 1877.)
(heap of ruins).
(feminine of Ai), a place named by Isaiah, (Isaiah 10:28) in connection with Migron and Michmash probably the same as Ai.
like Aiath probably a variation of the name Ai, mentioned with Michmash and Bethel. (Nehemiah 11:31)
(place of gazelles).
(the hind of the morning dawn), found once only in the Bible, in the title of (Psalms 22:1) It probably describes to the musician the melody to which the psalm was to be played.
[Aijalon, Or Ajalon]
(sharp sighted), son of Ezer, one of the "dukes" or chieftains of the Horites, and descendant of Seir. (Genesis 36:27) He is called Jakan in (1 Chronicles 1:42)
Revised Version of (Acts 1:19) for Aceldama.
(the ascent of, or the going up to); also MAALEH-ACRABBIM (the scorpion pass), A pass between the south end of the Dead Sea and Zin, forming one of the landmarks on the south boundary at once of Judah, (Joshua 15:3) and of the Holy Land. (Numbers 34:4) Also the boundary of the Amorites. (Judges 1:36) As to the name, scorpions abound in the whole of this district.
from the Arabic al bastraton, a whitish stone or from Alabastron, the place in Egypt where it is found. It occurs only in (Matthew 26:7; Mark 14:3; Luke 7:37) The ancients considered alabaster to be the best material in which to preserve their ointments. The Oriental alabaster (referred to in the Bible) is a translucent carbonate of lime, formed on the floors of limestone caves by the percolation of water. It is of the same material as our marbles, but differently formed. It is usually clouded or banded like agate, hence sometimes called onyx marble. Our common alabaster is different from this, being a variety of gypsum or sulphate of lime, used In its finer forms for vases, etc.; in the coarser it is ground up for plaster of Paris. The noted sculptured slabs from Nineveh are made of this material.
properly Al'emeth (covering), one of the sons of Beecher, the son of Benjamin. (1 Chronicles 7:8)
(king's oak), a place within the limits of Asher, named between Achshaph and Amad. (Joshua 19:26) only.
(virgins), (Psalms 46:1) title; (1 Chronicles 15:20) Some interpret it to mean a musical instrument, and others a melody.
(covering), a Benjamite, son of Jehoadah or Jarah, (1 Chronicles 8:36; 9:42) and descended from Jonathan the son of Saul. (B.C after 1077.)
(helper of men--brave) king of Macedon, surnamed the Great, the son of Philip and Olympias, was born at Pella B.C. 356, and succeeded his father B.C. 336. Two years afterwards he crossed the Hellespont (B.C. 334) to carry out the plans of his fathers and execute the mission of (Greece to the civilized world. He subjugated Syria and Palestine B.C. 334-332. Egypt next submitted to him B.C. 332, and in this year he founded Alexandria. In the same year he finally defeated Darius at Gaugamela, who in B.C. 330 was murdered. The next two years were occupied by Alexander in the consolidation of his Persian conquests and the reduction of Bactria. In B.C. 327 he crossed the Indus; turning westward he reached Susa B.C. 325, and proceeded to Babylon B.C. 324, which he chose as the capital of his empire. In the next year (B.C. 323) he died there of intemperance, at the early age of 32, in the midst of his gigantic plans; and those who inherited his conquests left his designs unachieved and unattempted. cf. (Daniel 7:6; 8:5; 11:3) Alexander is intended in (Daniel 2:39) and also Dani 7:6; 8:5-7; 11:3,4 The latter indicating the rapidity of his conquests and his power. He ruled with great dominion, and did according to his will, (Daniel 11:3) "and there was none that could deliver .... out of his hand." (Daniel 8:7)
(from Alexander), 3 Ma 3:1; (Acts 18:24; 6:9) the Hellenic, Roman and Christian capital of Egypt. Situation .-- (Alexandria was situated on the Mediterranean Sea directly opposite the island of Pharos, 12 miles west of the Canopic branch of the Nile and 120 miles from the present city of Cairo.) It was founded by Alexander the Great, B.C. 332, who himself traced the ground plan of the city. The work thus begun was continued after the death of Alexander by the Ptolemies. Description .-- Under the despotism of the later Ptolemies the trade of Alexandria declined, but its population and wealth were enormous. Its importance as one of the chief corn-ports of Rome secured for it the general favor of the first emperors. Its population was mixed from the first. According to Josephus Alexander himself assigned to the Jews a place in his new city. Philo estimated the number of the Alexandrine Jews in his time at a little less than 1,000,000 and adds that two of the five districts of Alexandria were called "Jewish districts," and that many Jews lived scattered in the remaining three. "For a long period Alexandria was the greatest of known cities." After Rome became the chief city of the world, Alexandria ranked second to Rome in wealth and importance, and second to Athens only in literature and science. Its collection of books grew to be the greatest library of ancient times, and contained at one time 700,000 rolls or volumes. Here was made the Septuagint translation of the Old Testament into Greek, begun about B.C. 285, especially in grain, was very great. According to the common legend, St. Mark first "preached the gospel in Egypt, and founded the first church in Alexandria." At the beginning of the second century the number of Christians at Alexandria must have been very large, and the great leaders of Gnosticism who arose there (Basilides, Valentinus) exhibit an exaggeration of the tendency of the Church. PRESENT CONDITION. The city still bears the same name and is a thriving metropolis, with inhabitants from nearly every European and Oriental nation. Cleopatra's needle, set up by Thotmes in 1500 B.C., was found in Alexandria.
the Jewish colonists of Alexandria, who were admitted to the privileges of citizenship and had a synagogue at Jerusalem. (Acts 6:9)
the former occurring in (2 Chronicles 2:8; 9:10,11) the latter in (1 Kings 10:11,12) These words are identical. From (1 Kings 10:11,12; 2 Chronicles 9:10,11) we learn that the almug was brought in great plenty from Ophir for Solomon's temple and house, and for the construction of musical instruments. It is probable that this tree is the red sandle wood, which is a native of India and Ceylon. The wood is very heavy, hard and fine grained, and of a beautiful garnet color.
a figure of speech, which has been defined by Bishop Marsh, in accordance with its etymology as, "a representation of one thing which is intended to excite the representation of another thing." ("A figurative representation containing a meaning other than and in addition to the literal." "A fable or parable; is a short allegory with one definite moral."--Encyc. Brit.) In every allegory there is a twofold sense--the immediate or historic, which is understood from the words, and the ultimate, which is concerned with the things signified by the words. The allegorical interpretation is not of the words, but of the thing signified by them, and not only may, but actually does, coexist with the literal interpretation in every allegory, whether the narrative in which it is conveyed be of things possible or real. An illustration of this may be seen in (Galatians 4:24) where the apostle gives an allegorical interpretation to the historical narrative of Hagar and Sarah, not treating that narrative as an allegory in itself; as our Authorized Version would lead us to suppose, but drawing from it a deeper sense than is conveyed by the immediate representation. (Addison's Vision of Mirza and Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress are among the best allegories in all literature.)
so written in (Revelation 19:6) foll., or more properly Hallelujah, praise ye Jehovah, as it is found in the margin of (Psalms 104:35; 105:45; 106; 111:1; 112:1; 113:1) comp. Psal 113:9; 115:18; 116:19, 117:2 The literal meaning of "hallelujah" sufficiently indicates the character of the Psalms in which it occurs as hymns of praise and thanksgiving.
On the first establishment of the Hebrews in Palestine no connections were formed between them and the surrounding nations. But with the extension of their power under the kings alliances became essential to the security of their commerce. Solomon concluded two important treaties exclusively for commercial purposes the first with Hiram king of Tyre (1 Kings 5:2-12; 9:27) the second with a Pharaoh, king of Egypt. (1 Kings 10:28,29) When war broke out between Amaziah I and Jeroboam II, a coalition was formed between Rezin, king of Syria, and Pekah on the one side, and Ahaz and Tiglath-pileser, king of Assyria, on the other. (2 Kings 16:5-9) The formation of an alliance was attended with various religious rites. A victim was slain and divided into two parts, between which the contracting parties passed. (Genesis 15:10) Generally speaking the oath alone is mentioned in the contracting of alliances, either between nations, (Joshua 9:15) or individuals. (Genesis 25:28; 31:53; 1 Samuel 20:17; 2 Kings 11:4) The event was celebrated by a feast. Genesis l.c.; (Exodus 24:11; 2 Samuel 3:12,20) Salt, as symbolical of fidelity, was used on these occasions. Occasionally a pillar or a heap of stones was set up as a memorial of the alliance. (Genesis 31:52) Presents were also sent by the parties soliciting the alliance. (1 Kings 15:18; Isaiah 30:6); 1 Macc 16:18. The fidelity of the Jews to their engagements was conspicuous at all periods of their history, (Joshua 9:18) and any breach of covenant was visited with very severe punishment. (2 Samuel 21:1; Ezekiel 17:16)
a large strong tree of some description probably an oak.
(an oak) a Simeonite, ancestor of Ziza, a prince of his tribe in the reign of Hezekiah (1 Chronicles 4:37) (B.C. 727.)
(measure) the first in order of the descendants of Joktan. (Genesis 10:26; 1 Chronicles 1:20)
(concealed) a city within the tribe of Benjamin, with "suburbs" given to the priests. (Joshua 21:18) [Alemeth]
This word is found in (Genesis 43:11; Exodus 25:33,34; 37:19,20; Numbers 17:8; Ecclesiastes 12:5; Jeremiah 1:11) in the text of the Authorized Version. It is invariably represented by the same Hebrew word, shaked meaning hasten. (Jeremiah 1:11,12) The almond tree is a native of Asia and North Africa, but it is cultivated in the milder parts of Europe." It resembles the peach tree in form, blossom and fruit. It is in fact only another species of the same genus." The height of the tree is about 12 or 14 feet; the flowers are pink, and arranged for the most part in pairs, the leaves are long, ovate, with a serrated margin and an acute point. The covering of the fruit is down and succulent, enclosing the hard shell which contains the kernel. It is this but for which the tree is chiefly valued. It is curious to observe, in connection with the almond bowls of the golden candlestick, that, in the language of lapidaries, almonds are pieces of rock crystal, even now used in adorning branch candlesticks.
(concealing the two cakes), one of the latest stations of the Israelites between Dibon-gad and the mountains of Abarim (Numbers 33:46,47) It is probably identical with Beth-diblathaim.
The duty of alms-giving, especially in kind, consisting chiefly in portions to be left designedly from produce of the field, the vineyard and the oliveyard, (Leviticus 19:9,10; 23:22; 15:11; 24:19; 26:2-13; Ruth 2:2) is strictly enjoined by the law. Every third year also, (14:28) each proprietor was directed to share the tithe of his produce with "the Levite, the stranger, the fatherless and the widow." The theological estimate of alms-giving among the Jews is indicated in the following passages: (Job 31:17; Proverbs 10:2; 11:4; Esther 9:22; Psalms 112:9; Acts 9:36) the case of Dorcas; (Acts 10:2) of Cornelius; to which may be added Tobit 4:10,11; 14:10,11, and Ecclus. 3:30; 40:24. The Pharisees were zealous in almsgiving, but too ostentatious their mode of performance, for which our Lord finds fault with them. (Matthew 6:2) The duty of relieving the poor was not neglected by the Christians. (Matthew 6:1-4; Luke 14:13; Acts 20:35; Galatians 2:10) Regular proportionate giving was expected. (Acts 11:30; Romans 15:25-27; 1 Corinthians 16:1-4)
[Algum Or Almug Trees TREES]
(in Heb. Ahalim, Ahaloth), The name of a costly and sweet-smelling wood which is mentioned in (Numbers 24:6; Psalms 45:8; Proverbs 7:17; Song of Solomon 4:14; John 19:39) It is usually identified with the Aquilaria agollochum, an aromatic wood much valued in India. This tree sometimes grows to the height of 120 feet, being 12 feet in girth.
a place or district, forming with Asher the jurisdiction of the ninth of Solomon's commissariat officers. (1 Kings 4:16)
(A), the first letter of the Greek alphabet. With Omega, the last letter, it is used in the Old Testament and in the New to express the eternity of God, as including both the beginning and the end. (Revelation 1:8,11; 21:6; 22:13; Isaiah 41:4; 44:6) hence these letters became a favorite symbol of the eternal divinity of our Lord, and were used for this purpose in connection with the cross, or the monogram of Christ (i.e. the first two letters, ch and r, of Christ's name in Greek). Both Greeks and Hebrews employed the letters of the alphabet as numerals.
(changing) the father of the apostle James the Less, (Matthew 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13) and husband of Mary. (John 19:25) [Mary] In this latter place he is called Clopas (not, as in the Authorized Version, Cleophas).
The first altar of which we have any account is that built by Noah when he left the ark. (Genesis 8:20) In the early times altars were usually built in certain spots hallowed by religious associations, e.g., where God appeared. (Genesis 12:7; 13:18; 26:25; 35:1) Though generally erected for the offering of sacrifice, in some instances they appear to have been only memorials. (Genesis 12:7; Exodus 17:15,16) Altars were most probably originally made of earth. The law of Moses allowed them to be made of either earth or unhewn stones. (Exodus 20:24,25) I. The Altar of Burnt Offering . It differed in construction at different times. (1) In the tabernacle, (Exodus 27:1) ff.; Exod 38:1 ff., it was comparatively small and portable. In shape it was square. It as five cubits in length, the same in breadth, and three cubits high. It was made of planks of shittim (or acacia) wood overlaid with brass. The interior was hollow. (Exodus 27:8) At the four corners were four projections called horns made, like the altar itself, of shittim wood overlaid with brass, (Exodus 27:2) and to them the victim was bound when about to be sacrificed. (Psalms 118:27) Round the altar, midway between the top and bottom, ran a projecting ledge, on which perhaps the priest stood when officiating. To the outer edge of this, again, a grating or network of brass was affixed, and reached to the bottom of the altar. At the four corners of the network were four brazen rings, into which were inserted the staves by which the altar was carried. These staves were of the same material as the altar itself. As the priests were forbidden to ascend the altar by steps, (Exodus 20:26) it has been conjectured that a slope of earth led gradually up to the ledge from which they officiated. The place of the altar was at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.)" (Exodus 40:29) (2) In Solomon's temple the altar was considerably larger in its dimensions. It differed too in the material of which it was made, being entirely of brass. (1 Kings 8:64; 2 Chronicles 7:7) It had no grating, and instead of a single gradual slope, the ascent to it was probably made by three successive platforms, to each of which it has been supposed that steps led. The altar erected by Herod in front of the temple was 15 cubits in height and 50 cubits in length and breadth. According to (Leviticus 6:12,13) a perpetual fire was to be kept burning on the altar. II. The Altar of Incense, called also the golden altar to distinguish it from the altar of burnt offering which was called the brazen altar. (Exodus 38:30) (a) That in the tabernacle was made of acacia wood, overlaid with pure gold. In shape it was square, being a cubit in length and breadth and two cubits in height. Like the altar of burnt offering it had horns at the four corners, which were of one piece with the rest of the altar. This altar stood in the holy place, "before the vail that is by the ark of the testimony." (Exodus 30:6; 40:5) (b) The altar of Solomon's temple was similar, (1 Kings 7:48; 1 Chronicles 28:18) but was made of cedar overlaid with gold. III. Other Altars . In (Acts 17:23) reference is made to an alter to an unknown God. There were several altars in Athens with this inscription, erected during the time of a plague. Since they knew not what god was offended and required to be propitiated.
(destroy not), found in the introductory verse to Psalms 57,58,59,75. It was probably the beginning of some song or poem to the tune of which those psalms were to be chanted.
(a crowd of men) one of the stations of the Israelites on their journey to Sinai, the last before Rephidim. (Numbers 33:13,14)
(evil), a duke of Edom, (Genesis 36:40) written Aliah in (1 Chronicles 1:51)
(tall), a Horite, son of Shobal, (Genesis 36:23) written Alian in (1 Chronicles 1:40)
(enduring), an unknown place in Asher, between Alammelech and Misheal. (Joshua 19:26) only.
(Esther 16:10,17) and Amad'athus . (Esther 12:6) [Hammedatha]
(labor), an Asherite, son of Helem. (1 Chronicles 7:35)
(dweller in a valley), a son of Eliphaz by his concubine Timnah grandson of Esau, and chieftain ("duke," Authorized Version) of Edom. (Genesis 36:12,16; 1 Chronicles 1:36) (B.C. about 1700.)
a nomadic tribe of uncertain origin, which occupied the peninsula of Sinai and the wilderness intervening between the southern hill-ranges of Palestine and the border of Egypt. (Numbers 13:29; 1 Samuel 15:7; 27:8) Their wealth consisted in flocks and herds. Mention is made of a "town" (1 Samuel 15:5) but their towns could have been little more than stations or nomadic enclosures. The Amalekites first came in contact with the Israelites at Rephidim, but were signally defeated. (Exodus 17:8-16) In union with the Canaanites they again attacked the Israelites on the borders of Palestine, and defeated them near Hormah. (Numbers 14:45) Saul undertook an expedition against them. (1 Samuel 14:48) Their power was thenceforth broken, and they degenerated into a horde of banditti. Their destruction was completed by David. (1 Samuel 30:1-17)
a mountain in Ephraim, (Judges 12:15) probably so named because the Amalekites once held possession of it.
(gathering place), a city in the south of Judah named with Shema and Moladah in (Joshua 15:26) only.
[Haman] (Esther 10:7; 12:6; 13:3,12; 14:17; 16:10,17)
(a covenant), apparently a mountain in or near Lebanon. (Song of Solomon 4:8) It is commonly assumed that this is the mountain in which the river Abana, (2 Kings 5:12) has its source.
(the Lord says, i.e. promises).
(burdensome), son of Azareel, a priest in the time of Nehemiah, (Nehemiah 11:13) apparently the same as Maasiai. (1 Chronicles 9:12) (B.C. 440.)
(whom Jehovah bears), son of Zichri and captain of 200,000 warriors of Judah in the reign of Jehoshaphat. (2 Chronicles 17:16) (B.C. 910.)
(the strength of the Lord).
a person of high rank employed by a government to represent it and transact its business at the seat of government of some other power. The earliest examples of ambassadors employed occur in (Numbers 20:14; 21:21; Judges 11:7-19) afterwards in that of the fraudulent Gibeonites, (Joshua 9:4) etc., and in the instances of civic strife mentioned (Judges 11:12) and Judg 20:12 Ambassadors are found to have been employed not only on occasions of hostile challenge or insolent menace, (1 Kings 20:2,6; 2 Kings 14:8) but of friendly compliment, of request for alliance or other aid, of submissive deprecation and of curious inquiry. (2 Kings 14:8; 16:7; 18:14; 2 Chronicles 32:31) Ministers are called ambassadors of Christ.
embassy, a message of a public nature brought by ambassadors. The word also sometimes includes the ambassadors themselves. (Luke 14:32)
(Heb. chasmal) occurs only in (Ezekiel 1:4,27; 8:2) It is usually supposed that the Hebrew word chasmal (denotes a metal) and not the fossil resin called amber .
literally "true" and used as a substantive, "that which is true," "truth," (Isaiah 65:16) a word used in strong asseverations, fixing, as it were, the stamp of truth upon the assertion which it accompanied, and making it binding as an oath. Comp. (Numbers 5:22) In the synagogues and private houses it was customary for the people or members of the family who were present to say "amen" to the prayers which were offered. (Matthew 6:13; 1 Corinthians 14:16) And not only public prayers, but those offered in private, and doxologies, were appropriately concluded with "amen." (Romans 9:5; 11:36; 15:33; 16:27; 2 Corinthians 13:14) etc.
(Heb. achlamah) a subspecies of quartz of a bluish-violet color. Mention is made of this precious stone, which formed the third in the third row of the high priestly breastplate, in (Exodus 28:19; 39:12) It occurs also in (Revelation 21:20)
(builder), one of Solomon's servants, (Ezra 2:57) called Amon, Or Amen, Amon in (Nehemiah 7:59)
(true), father of the prophet Jonah. (2 Kings 14:25; Jonah 1:1)
(head), The hill of, A hill facing Giah by the way of the wilderness of Gibeon, named as the point to which Joab pursued Abner (2 Samuel 2:24)
i.e., as explained in the margin of the Authorized Version, my people . (Hosea 2:1)
(people of God).
(people of praise).
(one of the prince's people).
Probably another form of Amminadab. He was noted for the swiftness of his chariot. (Song of Solomon 6:12) It is uncertain whether we ought to read here AMMINADIB, with the Authorized Version, or my willing people, as in the margin. Ammishad'da-i (people of the Almighty), the father of Ahiezer, prince of the tribe of Dan at the time of the Exodus. (Numbers 1:12; 2:25; 7:66,71; 10:25) (B.C. 1491.)
(people of the Giver, i.e. God), the son of Benaiah, who commanded the third division of David's army. (1 Chronicles 27:6) (B.C. 1050.)
(sons of renown, mountaineers), Am'monites, Children of Ammon, A people descended from Ben-ammi, the son of Lot by his younger daughter. (Genesis 19:38) comp Psal 83:7,8 The Ammonites are frequently mentioned with the Moabites (descendants of Ben-ammi's half-brother), and sometimes under the same name. Comp. (Judges 10:6; 2 Chronicles 20:1; Zephaniah 2:8) etc. The precise position of the territory of the Ammonites is not ascertainable. In the earliest mention of them, (2:20) they are said to have dwelt in their place, Jabbok being their border. (Numbers 21:24; 2:37; 3:16) (i.e. Land or country is, however, but rarely ascribed to them. Their capital city was Rabbath, called also Rabbath Ammon on the Jabbok. We find everywhere traces of the fierce habits of maranders in their incursions.) (1 Samuel 11:2; Amos 1:13) and a very high degree of crafty cruelty to their toes. (Jeremiah 41:6,7; Judges 17:11,12) Moab was the settled and civilized half of the nation of Lot, and Ammon formed its predatory and Bedouin section. On the west of Jordan they never obtained a footing. The hatred in which the Ammonites were held by Israel is stated to have arisen partly from their denial of assistance, (23:4) to the Israelites on their approach to Canaan. But whatever its origin the animosity continued in force to the latest date. The tribe was governed by a king, (Judges 11:12) etc.; (1 Samuel 12:12; 2 Samuel 10:1; Jeremiah 40:14) and by "princes." (2 Samuel 10:3; 1 Chronicles 19:3) The divinity of the tribe was Molech [Molech], and they were gross idolaters.
a woman of Ammonite race. (1 Kings 14:21,31; 2 Chronicles 12:13)
(Matthew 1:4; Luke 3:33) [Amminadab, 1]
a priest who returned with Zerubbabel. (Nehemiah 12:7,20) (B.C. 536.)
(the mysterious), an Egyptian divinity, whose name occurs in that of No-amon. (Nahum 3:8) Amen was one of the eight gods of the first order and chief of the triad of Thebes. He was worshipped at that city as Amen-Ra, or "Amen the Sun."
(dwellers on the summits, mountaineers), one of the chief nations who possessed the land of Canaan before its conquest by the Israelites. As dwelling on the elevated portions of the country, they are contrasted with the Canaanites, who were the dwellers in the lowlands; and the two thus formed the main broad divisions of the Holy Land, (Numbers 13:29) and see (14:7; 1:7,20) "Mountain of the Amorites;" (1:44; Joshua 5:1; 10:6; 11:3) They first occupied the barren heights west of the Dead Sea, at the place called afterwards Engedi. From this point they stretched west to Hebron. At the date of the invasion of the country, Sihon, their then king, had taken the rich pasture land south of the Jabbok. This rich tract, bounded by the Jabbok on the north, the Arnon on the south, the Jordan on the west and "the wilderness" on the east, (Judges 11:21,22) was, perhaps in the most special sense the "land of the Amorites," (Numbers 21:31; Joshua 12:2,3; 13:10; Judges 11:21,22) but their possessions are distinctly stated to have extended to the very foot of Hermon, (3:8; 4:48) embracing "Gilead and all Bashan," (3:10) with the Jordan valley on the east of the river. (4:49) After the conquest of Canaan nothing of importance is heard of the Amorites in the Bible.
(burden), native of Tekoa in Judah, about six miles south of Bethlehem, originally a shepherd and dresser of sycamore trees, who was called by God s Spirit to be a prophet, although not trained in any of the regular prophetic schools. (Amos 1:1; 7:14,15) He travelled from Judah into the northern kingdom of Israel or Ephraim, and there exercised his ministry, apparently not for any long time. (His date cannot be later than B.C. 808 for he lived in the reigns of Uzziah king of Judah and Jeroboam king of Israel; but his ministry probably took place at an earlier date, perhaps about the middle of Jeroboam's reign Nothing is known of the time or manner of his death.--ED.)
The book of the prophecies of Amos seems to be divided into four principal portions closely connected together. (1) From 1:1 to 2:3 he denounces the sins of the nations bordering on Israel and Judah. (2) From 2:4 to 6:14 he describes the state of those two kingdoms, especially, the former. (3) From 7:1 to 9:10 he relates his visit to Bethel, and sketches the impending punishment of Israel. At last he promises blessings. The chief peculiarity of the style consists in the number of allusions to natural objects and agricultural occupations, as might be expected from the early life of the author.
(strong), father of the prophet Isaiah, and, according to rabbinical tradition, brother of Amaziah king of Judah. (2 Kings 19:2,20; 20:1; Isaiah 1:1) (B.C. before 756.)
(a city surrounded by the sea), a city of Macedonia, through which Paul and Silas passed on their way from Philippi to Thessalonica (Acts 17:1) It was distant 33 Roman miles from Philippi, to the southwest, and about three miles from the sea. Its site is now occupied by a village called Neokhorio ; in Turkish Jeni-Keni, or "New Town."
(large), a Christian at Rome. (Romans 16:8) (A.D. 55.)
(Revised Version,) (Romans 16:8) (the full name of which Amplias, above, is the contraction. The name in this form is "common in the sepulchral inscriptions of persons connected with Caesar's household." (A.D. 55.)--ED.)
(an exalted people).
A branch of the great Kohathite family of the tribe of Levi, (Numbers 3:27; 1 Chronicles 26:23) descended from Amram, the father of Moses.
(keeper of the gods) perhaps a Hamite king of Shinar or Babylonia, who joined the victorious incursion of the Elamite Chedorlaomer against the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah and the cities of the plain. Gen. 14. (B.C. 1898.)
were ornaments, gems, scrolls. etc.. worn as preservatives against the power of enchantments, and generally inscribed with mystic forms or characters. The "earrings" in (Genesis 35:4) were obviously connected with idolatrous worship and were probably amulets taken from the bodies of the slain Shechemites. They are subsequently mentioned among the spoils of Midian. (Judges 8:24) In (Hosea 2:13) is another like reference. The "earrings" in (Isaiah 3:20) were also amulets.
(grape-town), a town in the mountains of Judah, (Joshua 15:50) named with Debir and Hebron as once belonging to the Anakim. (Joshua 11:21)
(one who answers), the son of Zibeon and father of Aholibamah, one of Esau's wives. (Genesis 36:2,14,25) He is supposed to have discovered the "hot springs" (not "mules," as in the Authorized Version) in the desert as he fed the asses of Zibeon his father. (B.C. 1797.)
(gorge or pass), a place within the border of Issachar, named with Shihon and Rabbith. (Joshua 19:19)
(whom Jehovah answers).
(long-necked), a race of giants, descendants of Arba, (Joshua 15:13; 21:11) dwelling in the southern part of Canaan, and particularly at Hebron, which from their progenitor received the name of "city of Arba." Anak was the name of the race rather than that of an individual. (Joshua 14:15) The race appears to have been divided into three tribes or families, bearing the names Sheshai, Ahiman and Talmai. Though the war-like appearance of the Anakim had struck the Israelites with terror in the time of Moses, (Numbers 13:28; 9:2) they were nevertheless dispossessed by Joshua, (Joshua 11:21,22) and their chief city, Hebron, became the possession of Caleb. (Joshua 15:14; Judges 1:20) After this time they vanish from history.
a Mizraite people or tribe. (Genesis 10:13; 1 Chronicles 1:11)
(image of the king), one of the idols worshipped by the colonists introduced into Samaria from Sepharvaim. (2 Kings 17:31) He was worshipped with rites resembling those of Molech, and is the companion-god to Adrammelech.
(a cloud), one of the "heads of the people" who signed the covenant with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:26) (B.C. 410.)
(Protected by Jehovah), the seventh son of Elioenai, descended from the royal line of Judah. (1 Chronicles 3:24)
a place, named between Nob and Hazor, in which the Benjamites lived after their return from captivity. (Nehemiah 11:32)
(protected by Jehovah) probably a priest, and ancestor of Azariah, who assisted in rebuilding the city wall in the days of Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 3:23) (B.C. before 446.)
(whom Jehovah has graciously given)
(answer), father of Shamgar. (Judges 3:31; 5:6)
which literally means a thing suspended, is the equivalent of the Hebrew word signifying a thing or person voted. Any object so devoted to Jehovah was irredeemable. If an inanimate object, it was to be given to the priests, (Numbers 18:14) if a living creature or even a man, it was to be slain. (Leviticus 27:28,29) The word anathema frequently occurs in St. Paul's writings, and is generally translated accused. An examination of the passages in which it occurs shows that it had acquired a more general sense as expressive either of strong feeling, (Romans 9:3) or of dislike and condemnation. (1 Corinthians 12:3; 16:22; Galatians 1:9)
a priests' city belonging to the tribe of Benjamin, with "suburbs." (Joshua 21:18; 1 Chronicles 6:60) Anathoth lay about three miles from Jerusalem. (Isaiah 10:30) The cultivation of the priests survives in tilled fields of grain, with figs and olives. There are the remains of walls and strong foundations, and the quarries still supply Jerusalem with building stones.
(answers to prayer).
(manly), one of the apostles of our Lord, (John 1:40; Matthew 4:18) brother of Simon Peter. He was of Bethsaida, and had been a disciple of John the Baptist, leaving him to follow our Lord. By his means his brother Simon was brought to Jesus. (John 1:41) His place among the apostles seems to have been fourth, next after the three Peter, James and John, and in company with Philip. (Mark 3:18; Acts 1:13) The traditions about him are various. He is said to have preached in Scythia, in Greece, in Asia Minor and Thrace, and to have been crucified at Patrae in Achaia.
(two springs), a city of Issachar, with "suburbs," belonging to the (Gershonites). (1 Chronicles 6:70)
one of the three Amorite chiefs of Hebron who aided Abraham in the pursuit after the four invading kings. (Genesis 14:13,24)
(boy), a city of Manasseh, west of Jordan, with "suburbs," given to the Kohathites. (1 Chronicles 6:70)
(2 Samuel 23:27) Anet'othite, (1 Chronicles 27:12) and An'tothite, (1 Chronicles 11:28; 12:3) an inhabitant of Anathoth, of the tribe of Benjamin.
(Genesis 16:7) etc. (The special form in which God manifested himself to man, and hence Christ's visible form before the incarnation. Compare (Acts 7:30-38) with the corresponding Old-Testament history; and (Genesis 18:1,13,14,33) and Genesis 19:1)
By the word "angels" (i.e. "messengers" of God) we ordinarily understand a race of spiritual beings of a nature exalted far above that of man, although infinitely removed from that of God--whose office is "to do him service in heaven, and by his appointment to succor and defend men on earth. I. Scriptural use of the word .--There are many passages in which the expression "angel of God" is certainly used for a manifestation of God himself (Genesis 22:11) with Genesis 22:12 and Exod 3:2 with Exod 3:6 and Exod 3:14 It is to be observed, also, that side by side with these expressions we read of God's being manifested in the form of man--as to Abraham at Mamre, (Genesis 18:2,22) comp. Genesis 19:1 To Jacob at Penuel, (Genesis 32:24,30) to Joshua at Gilgal, (Joshua 5:13,15) etc. Besides this, which is the highest application of the word angel, we find the phrase used of any messengers of God, such as the prophets, (Isaiah 42:19; Haggai 1:13; Malachi 3:1) the priests, (Malachi 2:7) and the rulers of the Christian churches. (Revelation 1:20) II. Nature of angels--Angels are termed "spirits," as in (Hebrews 1:14)--but it is not asserted that the angelic nature is incorporeal. The contrary seems expressly implied in (Luke 20:36; Philemon 3:21) The angels are revealed to us as beings such as man might be, and will be when the power of sin and death is removed, because always beholding his face, (Matthew 18:10) and therefore being "made like him." (1 John 3:2) Their number must be very large, (1 Kings 22:19; Matthew 26:53; Hebrews 12:22) their strength is great, (Psalms 103:20; Revelation 5:2; 18:21) their activity marvelous (Isaiah 6:2-6; Matthew 26:53; Revelation 8:13) their appearance varied according to circumstances, but was often brilliant and dazzling. (Matthew 28:2-7; Revelation 10:1,2) Of the nature of "fallen angels," the circumstances and nature of the temptation by which they fell, we know absolutely nothing. All that is certain is that they "left their first estate" and that they are now "angels of the devil." (Matthew 25:41; Revelation 12:7,9) On the other hand the title especially assigned to the angels of God--that of the "holy ones," see (Daniel 4:13,23; 8:13; Matthew 25:31)--is precisely the one which is given to those men who are renewed in Christ's image. Comp. (Hebrews 2:10; 5:9; 12:23) III. Office of the angels . Of their office in heaven we have only vague prophetic glimpses as in (1 Kings 22:19; Isaiah 6:1-3; Daniel 7:9,10; Revelation 6:11), etc., which show us nothing but a never-ceasing adoration. They are represented as being, in the widest sense, agents of God's providence, natural and supernatural, to the body and to the soul. In one word, they are Christ's ministers of grace now, and they shall be of judgment hereafter. (Matthew 13:39,41,49; 16:27; 24:31) etc. That there are degrees of the angelic nature, both fallen and unfallen, and special titles and agencies belonging to each, is clearly declared by St. Paul, (Ephesians 1:21; Romans 8:38) but what their general nature is it is useless to speculate.
(sighing of the people), a Manassite, son of Shemidah (1 Chronicles 7:19)
(fountains), a city in the mountains of Judah, named with Eshtemoh and Goshen. (Joshua 15:50)
This word occurs only in (Matthew 23:23) It is by no means a matter of certainty whether the anise (Pimpinella anisum, Lin.) or the dill (Anethum graveolens) is here intended though the probability is more in favor of the latter plant. "Anise is an annual plant growing to the height of one foot, carries a white flower, and blooms from June till August. The seeds are imported and used in large quantities on account of their aromatic and carminative properties. It grows wild in Egypt, in Syria, Palestine and all parts of the Levant. Among the ancients anise seems to have been a common pot-herb in every garden. Although it is less used in medicine by the moderns than by the ancients, it still retains its former reputation as an excellent stomachic, particularly for delicate women and young children. The Romans chewed it in order to keep up an agreeable moisture in the mouth and to sweeten the breath, while some Orientals still do the same." Dill, a somewhat similar plant, is an annual, bearing small aromatic seeds, used also for cookery and medicine.
This word does not occur in the Authorized Version; but anklets are referred to in (Isaiah 3:16,18,20) They were fastened to the ankle band of each leg; were as common as bracelets and armlets and made of much the same material. The pleasant jingling and tinkling which they made as they knocked against each other was no doubt one of the reasons why they were admired, They are still worn in the East.
(grace), a "prophetess" in Jerusalem at the time of our Lord's Presentation in the temple. (Luke 2:36) She was of the tribe of Asher.
(humble), the son of one Seth was appointed high priest A.D. 7 by Quirinus, the imperial governor of Syria, but was obliged by Valerius Gratus, procurator of Judea, to give way to Ismael, son of Phabi, at the beginning of the reign of Tiberius, A.D. 14. About A.D. 25 Joseph Caiaphas, son-in-law of An-nas, became high priest, (John 18:13) but in Luke 3:2 Annas and Caiaphas are both called high priests. Our Lord's first hearing, (John 18:13) was before Annas, who then sent him bound to Caiaphas. Some maintain that the two, Annas and Caiaphas, were together at the head of the Jewish people,--Caiaphas as actual high priest, Annas as resident of the Sanhedrin- (Acts 4:6) Others again suppose that Annas held the office of sagin, or substitute of the high priest; others still that Annas held the title and was really the ruling power. He lived to old age, having had five sons high priests.
in Holy Scripture, is either, I. Material--with oil--or II. Spiritual--with the Holy Ghost. I. MATERIAL.--
(Heb. nemalah). This insect is mentioned twice in the Old Testament: in (Proverbs 6:6; 30:25) In the former of these passages the diligence of this insect is instanced by the wise man as an example worthy of imitation; in the second passage the ant's wisdom is especially alluded to; for these insects "though they be little on the earth, are exceeding wise." (For a long time European commentators and naturalists denied that ants stored up grain for future use, as was asserted in Proverbs but while this is true of most of the 104 European species, two of those species do lay up food, and are called harvesting ants . Like species have been found in Texas and South America, and are known to exist in Palestine. They show many other proofs of their skill. Some of them build wonderful houses; these are often several stories high, sometimes five hundred times the height of the builders, with rooms, corridors, and vaulted roofs supported by pillars. Some species keep a kind of cows; others have a regular army of soldiers; some keep slaves--"No closer imitation of the ways of man could be found in the entire animal economy." (See Encyc. Brit.) McCook's "The Honey Ants" gives many curious facts about the habits of this peculiar kind of ant, and of the harvesting ants of the American plains.--ED.)
This term is employed by the apostle John alone, and is defined by him in a manner which leaves no doubt as to its intrinsic meaning. With regard to its application there is less certainty. In the first passage-- (1 John 2:18)--in which it occurs, the apostle makes direct reference to the false Christs whose coming, it had been fore-told, should mark the last days. In v. 22 we find, "he is antichrist, that denieth the Father and the Son;" and still more positively, "every spirit that confesseth not that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is of antichrist." Comp. (2 John 1:7) From these emphatic and repeated definitions it has been supposed that the object of the apostle in his first epistle was to combat the errors of Cerinthus, the Docetae and the Gnostics on the subject of the Incarnation. (They denied the union of the divine and human in Christ.) The coming of Antichrist was (believed to be foretold in the "vile person" of Daniel's prophecy, (Daniel 11:21) which received its first accomplishment in Antiochus Epiphanes but of which the complete fulfillment was reserved for the last times. He is identified with "the man of sin, the son of perdition." 2 Thessalonians 2:3) This interpretation brings Antichrist into close connection with the gigantic power of evil, symbolized by the "beast," (Revelation 13:1) ... who received his power from the dragon (i.e. the devil, the serpent of Genesis), continued for forty and two months, and was invested with the kingdom of the ten kings who destroyed the harlot Babylon, (Revelation 17:12,17) the city of seven hills. The destruction of Babylon is to be followed by the rule of Antichrist for a short period, (Revelation 17:10) to be in his turn overthrown in "the battle of that great day of God Almighty," (Revelation 16:14) with the false prophet and all his followers. Rev. 19. The personality of Antichrist is to be inferred as well from the personality of his historical precursor as from that of him to whom he stands opposed. Such an interpretation is to be preferred to that which regards Antichrist as the embodiment and personification of all powers and agencies inimical to Christ, or of the Antichristian might of the world.
(an opponent), the name of a number of kings of Syria who lived during the interval between the Old and New Testaments, and had frequent connection with the Jews during that period. They are referred to in the Apocrypha especially in the books of the Maccabees.
(like the father), martyr at Pergamos, (Revelation 2:13) and according to tradition the bishop of that place. (A.D. before 100.)
(for his father), a town to which the soldiers conveyed St. Paul by night on their march. (Acts 23:31) Its ancient name was Capharsaba; and Herod, when he rebuilt the city, changed it to Antipatris, in honor of his father, Antipater. The village Kefr-Sabba still retains the ancient name of Antipatris.
(from Marc Antony) (a square stone fortress or castle adjoining the northwest corner of the temple area at Jerusalem. There was a tower at each corner. It was rebuilt by Herod the Great, and named by him from Marc Antony. From the stairs of this castle Paul addressed the multitude who had assaulted him (Acts 21:31-40)--ED.)
(answers of Jehovah), a Benjamite, one of the sons of Jeroham. (1 Chronicles 8:24)
a dweller at Anathoth. (1 Chronicles 11:28; 12:3) [Anathoth]
(confederate), son of Coz and descendant of Judah, through Ashur the father of Tekoa (1 Chronicles 4:8)
(called), a Christian saluted by St. Paul in (Romans 16:10) Tradition makes him bishop of Smyrna or Heraclea. (A.D. 55.)
(Heb. kophim) are mentioned in (1 Kings 10:22) and 2Chr 9:21 There can be little doubt that the apes were brought from the same country which supplied ivory and peacocks, both of which are common in Ceylon; and Sir E. Tennent has drawn attention to the fact that the Tamil names for apes, ivory and peacocks are identical with the Hebrew.
the names of certain tribes, colonies from which had been planted in Samaria by the Assyrian leader Asnapper. (Ezra 4:9; 5:6) The first and last are regarded as the same. Whence these tribes came is entirely a matter of conjecture.
(strength), the name of several places in Palestine.
(strong place), a city of Judah, in the mountains (Joshua 15:53) probably the same as Aphek, 1.
(refreshed), one of the fore-fathers of King Saul. (1 Samuel 9:1)
(strong), a city of Asher from which the Canaanites were not driven out. (Judges 1:31) Probably the same place as Aphek, 2.
(dust), The house of, a place mentioned in (Micah 1:10) Its site is uncertain.
(the dispersion), chief of the 15th of the 24 courses in the service of the temple. (1 Chronicles 24:15)
A Greek word meaning revelation, applied chiefly to the book of Revelation by John. [Revelation Of St. John]
(belonging to Apollo), a city of Macedonia, through which Paul and Silas passed in their way from Philippi and Amphipolis to Thessalonica. (Acts 17:1) According to the Antonine Itinerary it was distant 30 Roman miles from Amphipolis and 37 Roman miles from Thessalonica.
(given by Apollo) a Jew from Alexandria, eloquent (which may also mean learned) and mighty in the Scriptures; one instructed in the way of the Lord, according to the imperfect view of the disciples of John the Baptist, (Acts 18:24) but on his coming to Ephesus during a temporary absence of St. Paul, A.D. 54, more perfectly taught by Aquila and Priscilla. After this he became a preacher of the gospel, first in Achaia and then in Corinth. (Acts 18:27; 19:1) When the apostle wrote his First Epistle to the Corinthians, Apollos was with or near him, (1 Corinthians 16:12) probably at Ephesus in A.D. 57. He is mentioned but once more in the New Testament, in (Titus 3:13) After this nothing is known of him. Tradition makes him bishop of Caesarea.
or, as it is literally in the margin of the Authorized Version of (Revelation 9:11) "a destroyer," is the rendering of the Hebrew word Abaddon, "the angel of the bottomless pit." From the occurrence of the word in (Psalms 88:11) the rabbins have made Abaddon the nethermost of the two regions into which they divide the lower world; but that in (Revelation 9:11) Abaddon is the angel and not the abyss is perfectly evident in the Greek.
(one sent forth), in the New Testament originally the official name of those twelve of the disciples whom Jesus chose to send forth first to preach the gospel and to be with him during the course of his ministry on earth. The word also appears to have been used in a non-official sense to designate a much wider circle of Christian messengers and teachers See (2 Corinthians 8:23; Philemon 2:25) It is only of those who were officially designated apostles that we treat in the article. Their names are given in (Matthew 10:2-4) and Christ's charge to them in the rest of the chapter. Their office.-- (1) The original qualification of an apostle, as stated by St. Peter on the occasion of electing a successor to the traitor Judas, was that he should have been personally acquainted with the whole ministerial course of our Lord from his baptism by John till the day when he was taken up into heaven. (2) They were chosen by Christ himself (3) They had the power of working miracles. (4) They were inspired. (John 16:13) (5) Their world seems to have been pre-eminently that of founding the churches and upholding them by supernatural power specially bestowed for that purpose. (6) The office ceased, a matter of course, with its first holders-all continuation of it, from the very condition of its existence (cf. (1 Corinthians 9:1)), being impossible. Early history and training .--The apostles were from the lower ranks of life, simple and uneducated; some of them were related to Jesus according to the flesh; some had previously been disciples of John the Baptist. Our Lord chose them early in his public career They seem to have been all on an equality, both during and after the ministry of Christ on earth. Early in our Lord's ministry he sent them out two and two to preach repentance and to perform miracles in his name Matt 10; Luke 9. They accompanied him in his journey, saw his wonderful works, heard his discourses addressed to the people, and made inquiries of him on religious matters. They recognized him as the Christ of God, (Matthew 16:16; Luke 9:20) and described to him supernatural power (Luke 9:54) but in the recognition of the spiritual teaching and mission of Christ they made very low progress, held back as they were by weakness of apprehension and by national prejudices. Even at the removal of our Lord from the earth they were yet weak in their knowledge, (Luke 24:21; John 16:12) though he had for so long been carefully preparing and instructing them. On the feast of Pentecost, ten days after our Lord's ascension, the Holy Spirit came down on the assembled church, Acts 2; and from that time the apostles became altogether different men, giving witness with power of the life and death and resurrection of Jesus, as he had declared they should. (Luke 24:48; Acts 1:8,22; 2:32; 3:15; 5:32; 13:31) Later labors and history.--First of all the mother-church at Jerusalem grew up under their hands, Acts 3-7, and their superior dignity and power were universally acknowledged by the rulers and the people. (Acts 5:12) ff. Their first mission out of Jerusalem was to Samaria (Acts 8:5-25) where the Lord himself had, during his ministry, sown the seed of the gospel. Here ends the first period of the apostles' agency, during which its centre is Jerusalem and the prominent figure is that of St. Peter. The centre of the second period of the apostolic agency is Antioch, where a church soon was built up, consisting of Jews and Gentiles; and the central figure of this and of the subsequent period is St. Paul. The third apostolic period is marked by the almost entire disappearance of the twelve from the sacred narrative and the exclusive agency of St. Paul, the great apostle of the Gentiles. Of the missionary work of the rest of the twelve we know absolutely nothing from the sacred narrative.
or Ap'paim (the nostrils), son of Nadab, and descended from Jerahmeel, the founder of an important family of the tribe of Judah. (1 Chronicles 2:30,31)
The principle, of appeal was recognized by the Mosaic law in the establishment of a central court under the presidency of the judge or ruler for the time being, before which all cased too difficult for the local court were to be tried. (17:8,9) According to the above regulation, the appeal lay in the time of the Judges to the judge, (Judges 4:5) and under the monarchy to the king. Jehoshaphat delegated his judicial authority to a court permanently established for the purpose. (2 Chronicles 19:8) These courts were re-established by Ezra. (Ezra 7:25) After the institution of the Sanhedrin the final appeal lay to them. St. Paul, as a Roman citizen, exercized a right of appeal from the jurisdiction of the local court at Jerusalem to the emperor. (Acts 25:11)
(fruitful) a Christian woman addressed jointly with Philemon and Archippus in Phil. 2; apparently a member of Philemon's household, and not improbably his wife. (A.D. 57)
(market-place of Appius), a well-known station on the Appian Way, the great road which led from Rome to the neighborhood of the Bay of Naples. (Acts 28:15) There is no difficulty in identifying the site with some ruins near Treponti . [Three Taverns Taverns, The Three]
Revised Version for Appii Forum. (Acts 28:16)
(Heb. tappuach). Mention of the apple tree occurs in the Authorized Version in (Song of Solomon 2:3; 8:5) and Joel 1:12 The fruit of this tree is alluded to in (Proverbs 25:11) and Song 2:5; 7:8 It is a difficult matter to say what is the specific tree denoted by the Hebrew word tappuach . ("The apple proper is rare in Syria, and its fruit inferior.") Most modern writers maintain that it is either the quince or the citron; (others speak of the apricot, which is abundant and deliciously perfumed.) The quince had some plausible arguments in its favor. Its fragrance was held in high esteem by the ancients. The quince was sacred to Venus. On the other hand Dr Royle says,"The rich color, fragrant odor and handsome appearance of the citron, whether in flower or in fruit, are particularly suited to the passages of scripture mentioned above." But neither the quince nor the citron nor the apple appears fully to answer to all the scriptural allusions. The orange would answer all the demands of the scriptural passages, and orange trees are found in Palestine; but there does not appear sufficient evidence that this tree was known in the earlier times to the inhabitants of Palestine. The question of identification therefore, must still be left an open one.
(an eagle), a Jew whom St. Paul found at Corinth on his arrival from Athens. (Acts 18:2) (A.D, 52,) He was a native of Pontus, but had fled with his wife Priscilla, from Rome, in consequence of an order of Claudius commanding all Jews to leave the city. He became acquainted with St. Paul, and they abode together, and wrought at their common trade of making the Cilician tent or hair-cloth. On the departure of the apostle from Corinth, a year and eight months after, Priscilla and Aquila accompanied him to Ephesus. There they remained and there they taught Apollos. At what time they became Christians is uncertain.
(a city), or Ar of Moab, one of the chief places of Moab. (Numbers 21:28; Isaiah 15:1) In later times the place known as Areopolis and Rabbath-Moab. The site still called Rabba . It lies about halfway between Kerak and the Wady Mojeb, 10 or 11 miles from each, the Roman road passing through it.
(lion), one of the sons of Jether, the head of a family of Asherites. (1 Chronicles 7:88)
(ambush) a city of Judah in the mountainous district, probably in the neighborhood of Hebron; mentioned only in (Joshua 15:62)
(burnt up). Although this word appears in the Authorized Version in its original shape only in (Joshua 18:18) yet in the Hebrew text it is of frequent occurrence. It indicates more particularly the deep-sunken valley or trench which forms the most striking among the many striking natural features of Palestine, and which extends with great uniformity of formation from the slopes of Hermon to the Elanitic Gulf (Gulf of Akabah) of the Red Sea; the most remarkable depression known to exist on the surface of the globe. Through the northern portion of this extraordinary fissure the Jordan rushes through the lakes of Huleh and Gennesaret down its tortuous course to the deep chasm of the Dead Sea. This portion, about 150 miles in length, is known amongst the Arabs by the name of el-Ghor . The southern boundary of the (Ghor is the wall of cliffs which crosses the valley about 10 miles south of the Dead Sea. From their summits, southward to the Gulf of Akabah, the valley changes its name, or, it would be more accurate to say, retains old name of Wady el-Arabah .
(desert, barren), a country known in the Old Testament under two designations:--
the nomadic tribes inhabiting the country to the east and south of Palestine, who in the early times of Hebrew history were known as Ishmaelites and descendants of Keturah.
a royal city of the Canaanites, named with Hormah and Libnah. (Joshua 12:14) The wilderness of Judah was to the south of Arad." (Judges 1:16) It may be identified with a hill, Tel 'Arad, an hour and a half northeast by east from Milh (Moladah), and eight hours from Hebron.
(a wild ass), a Benjamite, son of Beriah, who drove out the inhabitants of Gath. (1 Chronicles 8:15) (B.C. 536.)
a female inhabitant of Aram. (1 Chronicles 7:14)
(highlands of two rivers). (Psalms 60:1), title. [Aram]
Psal 60:1, title. [Aram, 1]
(wild goat), a Horite, son of Dishan and brother of Uz. Genesis 36:28; 1Chr 1:42
(ark), a Jebusite who sold his threshing floor on Mount Moriah to David as a site for an altar to Jehovah, together with his oxen. (2 Samuel 24:18-24; 1 Chronicles 21:25)
(city of the four), the progenitor of the Anakim, or sons of Anak, from whom their chief city, Hebron, received its name of Kirjath-Arba. (Joshua 14:15; 15:13; 21:11)
Hebron, or Kirjath-Arba, as "the city of Arbah" is always rendered elsewhere. (Genesis 35:27)
a native of the Arabah or Ghor . [Arabah] Abi-albon the Arbathite was one of David's mighty men. (2 Samuel 23:31; 1 Chronicles 11:32)
a native of Arab. Paarai the Arbite was one of David's guard. (2 Samuel 23:35)
A triumphal arch erected at Rome, and still remaining there, to commemorate the conquest of Judea and the destruction of Jerusalem by the emperor Titus. It was erected after his death, A.D. 91, by the senate and people of Rome. It was a magnificent structure, decorated with bas-reliefs and inscriptions, and is of especial interest because its historic bas-reliefs represent the captors carrying in triumph to Rome the golden candlestick and sacred utensils from the Jewish temple at Jerusalem. From these we obtain our best idea of their shape.--ED.
(prince of the people), son of Herod the Great by a Samaritan woman, Malthake, and, with his brother Antipas brought up at Rome. At the death of Herod (B.C. 4) his kingdom was divided between his three sons, Herod Antipas, Archelaus and Philip. Archelaus never properly bore the title of king, (Matthew 2:22) but only that of ethnarch. In the tenth year of his reign, or the ninth according to Dion Cassius, i.e. A.D. 6, a complaint was preferred against him by his brothers and his subjects on the ground of his tyranny, in consequence of which he was banished to Vienne in Gaul, where he is generally said to have died.
perhaps the inhabitants of Erech, some of whom had been placed as colonists in Samaria. (Ezra 4:9)
(Joshua 16:2) A place in the neighborhood of Bethel, on the boundary between Ephraim and Benjamin. It designates a clan perhaps originally from Erech in Babylonia, of which Hushai was one. [Archite, The]
(master of the horse), a Christian teacher in Colossae, (Colossians 4:17) called by St. Paul his "fellow soldier," Phil 2. He was probably a member of Philemon's family. (A.D. 62.)
(as if from a place named Erech, on the frontiers of Ephraim), the usual designation of David's friend Hushai. (2 Samuel 15:32; 17:5,14; 1 Chronicles 27:33)
The book of (Genesis 4:17,20,22) appears to divide mankind into two great characteristic sections, viz., the "dwellers in tents" and the "dwellers in cities." To the race of Shem is attributed (Genesis 10:11,12,22; 11:2-9) the foundation of those cities in the plain of Shinar, Babylon Nineveh and others. The Israelites were by occupation shepherds, and by habit dwellers in tents. (Genesis 47:3) They had therefore originally, speaking properly, no architecture. From the time of the occupation of Canaan they became dwellers in towns and in houses of stone. (Leviticus 14:34,45; 1 Kings 7:10) The peaceful reign and vast wealth of Solomon gave great impulse to architecture; for besides the temple and his other great works, he built fortresses and cities in various places, among which Baalath and Tadmor are in all probability represented by Baalbec and Palmyra. But the reigns of Herod and his successors were especially remarkable for their great architectural works. Not only was the temple restored, but the fortifications and other public buildings of Jerusalem were enlarged and embellished. (Luke 21:5) The town of Caesarea was built on the site of Strato's Tower; Samaria was enlarged, and received the name of Sebaste. Of the original splendor of these great works no doubt can be entertained; but of their style and appearance we can only conjecture that they were formed on Greek and Roman models. The enormous stones employed the Assyrian Persepolitan and Egyptian buildings find a parallel in the substructions of Baalbec and in the huge blocks which still remain at Jerusalem, relics of the buildings either of Solomon or of Herod.
(bear-keeper). The Hebrew words 'Ash and 'Aish, rendered "Arcturus" in the Authorized Version of (Job 9:9; 38:32) in conformity with the Vulgate of the former passages are now generally believed to be identical, and to represent the constellation Ursa Major, known commonly as the Great Bear or Charles' Wain.
(one that descending), the son of Bela and grandson of Benjamin. (Genesis 46:21; Numbers 26:40) In (1 Chronicles 8:3) he is called Addar.
the descendants of Ard or Addar, the grandson of Benjamin. (Numbers 26:40)
(fugitive) a Son of Caleb, the son of Hezron, by his wife Azubah. (1 Chronicles 2:18)
(heroic), a son of Gad. (Genesis 46:16; Numbers 26:17) His descendants are called Arelites. Numb 26:17.
a member of the court of Areopagus. (Acts 17:31) [Mars Hill' HILL]
[Mars Hill' HILL]
perhaps a Gileadite officer who was governor of Argob. He was either an accomplice of Pekah in the murder of Pekahiah or was slain by Pekah. (2 Kings 15:25)
(stony), a tract of country on the east of the Jordan, in Bashan, the kingdom of Og, containing 60 great and fortified cities. In later times it was called Trachonitis, and it is now apparently identified with the Leiah, a very remarkable district south of Damascus and east of the Sea of Galilee. (3:4,13,14)
(the strong), ninth son of Haman. (Esther 9:9)
sixth son of Haman. (Esther 9:8)
(lion). Either one of the accomplices of Pekah in his conspiracy against Pekahiah, or one of the princes of Pekahiah who was put to death with him. (2 Kings 15:20) (B.C. 757.)
(lion of God).
(heights). (Matthew 27:57; Luke 23:51; John 19:38) St. Luke calls it "a city of Judea." It is identified by many with the modern Ramleh .
(lion-like), eighth son of Haman. (Esther 9:9)
(the best ruler), a Thessalonian, (Acts 20:4; 27:2) who accompanied St. Paul on his third missionary journey. (Acts 19:29) He was with the apostle on his return to Asia, (Acts 20:4) and again, Acts 27:2 On his voyage to Rome. We trace him afterwards as St. Paul's fellow prisoner in (Colossians 4:10) and Phle 1:24 Tradition makes him bishop of Apamea.
(the best counsellor), a resident at Rome, some of whose household are greeted in (Romans 16:10) Tradition makes him one of the 70 disciples and reports that he preached the gospel in Britain.
A small boat or basket made of the papyrus, a reed which grows in the marshes of Egypt. It was covered with bitumen to make it water tight.
The first piece of the tabernacle's furniture, for which precise directions were delivered. Exod 25. I. Description.-- It appears to have been an oblong chest of shittim (acacia) wood, 2 1/2 cubits long by 1 1/2 broad and deep. Within and without gold was overlaid on the wood, and on the upper side or lid, which was edged round about with gold, the mercy-seat was placed. The ark was fitted with rings, one at each of the four corners, and through these were passed staves of the same wood similarly overlaid, by which it was carried by the Kohathites. (Numbers 7:9; 10:21) The ends of the staves were visible without the veil in the holy place of the temple of Solomon. (1 Kings 8:8) The ark, when transported, was enveloped in the "veil" of the dismantled tabernacle, in the curtain of badgers' skins and in a blue cloth over all, and was therefore not seen. (Numbers 4:5,20) II. Its purpose was to contain inviolate the divine autograph of the two tables, that "covenant" from which it derived its title. It was also probably a reliquary for the pot of manna and the rod of Aaron. III. History .--Before David's time its abode was frequently shifted. It sojourned among several, probably Levitical, families, (1 Samuel 7:1; 2 Samuel 6:3,11; 1 Chronicles 13:13; 15:24,25) in the border villages of eastern Judah; and did not take its place in the tabernacle, but dwelt in curtains, i.e. in a separate tent pitched for it in Jerusalem by David. Subsequently the temple, when completed, received, in the installation of the ark in its shrine, the signal of its inauguration by the effulgence of divine glory instantly manifested. It was probably taken captive or destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar, 2 Esdr. 10:22, so that there was no ark in the second temple.
from Arka, one of the families of the Canaanites, (Genesis 10:17; 1 Chronicles 1:16) and from the context evidently located in the north of Phoenicia. The site which now bears the name of 'Arka lies on the coast, 2 to 2 1/2 hours from the shore, about 12 miles north of Tripoli and 5 south of the Nahr el-Kebir .
(the hill or city of Megiddo). (Revelation 16:16) The scene of the struggle of good and evil is suggested by that battle-field, the plain of Esdraelon, which was famous for two great victories, of Barak over the Canaanites and of Gideon over the Midianites; and for two great disasters, the deaths of Saul and Josiah. Hence it signifies in Revelation a place of great slaughter, the scene of a terrible retribution upon the wicked. The Revised Version gives the name as Har-Magedon, i.e. the hill (as Ar is the city) of Megiddo .--ED.)
(land of Aram) is nowhere mentioned under that name in the original Hebrew, though it occurs in the English version, (2 Kings 19:37) for Ararat. Description.--Armenia is that lofty plateau whence the rivers Euphrates, Tigris, Araxes and Acampsis pour down their waters in different directions; the first two to the Persian Gulf, the last two respectively to the Caspian and Euxine seas. It may be termed the nucleus of the mountain system of western Asia. From the centre of the plateau rise two lofty chains of mountains, which run from east to west. Divisions.--Three districts are mentioned in the Bible. (1) ARARAT is mentioned as the place whither the sons of Sennacherib fled. (Isaiah 37:38) It was the central district, surrounding the mountain of that name. (2) Minni only occurs in (Jeremiah 51:27) It is probably identical with the district Minyas, in the upper valley of the Murad-su branch of the Euphrates. (3) Togarmah is noticed in two passages of (Ezekiel 27:14; 38:6) both of which are in favor of its identity with Armenia. Present condition.--The Armenians, numbering about two millions, are nominally Christians. About half of them live in Armenia. Their favorite pursuit is commerce. The country is divided, as to government, between Russia, Turkey and Persia.--ED.
an ornament universal in the East, especially among women; used by princes as one of the insignia of royalty, and by distinguished persons in general. The word is not used in the Authorized Version, as even in (2 Samuel 1:10) it is rendered by "the bracelet on his arm."
son of Saul by Rizpah. (2 Samuel 21:8)
The subject naturally divides itself into-- I. Offensive weapons: Arms. II. Defensive weapons: Armor. I. Offensive weapons.--
I. Jewish ARMY.--Every man above 20 years of age was a soldier, (Numbers 1:3) each tribe formed a regiment, with its own banner and its own leader (Numbers 2:2; 10:14) their positions in the camp or on the march were accurately fixed, Numb. 2; the whole army started and stopped at a given signal, (Numbers 10:5,6) thus they came up out of Egypt ready for the fight. (Exodus 13:18) On the approach of an enemy a conscription was made from the general body, under the direction of a muster-master, (20:5; 2 Kings 25:19) by whom also the officers were appointed. (20:9) The army had then divided into thousands and hundreds under their respective captains, (Numbers 31:14) and still further into families. (Numbers 2:34; 2 Chronicles 25:5; 26:12) With the king arose the custom of maintaining a body-guard, which formed the nucleus of a standing army, and David's band of 600, (1 Samuel 23:13; 25:13) he retained after he became king, and added the Cherethites and Pelethites. (2 Samuel 15:18; 20:7) David further organized a national militia, divided into twelve regiments under their respective officers, each of which was called out for one month in the year. (1 Chronicles 27:1) ... It does not appear that the system established by David was maintained by the kings of Judah; but in Israel the proximity of the hostile kingdom of Syria necessitated the maintenance of a standing army. The maintenance and equipment of the soldiers at the public expense dated from the establishment of a standing army. It is doubtful whether the soldier ever received pay even under the kings. II. Roman Empire ARMY.--The Roman army was divided into legions, the number of which varied considerably (from 3000 to 6000), each under six tribuni ("chief captains,") (Acts 21:31) who commanded by turns. The legion was subdivided into ten cohorts ("band,") (Acts 10:1) the cohort into three maniples, and the maniple into two centuries, containing originally 100 men, as the name implies, but subsequently from 50 to 100 men, according to the strength of the legion. There were thus 60 centuries in a legion, each under the command of a centurion. (Acts 10:1,22; Matthew 8:5; 27:54) In addition to the legionary cohorts, independent cohorts of volunteers served under the Roman standards. One of these cohorts was named the Italian, (Acts 10:1) as consisting of volunteers from Italy. The headquarters of the Roman forces in Judea were at Caesarea.
In the received Hebrew text "the sons of Arnan" are mentioned in the genealogy of Zerubbabel. (1 Chronicles 3:21)
(Used in the Revised Version for Aram in (Luke 3:33) and is probably another name or form of the name of Aram. [Aram, 4])
(roaring), the river or torrent which formed the boundary between Moab and the Amorites, on the north of Moab, (Numbers 21:13,14,24,26; Judges 11:22) and afterwards between Moab and Israel (Reuben). (2:24,36; 3:8,12,16; 4:48; Joshua 12:1,2; 13:9,16; Judges 11:13,26) There can be no doubt that the Wady el-Mojeb of the present day is the Arnon. Its principal source is near Katrane, on the Haj route.
(a wild ass), a son of Gad, (Numbers 26:17) called Arodi in (Genesis 46:16)
Hothan the Aroerite was the father of two of David's captains. (1 Chronicles 11:44)
(strong city), (Isaiah 36:19; 37:13) a city or district in Syria, apparently dependent on Damascus. (Jeremiah 49:23) No trace of its existence has yet been discovered. (2 Kings 18:34; 19:13; Isaiah 10:9)
(stronghold of the Chaldees).
(the great warrior).
(gift of Artemis), a companion of St. Paul. (Titus 3:12) According to tradition he was bishop of Lystra.
(windows), the third of Solomons commissariat districts. (1 Kings 4:10) It included Sochoh, and was therefore probably a name for the rich corn-growing lowland country.
(height), a place apparently in the neighborhood of Shechem, at which Abimelech resided. (Judges 9:41)
(wandering) (Ezekiel 27:8,11) The island of Ruad, which lies off Tortosa (Tartus), two or three miles from the Phoenician coast. In agreement with this is the mention of "the Arvadite, in (Genesis 10:18) and 1Chr 1:16 As a son of Canaan, with Zidon, Hamath an other northern localities.
prefect of the palace at Tirzah to Elah king of Israel, who was assassinated at a banquet in his house by Zimri. (1 Kings 16:9)
(physician, or cure).
(made by God).
(the Lord hath made), a servant of King Josiah, sent by him to seek information of Jehovah respecting the book of the law which Hilkiah found in the temple, (2 Kings 22:12,14) also called Asaiah. (2 Chronicles 34:20) (B.C. 641.)
(the Lord hath made).
(collector of the people).
(A school of poetry and musical composers founded by Asaph.)
(whom God hath bound (by an oath)), a son of Jehaleleel, in the genealogies of Judah. (1 Chronicles 4:16)
(upright toward God), one of the sons of Asaph, a musician, (1 Chronicles 25:2) called Jesharelah in ver. 14
(worshipper of Neith), daughter of Potipherah, priest, or possibly prince, of On [Potipherah, Or Potipherah], wife of Joseph, (Genesis 41:45) and mother of Manasseh and Ephraim. (Genesis 41:50; 46:20) (B.C. 1715.)
(Luke 2:36; Revelation 7:6) [Asher, Asher]
(Heb. oren), only in (Isaiah 44:14) As the true ash is not a native of Palestine, some understand this to be a species of pine tree. Perhaps the larch (Laryx europaea) may be intended.
(smoke), a city in the low country of Judah. (Joshua 15:42) In (Joshua 19:7) and 1Chr 4:32 It is mentioned again as belonging to Simeon. It has not yet been identified.
(I adjure), a proper name, but whether of a person or place is uncertain. (1 Chronicles 4:21)
(reproof of God), second son of Benjamin and ancestor of the Ashbelites. (Genesis 46:21; Numbers 26:38; 1 Chronicles 8:1)
(1 Chronicles 1:6; Jeremiah 51:27) [Ashkenaz]
(a stronghold), (Acts 8:40) one of the five confederate cities of the Philistines situated about 30 miles from the southern frontier of Palestine, three from the Mediterranean Sea, and nearly midway between Gaza and Joppa. It was assigned to the tribe of Judah, (Joshua 15:47) but was never subdued by the Israelites. Its chief importance arose from its position on the high road from Palestine to Egypt. It is now an insignificant village, with no memorials of its ancient importance, but is still called Esdud.
the inhabitants of Ashdod, (Nehemiah 4:7) called Ashdothites in (Joshua 13:3)
(3:17; Joshua 12:3; 13:20) and in Deuteronomy 4:49 Authorized Version, translated springs of Pisgah, i.e. a valley or fountain near Mount Pisgah.
a place which formed one boundary of the tribe of Manasseh on the south. (Joshua 17:7) Mr. Porter suggests that Teyasir may be the Asher of Manasseh. Handbook, p.348.
Apocrypha and New Testament, A'ser (blessed), the eighth son of Jacob, by Zilpah, Leah's handmaid. (Genesis 30:13) (B.C. 1753.) The general position of his tribe was on the seashore from Carmel northward with Manasseh on the south, Zebulun and Issachar on the southeast, and Naphtali on the north-east. (Joshua 19:24-31; 17:10,11) and Judg 1:31,32 They possessed the maritime portion of the rich plain of Esdraelon;, probably for a distance of 8 or 10 miles from the shore. This territory contained some of the richest soil in all Palestine.
(straight), the name of a Phoenician goddess, or rather of the idol itself (Authorized Version "grove"). Asherah is closely connected with Ashtoreth and her worship, (Judges 3:7) comp. Judg 2:3; 6:25; 1Kin 18:19 Ashtoreth being, perhaps, the proper name of the goddess, whilst Asherah is the name of her image or symbol, which was of wood. See (Judges 6:25-30; 2 Kings 23:14)
descendants of Asher, and members of his tribe. (Judges 1:32)
The ashes on the altar of burnt offering were gathered into a cavity in its surface. The ashes of a red heifer burnt entire, according to regulations prescribed in Numb. 19, had the ceremonial efficacy of purifying the unclean, (Hebrews 9:13) but of polluting the clean. [Sacrifice] Ashes about the person, especially on the head, were used as a sign of sorrow. [Mourning]
a god of the Hamathite colonists in Samaria. (2 Kings 17:30) It has been regarded as identical with the Pan of the Greeks.
Apocrypha As'calon (migration), one of the five cities of the Philistines, (Joshua 113:3; 1 Samuel 6:17) a seaport on the Mediterranean, 10 miles north of Gaza. Samson went down from Timnath to Ashkelon. (Judges 14:19) In the post-biblical times Ashkelon rose to considerable importance. Near the town were the temple and sacred lake of Derceto, the Syrian Venus. The soil around was remarkable for its fertility. Ashkelon played a memorable part in the struggles of the Crusades.
(spreading fire), one of the three sons of Gomer, son of Japhet. (Genesis 10:3) We may probably recognize the tribe of Ashkenaz on the northern shore of Asia Minor in the name of Lake Ascanius, and in Europe in the name Scandia, Scandinavia . Knobel considers that Ashkenaz is to be identified with the German race.
the name of two cities, both in the lowlands of Judah: (1) named between Zoreah and Zanoah, and therefore probably northwest of Jerusalem, (Joshua 15:33) and (2) between Jiptah and Nezib, and therefore to the southwest of Jerusalem. (Joshua 15:43) Each, according, to Robinson's map (1857), would be about 16 miles from Jerusalem.
(horse-nose), the master of the eunuchs of Nebuchadnezzar. (Daniel 1:3)
properly As'riel (vow of God). (1 Chronicles 7:14)
and once As'taroth (a star), a city on the east of Jordan in Bashan, in the kingdom of Og, doubtless so called from being a seat of the worship of the goddess of the same name. (1:4; Joshua 9:10; 12:4; 13:12)
a native or inhabitant of Ashtaroth, (1 Chronicles 11:44) beyond Jordan.
(Ashteroth of the two horns or peaks) a place of very great antiquity, the abode of the Rephaim. (Genesis 14:5) The name reappears but once, as Carnaim or Carnion, 1 Macc. 5:26,43,44; 2 Macc. 12:21,26, in "the land of Galaad." It is probably the modern Es-Sanamein, on the Haj route, about 25 miles south of Damascus.
(a star) the principal female divinity of the Phoenicians, called Ishtar by the Assyrians and Astarte by the Greeks and Romans. She was by some ancient writers identified with the moon. But on the other hand the Assyrian Ishtar was not the moon-goddess, but the planet Venus; and Astarte was by many identified with the goddess Venus (or Aphrodite), as well as with the plant of that name. It is certain that the worship of Astarte became identified with that of Venus, and that this worship was connected with the most impure rites is apparent from the close connection of this goddess with Asherah. (1 Kings 11:5,33; 2 Kings 23:13)
(black), the posthumous son of Hezron by his wife Abiah. (1 Chronicles 2:24; 4:5) He became "father" or founder of the town of Tekoa. (B.C. 1658.)
(steps), a tribe descended from Dedan, the grandson of Abraham. (Genesis 26:3) Knobel considers them the same with the Asshur of (Ezekiel 27:28) and connected with southern Arabia.
Only in (2 Samuel 2:9) By some of the old interpreters the name is taken as meaning the Geshurites; but if we follow the Targum of Jonathan, "the Asherites" will denote the inhabitants of the whole of the country west of the Jordan above Jez-reel.
One of the sons of Japhlet, of the tribe of Asher. (1 Chronicles 7:33)
(orient). The passages in the New Testament where this word occurs are the following; (Acts 2:9; 6:9; 16:6; 19:10,22,26,27; 20:4,16,18; 21:27; 27:2; Romans 16:5; 1 Corinthians 16:19; 2 Corinthians 1:8; 2 Timothy 1:15; 1 Peter 1:1; Revelation 1:4,11) In all these it may be confidently stated that the word is used for a Roman province which embraced the western part of the peninsula of Asia Minor and of which Ephesus was the capital.
(chief of Asia) (Authorized Version; (Acts 19:31)), officers chosen annually by the cities of that part of the province of Asia of which Ephesus was, under Roman government, the metropolis. They had charge of the public games and religious theatrical spectacles, the expenses of which they bore.
(created by God).
(thorn-bush). The children of Asnah were among the Nethinim who returned with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:50)
(swift), mentioned in (Ezra 4:10) as the person who settled the Cutheans in the cities of Samaria. He was probably a general of Esarhaddon. (B.C. 712.)
(Heb. pethen), translated (adder in) (Psalms 58:4; 91:13) Probably the Egyptian cobra, a small and very poisonous serpent, a dweller in the holes of walls, (Isaiah 11:8) and a snake upon which the serpent-charmers practiced their art.
the name of some sweet perfume mentioned in Ecclus. 24:15. The Lignum rhodianum, is by some supposed to be the substance indicated by the aspalathus, the plant which yields it is the Convolvulus scoparius if Linnaeus.
third son of Haman. (Esther 9:7)
the pool in the "wilderness of Thecoe." 1 Macc. 9:33. Is it possible that the name is a corruption of lacus Asphaltites?
the son of Gilead and great-grandson of Manasseh. (Numbers 26:31; Joshua 17:2) He was the founder of the family of the Asrielites. (B.C. 1444.)
Five Hebrew names of the genus Asinus occur in the Old Testament.
second son of Shem, (Genesis 10:22) also the Hebrew form for Assyria. [Assyria, Asshur]
(approaching), a seaport of the Roman province of Asia in the district anciently called Mysia, on the northern shore of the Gulf of Adrn-myttium, and about seven miles from Lesbos. (Acts 20:13,14)
(Ezra 4:2; Psalms 83:8) [Asshur, Assyria, Asshur; ASSYRIA]
was a great and powerful country lying on the Tigris, (Genesis 2:14) the capital of which was Nineveh. (Genesis 10:11) etc. It derived its name apparently from Asshur, the son of Shem, (Genesis 10:22) who in later times was worshipped by the Assyrians as their chief god.
(1 Chronicles 26:15,17) literally house of the gatherings. Some understand it as the proper name of chambers on the south of the temple others of certain store-rooms, or of the council chambers in the outer court of the temple in which the elders held their celebrations.
(incomparable), a Christian at Rome, saluted by St. Paul. (Romans 16:14)
(thorn), The threshing-floor of, called also Abel-mizraim, (Genesis 50:10,11) afterwards called Beth-hogla, and known to have lain between the Jordan and Jericho, therefore on the west side of Jordan.
(a crown) a wife of Jerahmeel, and mother of Onam. (1 Chronicles 2:26)
(lodging place). (1 Samuel 30:30) As the name does not occur elsewhere, it has been suggested that it is an error of the transcriber for Ether, a town in the low country of Judah. (Joshua 15:42)
(whom Jehovah made), a descendant of Pharez, the son of Judah, who dwelt at Jerusalem after the return from Babylon, (Nehemiah 11:4) called Uthai in (1 Chronicles 9:4)
(afflicted of the Lord) daughter of Ahab and Jezebel, married Jehoram the son of Jehoshaphat king of Judah and introduced into that kingdom the worship of Baal. (B.C. 891.) After the great revolution by which Jehu seated himself on the throne of Samaria she killed all the members of the royal family of Judah who had escaped his sword. (2 Kings 11:1) From the slaughter one infant, named Joash, the youngest son of Ahaziah, was rescued by his aunt Jehosheba wife of Jehoiada, (2 Chronicles 23:11) the high priest. (2 Chronicles 24:6) The child was brought up under Jehoiada's care, and concealed in the temple for six years, during which period Athaliah reigned over Judah. At length Jehoiada thought it time to produce the lawful king to the people, trusting to their zeal for the worship of God and their loyalty to the house of David. His plan was successful, and Athaliah was put to death.
natives of Athens (Acts 17:21)
(city of Athene), the capital of Attica, and the chief seat of Grecian learning and civilization during the golden period of the history of Greece. Description--Athens is situated about three miles from the seacoast, in the central plain of Attica. In this plain rise several eminences Of these the most prominent is a lofty insulated mountain with a conical peaked Summit, now called the Hill of St. George, and which bore in ancient times the name of Lycabettus . This mountain, which was not included within the ancient walls, lies to the northeast of Athens, and forms the most striking feature in the environs of the city. It is to Athens what Vesuvius is to Naples, or Arthur's Seat to Edinburgh Southwest of Lycabettua there are four hills of moderate height, all of which formed part of the city. Of these the nearest to Lycabettus and at the distance of a mile from the latter, was the Aeropolis, or citadel of Athens, a square craggy rock rising abruptly about 150 feet, with a flat summit of about 1000 feet long from east to west, by 500 feet broad from north to south. Immediately west of the Aeropolis is a second hill of irregular form, the Areopagus (Mars' Hill). To the southwest there rises a third hill, the Pnyx, on which the assemblies of the citizens were held. South of the city was seen the Saronic Gulf, with the harbors of Athens. History.--Athens is said to have derived its name from the prominence given to the worship of the goddess Athena (Minerva) by its king, Erechtheus. The inhabitants were previously called Cecropidae, from Cecrops, who, according to tradition, was the original founder of the city. This at first occupied only the hill or rock which afterwards became the Acropolis; but gradually the buildings spread over the ground at the southern foot of this hill. It was not till the time of Pisistratus and his sons (B.C. 560-514) that the city began to assume any degree of splendor. The most remarkable building of these despots was the gigantic temple of the Olympian Zeus or Jupiter. Under Themistocles the Acropolis began to form the centre of the city, round which the new walls described an irregular circle of about 60 stadia or 7 1/4 miles in circumference. Themistocles transferred the naval station of the Athenians to the peninsula of Piraeus, which is distant about 4 1/2 miles from Athens, and contains three natural harbors. It was not till the administration of Pericles that the walls were built which connected Athens with her ports. Buildings.--Under the administration of Pericles, Athens was adorned with numerous public buildings, which existed in all their glory when St. Paul visited the city. The Acropolis was the centre of the architectural splendor of Athens. It was covered with the temples of gods and heroes; and thus its platform presented not only a sanctuary, but a museum containing the finest productions of the architect and the sculptor, in which the whiteness of the marble was relieved by brilliant colors, and rendered still more dazzling by the transparent clearness of the Athenian atmosphere. The chief building was the Parthenon (i.e. House of the Virgin), the most perfect production of Grecian architecture. It derived its name from its being the temple of Athena Parthenos, or Athena the Virgin, the invincible goddess of war. It stood on the highest part of the Acropolis, near its centre. It was entirely of Pentelic marble, on a rustic basement of ordinary limestone, and its architecture, which was of the Doric order, was of the purest kind. It was adorned with the most exquisite sculptures, executed by various artists under the direction of Phidias. But the chief wonder of the Parthenon was the colossal statue of the virgin goddess executed by Phidias himself: The Acropolis was adorned with another colossal figure of Athena, in bronze, also the work of Phidias. It stood in the open air, nearly opposite the Propylaea. With its pedestal it must have been about 70 feet high, and consequently towered above the roof of the Parthenon, so that the point of its spear and the crest of its helmet were visible off the promontory of Sunium to ships approaching Athens. The Areopagus, or Hill of Ares (Mars), is described elsewhere. [Mars Hill' HILL] The Pnyx, or place for holding the public assemblies of the Athenians, stood on the side of a low rocky hill, at the distance of about a quarter of a mile from the Areopagus. Between the Pnyx on the west) the Areopagus on the north and the Acropolis on the east, and closely adjoining the base of these hills, stood the Agora or "Market," where St. Paul disputed daily. Through it ran the road to the gymnasium and gardens of the Academy, which were situated about a mile from the walls. The Academy was the place where Plato and his disciples taught. East of the city, and outside the walls was the Lyceum, a gymnasium dedicated to Apollo Lyceus, and celebrated as the place in which Aristotle taught. Character.--The remark of the sacred historian respecting the inquisitive character of the Athenians (Acts 17:21) is attested by the unanimous voice of antiquity. Their natural liveliness was partly owing to the purity and clearness of the atmosphere of Attica, which also allowed them to pass much of their time in the open air. The Athenian carefulness in religion is confirmed by the ancient writers. Of the Christian church, founded by St. Paul at Athens, according to ecclesiastical tradition, Dionysius the Areopagite was the first bishop. [Dionysius] Present condition.-- (The population of Athens in 1871 was 48,000. Its university has 52 professors and 1200 students. Educational institutions are very numerous. A railway connects the Pirzeus or port with the city and its terminus stands in the midst of what was once the Agora.--ED.)
(whom Jehovah afflicts), one of the sons of Bebai, who put away his foreign wife at the exhortation of Ezra. (Ezra 10:28)
I. The great day of national humiliation, and the only one commanded in the Mosaic law. [Fasts] The mode of its observance is described in Levi 16, and the conduct of the people is emphatically enjoined in (Leviticus 23:26-32) II. Time.-- It was kept on the tenth day of Tisri, that is, from the evening of the ninth to the evening of the tenth of that month, five days before the feast of tabernacles. Tisri corresponds to our September-October, so that the 10th of Tisri would be about the first of October. [Festivals] III. How observed.-- It was kept by the people as a high solemn sabbath. On this occasion only the high priest was permitted to enter into the holy of holies. Having bathed his person and dressed himself entirely in the holy white linen garments, he brought forward a young bullock for a sin offering, purchased at his own cost, on account of himself and his family, and two young goats for a sin offering, with a ram for a burnt offering, which were paid for out of the public treasury, on account of the people. He then presented the two goats before the Lord at the door of the tabernacle and cast lots upon them. On one lot "For Jehovah " was inscribed, and on the other "For Azazel ." A phrase of unusual difficulty. The best modern scholars agree that it designates the personal being to whom the goat was sent, probably Satan. This goat was called the scapegoat . After various sacrifices and ceremonies the goat upon which the lot "For Jehovah " had fallen was slain and the high priest sprinkled its blood before the mercy-seat in the same manner as he had done that of the bullock. Going out from the holy of holies he purified the holy place, sprinkling some of the blood of both the victims on the altar of incense. At this time no one besides the high priest was suffered to be present in the holy place. The purification of the holy of holies and of the holy place being thus completed, the high priest laid his hands upon the head of the goat on which the lot "For Azazel " had fallen and confessed over it all the sins of the people. The goat was then led, by a man chosen for the purpose, into the wilderness, into "a land not inhabited," and was there let loose. The high priest after this returned into the holy place bathed himself again, put on his usual garments of office, and offered the two rams as burnt offerings, one for himself and one for the people. IV. Significance. In considering the I. meaning of the particular rites of the day, three points appear to be of a very distinctive character.
(crowns), a city of Gad. (Numbers 32:35)
(from Attalus), a coast-town of Pamphylia, mentioned (Acts 14:25) It was built by Attalus Philadelphus, king of Pergamos, and named after the monarch. All its remains are characteristic of the date of its foundation. Leake fixes Attalia at Adalia, on the south court of Asia Minor, north of the Duden Su, the ancient Catarrhactes.
(venerable) Cae'sar, the first Roman emperor. He was born A.U.C. 691, B.C. 63. His father was Caius Octavius; his mother Atia, daughter of Julia the sister of C. Julius Caesar. He was principally educated by his great-uncle Julius Caesar, and was made his heir. After his murder, the young Octavius, then Caius Julius Caesar Octavianus, was taken into the triumvirate with Antony and Lepidus, and, after the removal of the latter, divided the empire with Antony. The struggle for the supreme power was terminated in favor of Octavianus by the battle of Actium, B.C. 31. On this victory he was saluted imperator by the senate, who conferred on him the title Augustus, B.C. 27. The first link binding him to New Testament history is his treatment of Herod after the battle of Actium. That prince, who had espoused Antony's side, found himself pardoned, taken into favor and confirmed, nay even increased, in his power. After Herod's death, in A.D. 4, Augustus divided his dominions, almost exactly according to his dying directions, among his sons. Augustus died in Nola in Campania, Aug. 19, A.U.C. 767, A.D. 14, in his 76th year; but long before his death he had associated Tiberius with him in the empire.
(Acts 27:1) [Army]
(ruin), a place in the empire of Assyria, apparently the same as Ivan. (2 Kings 17:24)
(ruins), A'vims or A'vites .
(ruins), the city of Hadad ben-Bedad, one of the kings of Edom before there were kings in Israel. (Genesis 36:35; 1 Chronicles 1:46)
a tool of which we do not know the ancient form. The only notice of it is in connection with the custom of boring the ear of the slave. (Exodus 21:6; 15:17)
a name only occurring in (Zechariah 14:5) It is mentioned as the limit to which the ravine of the Mount of Olives will extend when "Jehovah shall go forth to fight."
(whom the Lord reserved), the father of Shaphan the scribe in the reign of Josiah. (2 Kings 22:3; 2 Chronicles 34:8) (B.C. before 641.)
(whom the Lord hears), the father or immediate ancestor of Jeshua the Levite, in the time of Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:9)
a Levite musician. (Nehemiah 12:36)
(whom the Lord helps).
(whom the Lord helps) a common name in Hebrew, and especially in the families of the priests of the line of Eleazar, whose name has precisely the same meaning as Azariah. It is nearly identical, and is often confounded, with Ezra as well as with Zerahiah and Seraiah. The principal persons who bore this name were--
(strong), a Reubenite, father of Bela. (1 Chronicles 5:8)
(whom the Lord strengthens)
(strong devastation), father or ancestor of Nehemiah, the prince of part of Bethzur. (Nehemiah 3:16)
(dugover), a town of Judah, with dependent villages, lying in the Shefelah or rich agricultural plain. It is most clearly defined as being near Shochoh, (1 Samuel 17:1) but its position has not yet been recognized.
(noble), a descendant of Saul. (1 Chronicles 8:37,38; 9:43,44)
(bone), a city in the extreme south of Judah, (Joshua 15:29) afterwards allotted to Simeon. (Joshua 19:3) Elsewhere it is Ezem.
(strength of fortune). The children of Azgad, to the number of 1222 (2322 according to) (Nehemiah 7:17) were among the laymen who returned with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:12; 8:12) With the other heads of the People they joined in the covenant with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:15) (B.C. 536.)
(whom God comforts), a Levite. (1 Chronicles 15:20) The name is a shortened form of Jaaziel in ver. 18.
(strong) a layman of the family of Zattu, who had married a foreign wife after the return from Babylon.
a place to all appearance in Benjamin, being named with other towns belonging to that tribe. (Ezra 2:24) The name elsewhere occurs as BETH-AZMAVETH.
(strong unto death).
(strong), a place named as being on the southern boundary of the Holy Land, apparently near the torrent of Egypt (Wadi el-Arish). (Numbers 34:4,5; Joshua 15:4) It has not yet been identified.
(the ears (i.e. possibly the summits) of Tabor), one of the landmarks of the boundary of Naphtali. (Joshua 19:34) The town, if town it be, has hitherto escaped recognition.
(a helper), son of Eliakim, in the line of our Lord. (Matthew 1:13,14)
[Ashdod, Or Azotus]
(whom God helps).
(help against the enemy).
properly Az'zur (he that assists)
(the strong). The more accurate rendering of the name of the well-known Philistine city Gaza. (2:23; 1 Kings 4:24; Jeremiah 25:20)
(very strong), the father of Paltiel prince of the tribe of Issachar, who represented his tribe in the division of the promised land. (Numbers 34:26)
(one who helps), one of the heads of the People who signed the covenant with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:17) (B.C. 410.) The name is probably that of a family, and in Hebrew is the same as is elsewhere represented by Azur.
geographical. This word occurs as the prefix or suffix to the names of several places in Palestine, some of which are as follows:
the supreme male divinity of the Phoenician and Canaanitish nations, as Ashtoreth was their supreme female divinity. Some suppose Baal to correspond to the sun and Ashtoreth to the moon; others that Baal was Jupiter and Ashtoreth Venus. There can be no doubt of the very high antiquity of the worship of Baal. It prevailed in the time of Moses among the Moabites and Midianites, (Numbers 22:41) and through them spread to the Israelites. (Numbers 25:3-18; 4:3) In the times of the kings it became the religion of the court and people of the ten tribes, (1 Kings 16:31-33; 18:19,22) and appears never to have been permanently abolished among them. (2 Kings 17:16) Temples were erected to Baal in Judah, (1 Kings 16:32) and he was worshipped with much ceremony. (1 Kings 18:19,26-28; 2 Kings 10:22) The attractiveness of this worship to the Jews undoubtedly grew out of its licentious character. We find this worship also in Phoenician colonies. The religion of the ancient British islands much resembled this ancient worship of Baal, and may have been derived from it. Nor need we hesitate to regard the Babylonian Bel, (Isaiah 46:1) or Beaus, as essentially identical with Baal, though perhaps under some modified form. The plural, Baalim, is found frequently, showing that he was probably worshipped under different compounds, among which appear--
[Baal, NO. 2]
[Baal, Nos. 3,4]
[Baal, NO. 2, a]
(Hosea 2:16) [Baal]
king of the Ammonites at the time of the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar. (Jeremiah 40:14) (B.C. 588.)
(brutish) one of the wives of Shaharaim, a descendant of Benjamin. (1 Chronicles 8:8)
(work of Jehovah), a Gershonite Levite, one of the forefathers of Asaph the singer. (1 Chronicles 6:40), [ 1Chr 6:25 ]. (B.C. 1310.)
(wicked), B.C. 953-931, third sovereign of the separate kingdom of Israel, and the founder of its second dynasty. He was son of Ahijah of the tribe of Issachar and conspired against King Nadab, (1 Kings 15:27) and killed him with his whole family. He appears to have been of humble origin. (1 Kings 16:2) It was probably in the 13th year of his reign that he made war on Asa, and began to fortify Ramah. He was defeated by the unexpected alliance of Asa with Ben-hadad I. of Damascus. Baasha died in the 24th year of his reign, and was buried in Tirzah, (Song of Solomon 6:4) which he had made his capital. (1 Kings 16:6; 2 Chronicles 16:1-6)
(confusion), Bab'ylon (Greek form of Babel), is properly the capital city of the country which is called in Genesis Shinar, and in the later books Chaldea, or the land of the Chaldeans. The first rise of the Chaldean power was in the region close upon the Persian Gulf; thence the nation spread northward up the course of the rivers, and the seat of government moved in the same direction, being finally fixed at Babylon, perhaps not earlier than B.C, 1700. I. Topography of Babylon--Ancient description of the city.--All the ancient writers appear to agree in the fact of a district of vast size, more or less inhabited having been enclosed within lofty walls and included under the name of Babylon. With respect to the exact extent of the circuit they differ. The estimate of Herodotus and of Pliny is 480 stades (60 Roman miles, 53 of our miles) of Strabo 385, of Q. Curtius 368, of Clitarchus 365 and of Ctesias 360 stades (40 miles). (George Smith, in his "Assyrian Discoveries," differs entirely from all these estimates, making the circuit of the city but eight miles.) Perhaps Herodotus spoke of the outer wall, which could be traced in his time. Taking the lowest estimate of the extent of the circuit, we shall have for the space within the rampart an area of above 100 square miles--nearly five times the size of London! It is evident that this vast space cannot have been entirely covered with houses. The city was situated on both sides of the river Euphrates, and the two parts were connected together by a stone bridge five stades (above 1000 yards) long and 30 feet broad. At either extremity of the bridge was a royal palace, that in the eastern city being the more magnificent of the two. The two palaces were joined not only by the bridge, but by a tunnel under the river. The houses, which were frequently three or four stories high, were laid out in straight streets crossing each other at right angles. II. Present state of the ruins.--A portion of the ruins is occupied by the modern town of Hillah . About five miles above Hillah, on the opposite or left bank of the Euphrates occurs a series of artificial mounds of enormous size. They consist chiefly of three great masses of building,--the high pile of unbaked brickwork which is known to the Arabs as Babel, 600 feet square and 140 feet high; the building denominated the Kasr or palace, nearly 2000 feet square and 70 feet high, and a lofty mound upon which stands the modern tomb of Amram-ibn-'Alb . Scattered over the country on both sides of the Euphrates are a number of remarkable mounds, usually standing single, which are plainly of the same date with the great mass of ruins upon the river bank. Of these by far the most striking is the vast ruin called the Birs-Nimrud, which many regard as the tower of Babel, situated about six miles to the southwest of Hillah. [BABEL, Tower OF] III. Identification of sites.--The great mound of Babel is probably the ancient temple of Beaus. The mound of the Kasr marks the site of the great palace of Nebuchadnezzar. The mound of Amram is thought to represent the "hanging gardens" of Nebuchadnezzar; but most probably it represents the ancient palace, coeval with Babylon itself, of which Nebuchadnezzar speaks in his inscriptions as adjoining his own more magnificent residence. IV. History of Babylon.--Scripture represents the "beginning of the kingdom" as belonging to the time of Nimrod. (Genesis 10:6-10) The early annals of Babylon are filled by Berosus, the native historian, with three dynasties: one of 49 Chaldean kings, who reigned 458 years; another of 9 Arab kings, who reigned 245 years; and a third of 49 Assyrian monarchs, who held dominion for 526 years. The line of Babylonian kings becomes exactly known to us from B.C. 747. The "Canon of Ptolemy" gives us the succession of Babylonian monarchs from B.C. 747 to B.C. 331, when the last Persian king was dethroned by Alexander. On the fall of Nineveh, B.C. 625, Babylon became not only an independent kingdom, but an empire. The city was taken by surprise B.C. 539, as Jeremiah had prophesied, (Jeremiah 51:31) by Cyrus, under Darius, Dan. 5, as intimated 170 years earlier by Isaiah, (Isaiah 21:1-9) and, as Jeremiah had also foreshown, (Jeremiah 51:39) during a festival. With the conquest of Cyrus commenced the decay of Babylon, which has since been a quarry from which all the tribes in the vicinity have derived the bricks with which they have built their cities. The "great city" has thus emphatically "become heaps." (Jeremiah 51:37) Ba'bel, Tower of. The "tower of Babel" is only mentioned once in Scripture, (Genesis 11:4,5) and then as incomplete. It was built of bricks, and the "slime" used for mortar was probably bitumen. Such authorities as we possess represent the building as destroyed soon after its erection. When the Jews, however, were carried captive into Babylonia, they thought they recognized it in the famous temple of Beaus, the modern Birs Nimrod . But the Birs-Nimrrud though it cannot be the tower of Babel itself; may well be taken to show the probable shape and character of the edifice. This building appears to have been a sort of oblique pyramid built in seven receding stages, each successive one being nearer to the southwestern end which constituted the back of the building. The first, second and third stories were each 26 feet high the remaining four being 15 feet high. On the seventh stage there was probably placed the ark or tabernacle, which seems to have been again 15 feet high, and must have nearly, if not entirely, covered the top of the seventh story The entire original height, allowing three feet for the platform, would thus have been 156 feet, or, without the plat-form, 163 feet.
in the Apocalypse, is the symbolical name by which Rome is denoted. (Revelation 14:8; 17:18) The power of Rome was regarded by the later Jews as was that of Babylon by their forefathers. Comp. (Jeremiah 51:7) with Reve 14:8 The occurrence of this name in (1 Peter 5:13) has given rise to a variety of conjectures, many giving it the same meaning as in the Apocalypse; others refer it to Babylon in Asia, and others still to Babylon in Egypt. The most natural supposition of all is that by Babylon is intended the old Babylon of Assyria, which was largely inhabited by Jews at the time in question.
the inhabitants of Babylon, a race of Shemitic origin, who were among the colonists planted in the cities of Samaria by the conquering Assyrian. (Ezra 4:9)
literally "robe of Shinar," (Joshua 7:21) an ample robe, probably made of the skin or fur of an animal, comp. (Genesis 25:25) and ornamented with embroidery or perhaps a variegated garment with figures inwoven in the fashion for which the Babylonians were celebrated.
(weeping), The Valley of, A valley in Palestine, through which the exiled Psalmist sees in vision the pilgrims passing in their march towards the sanctuary of Jehovah at Zion. (Psalms 84:6) That it was a real locality is most probable from the use of the definite article before the name. The rendering of the Targum is Gehenna, i.e. the Ge-Hinnom or ravine below Mount Zion. This locality agrees well with the mention of became (Authorized Version "mulberry") trees in (2 Samuel 5:23)
the family of Becher, son of Ephraim. (Numbers 26:35)
There is much obscurity as to the meaning of the word tachash, rendered "badger" in the Authorized Version, (Exodus 25:5; 35:7) etc. The ancient versions seem nearly all agreed that it denotes not an animal but a color, either black or sky-blue. The badger is not found in the Bible lands. The Arab duchash or tufchash denotes a dolphin, including seals and cetaceans. The skins referred to are probably those of these marine animals, some of which are found in the Red Sea. The skin of the Halicore, one of these, from its hardness would be well suited for making soles for shoes. (Ezekiel 16:10)
is the rendering of several words in the Old and New Testaments.
(low ground), a village, (2 Samuel 16:6) apparently on or close to the road leading up from the Jordan valley to Jerusalem, and near the south boundary of Benjamin.
(the horse), referring to the "temple" of the false gods of Moab, as opposed to the "high places" in the same sentence. (Isaiah 15:2) and comp. (Isaiah 16:12)
(admirable), a Levite, apparently a descendant of Asaph. (1 Chronicles 9:15) (B.C.588.)
(bottle). "Children of Bakkuk" were among the Nethinim who returned from captivity with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:51; Nehemiah 7:53) (B.C. before 536).
(wasting of Jehovah), a Levite in the time of Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 11:17; 12:9) (B.C. before 536.)
Reference to baking is found in (Leviticus 26:26; 1 Samuel 8:13; 2 Samuel 13:8; Jeremiah 7:18; 37:21; Hosea 7:4-7)
(B.C. 1451), the son of beor, a man endowed with the gift of prophecy. (Numbers 22:5) He is mentioned in conjunction with the five kings of Midian, apparently as a person of the same rank. (Numbers 31:8) cf. Numb 31:16 He seems to have lived at Pethor, (23:4; Numbers 22:5) on the river Euphrates, in Mesopotamia. Such was his reputation that when the Israelites were encamped in the plains of Moab, Balak, the king of Moab, sent for Balaam to curse them. Balaam at first was prohibited by God from going. He was again sent for by the king and again refused, but was at length allowed to go. He yielded to the temptations of riches and honor which Balak set before him; but God's anger was kindled at this manifestation of determined self-will, and the angel of the Lord stood in the way for an adversary against him. See (2 Peter 2:16) Balaam predicted a magnificent career for the people whom he was called to curse, but he nevertheless suggested to the Moabites the expedient of seducing them to commit fornication. The effect of this is recorded in (Numbers 25:1) ... A battle was afterwards fought against the Midianites, in which Balaam sided with them, and was slain by the sword of the people whom he had endeavored to curse. (Numbers 31:8)
(Revelation 2:14) [Balak]
(Joshua 19:3) [Baal, Geogr. No. 2, b]
(spoiler), son of Zippor, king of the Moabites, who hired Balaam to curse the Israelites; but his designs were frustrated int he manner recorded in (Numbers 22:24) (B.C. 1451.)
[Baal, Geogr. No. 6]
Reference to balances is found in (Leviticus 19:36) They were in common use, gold and silver being paid out and received by weight. Reference is also made in (Micah 6:11; Hosea 12:7) to the dishonest practice of buying by heavier and selling by lighter weights.
Natural baldness seems to have been uncommon, since it exposed people to public derision. (Leviticus 13:29; 2 Kings 2:23; Isaiah 3:24; 15:2; Jeremiah 47:5; Ezekiel 7:18) Artificial baldness marked the conclusion of a Nazarite's vow, (Numbers 6:9; Acts 18:18) and was a sign of mourning.
(from balsam, Heb. tzori, tezri) occurs in (Genesis 37:25; 43:11; Jeremiah 8:22; 46:11; 51:8; Ezekiel 27:17) (It is an aromatic plant, or the resinous odoriferous sap or gum which exudes from such plants.) It is impossible to identify it with any certainty. It is impossible to identify it with any certainty. It may represent the gum of the Pistacia lentiscus, or more probably that of the Balsamodendron opobalsamum, allied to the balm of Gilead, which abounded in Gilead east of the Jordan. The trees resembled fig trees (or grape vines), but were lower, being but 12 to 15 feet high. It is now called the BALM OF Gilead, or Meccabalsam, the tree or shrub being indigenous in the mountains around Mecca. [Incense; Spice, Spices] Hasselquist says that the exudation from the plant "is of a yellow color, and pellucid. It has a most fragrant smell, which is resinous, balsamic and very agreeable. It is very tenacious or glutinous, sticking to the fingers, and may be drawn into long threads." It was supposed to have healing as well as aromatic qualities.
(high place). Found only in (Ezekiel 20:29) applied to places of idolatrous worship.
(heights of Baal), a sanctuary of Baal in the country of Moab (Joshua 13:17) which is probably mentioned in (Numbers 21:19) under the shorter form of Bamoth, or Bamoth-in-the-ravine (20), and again in (Isaiah 15:2)
The "band of Roman soldiers" referred to in (Matthew 27:27) and elsewhere was the tenth part of a legion. It was called a "cohort," and numbered 400 to 600 men. [See Army]
among the Hebrews, were not only a means of social enjoyment, but were a part of the observance of religious festivity. At the three solemn festivals the family also had its domestic feast. (16:11) Sacrifices, both ordinary and extraordinary, (Exodus 34:15; Judges 16:23) includes a banquet. Birthday banquets are only mentioned (Genesis 40:20; Matthew 14:6) The usual time of the banquet was the evening, and to begin early was a mark of excess. (Ecclesiastes 10:16; Isaiah 5:11) The most essential materials of the banqueting room, next to the viands and wine, which last was often drugged with spices, (Proverbs 9:2) were perfumed unguents, garlands or loose flowers, white or brilliant robes; after these, exhibitions of music singers and dancers, riddles, jesting and merriment. (Judges 14:12; 2 Samuel 19:35; Nehemiah 8:10; Ecclesiastes 10:19; Isaiah 5:12; 25:6; 28:1; Matthew 22:11; Luke 15:25) The posture at table in early times was sitting, (1 Samuel 16:11; 20:5,18) and the guests were ranged in order of dignity. (Genesis 43:33; 1Sam 9:22 Words which imply the recumbent posture belong to the New Testament.
It is well known that ablution or bathing was common in most ancient nations as a preparation for prayers and sacrifice or as expiatory of sin. In warm countries this connection is probably even closer than in colder climates; and hence the frequency of ablution in the religious rites throughout the East. Baptism in the name of the Father, Son and Holy Ghost is the rite or ordinance by which persons are admitted into the Church of Christ. It is the public profession of faith and discipleship. Baptism signifies--
(son of Abba), a robber, (John 18:40) who had committed murder in an insurrection, (Mark 15:7; Luke 28:18) in Jerusalem and was lying in prison the time of the trial of Jesus before Pilate.p
(God has blessed), father of Elihu. (Job 32:2,6) [Buz]
(Matthew 23:35) [Zacharias]
(lightning), son of Abinoam of Kedesh, a refuge city in Mount Naphtali, was incited by Deborah, a prophetess of Ephraim, to deliver Israel from the yolk of Jabin. Judges 4. He utterly routed the Canaanites int eh plain of Jezreel (Esdraelon). (B.C. 1291-1251.)
"every one not a Greek is a barbarian" is the common Greek definition, and in this strict sense the word is sued in (Romans 1:14) It often retains this primitive meaning, as in (1 Corinthians 14:11; Acts 28:24)
(fugitive), a descendant of the royal family of Judah. (1 Chronicles 3:22) (B.C. before 410.)
(son of Jesus). [Elymas]
(son of Jonah). [Peter]
(painted). "Children of Barkos" were among the Nethinim who returned from the captivity with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:53; Nehemiah 7:55) (B.C. 536.)
is one of the most important of the cereal grains, and the most hardy of them all. It was grown by the Hebrews, (Leviticus 27:16; 8:8; Ruth 2:17) etc., who used it for baking into bread chiefly among the poor, (Judges 7:13; 2 Kings 4:42; John 6:9,13) and as fodder for horses. (1 Kings 4:28) The barley harvest, (Ruth 1:22; 2:23; 2 Samuel 21:9;10) takes place in Palestine in March and April, and in the hilly district as late as May. It always precedes the wheat harvest, in some places by a week, in others by fully three weeks. In Egypt the barley is about a month earlier than the wheat; whence its total destruction by the hail storm. (Exodus 9:31)
(son of consolation or comfort) a name given by the apostles, (Acts 4:36) to Joseph (or Jose), a Levite of the island of Cyprus, who was early a disciple of Christ. In (Acts 9:27) we find him introducing the newly-converted Saul to the apostles at Jerusalem. Barnabas was sent to Jerusalem, (Acts 11:19-26) and went to Tarsus to seek Saul, as one specially raised up to preach to the Gentiles. (Acts 26:17) He brought him to Antioch, and was sent with him to Jerusalem. (Acts 11:30) On their return, they were ordained by the church for the missionary work, (Acts 13:2) and sent forth (A.D. 45). From this time Barnabas and Paul enjoy the title and dignity of apostles. Their first missionary journey is related in (Acts 13:14) Returning to Antioch (A.D. 47 or 48), they were sent (A.D. 50), with some others, to Jerusalem. (Acts 15:1,36) Afterwards they parted and Barnabas took Mark and sailed to Cyprus, his native island. Here the Scripture notices of him cease. The epistle attributed to Barnabas is believed to have been written early in the second century.
(son of Sabas or rest). [Joseph BARSABAS; Judas BARSABAS]
Revised Version of (Acts 1:23) for BAR'SABAS.
(son of Tolmai), one of the twelve apostles of Christ. (Matthew 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:14; Acts 1:13) It has been not improperly conjectured that he is identical with Nathanael. (John 1:45) ff. He is said to have preached the gospel in India, that is, probably, Arabia Felix, and according to some in Armenia.
(son of Timeus), a blind beggar of Jericho who, (Mark 10:46) ff., sat by the wayside begging as our Lord passed out of Jericho on his last journey to Jerusalem.
One of the apocryphal books of the Old Testament. The book was held in little esteem by the Jews, and both its date and authorship are very uncertain.
(iron, i.e., strong).
(fruitful), a district on the east of Jordan. It is sometimes spoken of as the "land of Bashan," (1 Chronicles 5:11) and comp. Numb 21:33; 32:33 And sometimes as "all Bashan." (3:10,13; Joshua 12:5; 13:12,30) It was taken by the children of Israel after their conquest of the land of Sihon from Arnon to Jabbok. The limits of Bashan are very strictly defined. It extended from the "border of Gilead" on the south to Mount Hermon on the north, (3:3,10,14; Joshua 12:5; 1 Chronicles 5:23) and from the Arabah or Jordan valley on the west to Salchah (Sulkhad) and the border of the Geshurites and the Maachathites on the east. (Joshua 12:3-5; 3:10) This important district was bestowed on the half-tribe of Manasseh, (Joshua 13:29-31) together with "half Gilead." This country is now full of interesting ruins, which have lately been explored and from which much light has been thrown upon Bible times. See Porter's "Giant Cities of Bashan."
(Bashan of the villages of Jair), a name given to Argob after its conquest by Jair. (3:14)
(fragrant, pleasing), daughter of Ishmael, the last married of the three wives of Esau. (Genesis 26:34; 36:3,4,13) (B.C. after 1797.) In (Genesis 28:9) she is called Mahalath.
Among the smaller vessels for the tabernacle or temple service, many must have been required to receive from the sacrificial victims the blood to be sprinkled for purification. The "basin" from which our Lord washed the disciples' feet was probably deeper and larger than the hand-basin for sprinkling.
The Hebrew terms used in the description of this article are as follows: (1) Sal, so called from the twigs of which it was originally made, specially used for holding bread. (Genesis 40:16) ff. (Exodus 29:3,23; Leviticus 8:2,26,31; Numbers 6:15,17,19) (2) Salsilloth, a word of kindred origin, applied to the basket used in gathering grapes. (Jeremiah 6:9) (3) Tene, in which the first-fruits of the harvest were presented. (26:2,4) (4) Celub, so called from its similarity to a bird-cage. (5) Dud, used for carrying fruit, (Jeremiah 24:1,2) as well as on a larger scale for carrying clay to the brick-yard, (Psalms 81:6) (pots, Authorized Version), or for holding bulky articles. (2 Kings 10:7) In the New Testament baskets are described under three different terms.
(fragrant, pleasing), a daughter of Solomon, married to Ahimaaz, one of his commissariat officers. (1 Kings 4:15) (B.C. after 1014.)
Among those who were excluded from entering the congregation, even to the tenth generation, was the bastard. (23:2) The term is not, however, applied to any illegitimate offspring, born out of wedlock, but is restricted by the rabbins to the issue of any connection within the degrees prohibited by the law.
(Leviticus 11:19; 14:18) Many travellers have noticed the immense numbers of bats that are found in caverns in the East, and Mr. Layard said that on the occasion of a visit to a cavern these noisome beasts compelled him to retreat.
This was a prescribed part of the Jewish ritual of purification in cases of accident, or of leprous or ordinary uncleanness, (Leviticus 15; 16:28; 22:6; Numbers 19:7; 19; 2 Samuel 11:2,4; 2 Kings 5:10) as also after mourning, which always implied defilement. (Ruth 3:3; 2 Samuel 12:20) The eastern climate made bathing essential alike to health and pleasure, to which luxury added the use of perfumes. (Esther 2:12) Judith 10:3; Susan 17. The "pools," such as that of Siloam and Hezekiah, (2 Kings 20:20; Nehemiah 3:15,16; Isaiah 22:11; John 9:7) often sheltered by porticos, (John 5:2) are the first indications we have of public bathing accommodation.
(daughter of many), The gate of, One of the gates of the ancient city of heshbon. (Song of Solomon 7:4,5)
(daughter of the oath), (2 Samuel 11:3) etc., also called Bath-shua in (1 Chronicles 3:5) the daughter of Eliam, (2 Samuel 11:3) or Ammiel, (1 Chronicles 3:5) the son of Ahithophel, (2 Samuel 23:34) and wife of Uriah the Hittite. (B.C. 1035.) The child which was the fruit of her adulterous intercourse with David died; but after marriage she became the mother of four sons, Solomon, (Matthew 1:6) Shimea, Shobab and Nathan. When Adonijah attempted to set aside the succession promised to Solomon, Bath-sheba informed the king of the conspiracy. (1 Kings 1:11,15,23) After the accession of Solomon, she, as queen-mother, requested permission of her son for Adonijah to take in marriage Abishag the Shunammite. (1 Kings 2:21-25)
(Ezekiel 4:2; 21:22) a large beam with a head of iron which was sometimes made to resemble the head of a ram. It was suspended by ropes to a beam supported by posts, and balanced so as to swing backward and forward, and was impelled by men against the wall. In attacking the walls of a fort or city, the first step appears to have been to form an inclined plane or bank of earth, comp. (Ezekiel 4:2) "cast a mount against it," by which the besiegers could bring their battering-rams and other engines to the foot of the walls. "The battering-rams," says Mr. Layard "were of several kinds. Some were joined to movable towers which held warriors and armed men. The whole then formed one great temporary building, the top of which is represented in sculptures as on a level with the walls, and even turrets, of the besieged city. In some bas-reliefs the battering-ram is without wheels: it was then perhaps constructed upon the spot and was not intended to be moved."
(Jeremiah 51:20) [Maul]
Among the Jews a battlement was required by law to be built upon every house. It consisted of a low wall built around the roofs of the houses to prevent persons from falling off, and sometimes serving as a partition from another building. (22:8; Jeremiah 5:10)
son of Henadad, ruler of the district of Keilah in the time of Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 3:18) (B.C. 446.)
A species of laurel. Laurus nobilis . An evergreen, with leaves like our mountain laurel. (Psalms 37:35)
(asking). "Children of Bazlith" were among the Nethinim who returned with Zerubbabel. (Nehemiah 7:54) In (Ezra 2:52) the name is given as Bazluth. (B.C. 536.)
(bedolach). (Genesis 2:12; Numbers 11:7) It is quite impossible to say whether bedolach denotes a mineral or an animal production or a vegetable exudation. Bdellium is an odoriferous exudation from a tree which is perhaps the Borassus flabelliformis, Lin., of Arabia Felix.
A signal or conspicuous mark erected on an eminence for direction. (Isaiah 30:17)
(Jehovah is lord), a Benjamite who went over to David at Ziklag. (1 Chronicles 12:5) (B.C. 1062.)
(ladies) a town in the extreme south of Judah. (Joshua 15:24)
(2 Samuel 17:28; Ezekiel 4:9) Beans are cultivated in Palestine, which produces many of the leguminous order of plants, such, as lentils, kidney-beans, vetches, etc.
(1 Samuel 17:34; 2 Samuel 17:8) The Syrian bear, Ursus syriacus, which is without doubt the animal mentioned in the Bible, is still found on the higher mountains of Palestine. During the summer months these bears keep to the snowy parts of Lebanon, but descend in winter to the villages and Gardens. It is probable also that at this period in former days they extended their visits to other parts of Palestine.
(house of God's court), named only in (Hosea 10:14) as the scene of a sack and massacre by Shalman.
Western Asiatics have always cherished the beard as the badge of the dignity of manhood, and attached to it the importance of a feature. The Egyptians, on the contrary for the most part shaved the hair of the face and head, though we find some instances to the contrary. The beard is the object of an oath, and that on which blessing or shame is spoken of as resting. The custom was and is to shave or pluck it and the hair out in mourning, (Ezra 9:3; Isaiah 15:2; 50:6; Jeremiah 41:5; 48:37) Bar. 6:31; to neglect it in seasons of permanent affliction, (2 Samuel 19:24) and to regard any insult to it as the last outrage which enmity can inflict. (2 Samuel 10:4) The beard was the object of salutation. (2 Samuel 20:9) The dressing, trimming, anointing, etc., of the beard was performed with much ceremony by persons of wealth and rank (Psalms 133:2) The removal of the beard was a part of the ceremonial treatment proper to a leper. (Leviticus 14:9)
(young or firstborn)
(first-born), son of Aphiah or Abiah, and grandson of Becher according to (1 Samuel 9:1; 1 Chronicles 7:8) (B.C. before 1093.)
The Jewish bed consisted of the mattress, a mere mat, or one or more quilts; the covering, a finer quilt, or sometimes the outer garment worn by day, (1 Samuel 19:13) which the law provided should not be kept in pledge after sunset, that the poor man might not lack his needful covering, (24:13) the pillow, (1 Samuel 19:13) probably formed of sheep's fleece or goat's skin with a stuffing of cotton, etc.; the bedstead, a divan or bench along the side or end of the room, sufficing at a support for the bedding. Besides we have bedsteads made of ivory, wood, etc. referred to in (3:11; Amos 6:4) The ornamental portions were pillars and a canopy, Judith 13:9, ivory carvings, gold and silver, and probably mosaic work, purple and fine linen. (Esther 1:6; Song of Solomon 3:9,10) The ordinary furniture of a bedchamber in private life is given in (2 Kings 4:10)
(solitary), the father of Hadad king of Edom. (Genesis 36:35; 1 Chronicles 1:46) (B.C. before 1093.)
(son of judgement).
one of the sons of Bani, in the time of Ezra, who had taken a foreign wife. (Ezra 10:35) (B.C. 458.)
(deborah). (1:44; Judges 14:8; Psalms 118:12; Isaiah 7:18) Bees abounded in Palestine, honey being a common article of food (Psalms 81:16) and was often found in the clefts of rocks and in hollow trees. (1 Samuel 14:25,27) English naturalists know little of the species of bees that are found in Palestine, but are inclined tn believe that the honey-bee of Palestine is distinct from the honey-bee (Apis mellifica) of this country. The passage in (Isaiah 7:18) refers "to the custom of the people in the East of calling attention to any one by a significant hiss or rather hist ." We read, (Judges 14:8) that "after a time," probably many days, Samson returned to the carcass of the lion he had slain, and saw bees and honey therein. "If any one here represents to himself a corrupt and putrid carcass, the occurrence ceases to have any true similitude, for it is well known that in these countries, at certain seasons of the year, the heat will in the course of twenty-four hours completely dry up the moisture of dead camels, and that, without their undergoing decomposition their bodies long remain like mummies, unaltered and entirely free from offensive odor."--Edmann .
(the Lord knows); one of David's 9 sons, born in Jerusalem. (1 Chronicles 14:7) In the lists in Samuel the name is Eliada. (B.C. after 1045.)
(lord of the house), the title of a heathen deity, to whom the Jews ascribed the sovereignty of the evil spirits; Satan, the prince of the devils. (Matthew 10:25; 12:24; Mark 3:22; Luke 11:15) ff. The correct reading is without doubt Beelzebul, and not Beelzebub .
(a well), son of Zophah, of the tribe of Asher. (1 Chronicles 7:37) (B.C. after 1450.)
prince of the Reubenites, carried away by Tiglath-pileser. (1 Chronicles 5:6) (B.C. 738).
(well of heroes), a spot named in (Isaiah 15:8) as on the "border of Moab." (Numbers 21:16) comp. Numb 21:13
(a well of the living), a living spring, Authorized Version, fountain, comp. (Jeremiah 6:7) between Kadesh and Bered, in the wilderness. (Genesis 24:62)
(wells), one of the four cities of the Hivites who deluded Joshua into a treaty of peace with them. (Joshua 9:17) It is now el-Bireh, which stands about 10 miles north of Jerusalem.
the wells of the tribe of Bene-Jaakan, which formed one of the halting-places of the Israelites in the desert. (10:6) In (Numbers 33:31) the name is given as BENE-JAAKAN only.
(well of the oath), the name of one of the old places in Palestine which formed the southern limit of the country. There are two accounts of the origin of the name. According to the first, the well was dug by Abraham, and the name given to Judah, (Joshua 15:28) and then to Simeon, (Joshua 19:2; 1 Chronicles 4:28) In the often-quoted "from Dan even unto Beersheba," (Judges 20:1) it represents the southern boundary of Canaan, as Dan the northern. In the time of Jerome it was still a considerable place, and still retains its ancient name--Bir es-Seba . There are at present on the spot two principal wells and five smaller ones. The two principal wells are on or close to the northern bank of the Wady es-Seba . The larger of the two, which lies to the east, is, according to Dr. Robinson, 12 1/2 feet in diameter, and at the time of his visit (April 12) was 44 1/2 feet to the surface of the water. The masonry which encloses the well extends downward 28 1/2 feet. The other well is 5 feet in diameter, and was 42 feet to the water. The curb-stones around the mouth of both wells are worn into deep grooves by the action of the ropes of so many centures. These wells are in constant use today. The five lesser wells are in a group in the bed of the wady. On some low hills north of the large wells are scattered the foundations and ruins of a town of moderate size.
(house of Ashterah), one of the two cities allotted to the sons of Gershon out of the tribe of Manasseh beyond Jordan. (Joshua 21:27) Probably identical with Ashtaroth. (1 Chronicles 6:71)
Same as cattle. (Leviticus 22:19) [See Bull, Bullock]
The poor among the Hebrews were much favored. They were allowed to glean in the fields, and to gather whatever the land produced in the year in which it was not tilled (Leviticus 19:10; 25:5,6; 24:19) They were also invited to feasts. (14:29) and Deuteronomy 26:12 The Israelite could not be an absolute pauper. His land was in alienable, except for a certain term, when it reverted to him or his posterity. And if this resource were insufficient, he could pledge the services of himself and family or a valuable sum. Those who were indigent through bodily infirmities were usually taken care of by their kindred. A beggar was sometimes seen, however, and was regarded and abhorred as a vagabond. (Psalms 109:10) In later times beggars were accustomed, it would seem, to have a fixed place at the corners of the streets, (Mark 10:46) or at the gates of the temple, (Acts 3:2) or of private houses, (Luke 16:20)
(great beasts). There can be little or no doubt that by this word, (Job 40:15-24) the hippopotamus is intended since all the details descriptive of the behemoth accord entirely with the ascertained habits of that animal. The hippopotamus is an immense creature having a thick and square head, a large mouth often two feet broad, small eyes and ears, thick and heavy body, short legs terminated by four toes, a short tail, skin without hair except at the extremity of the tail. It inhabits nearly the whole of Africa, and has been found of the length of 17 feet. It delights in the water, but feeds on herbage on land. It is not found in Palestine, but may at one time have been a native of western Asia.
[Weights And Measures AND Measures]
(Numbers 26:38) [Bela, 3]
The meaning of this word as found in the Scriptures is worthlessness, and hence reckless, lawlessness. The expression son or man of Belial must be understood as meaning simply a worthless, lawless fellow. The term as used in (2 Corinthians 6:15) is generally understood as an appellative of Satan, as the personification of all that was bad.
The word occurs only in (Jeremiah 6:29) where it denotes an instrument to heat a smelting furnace. Wilkinson in "Ancient Egypt," iii. 338, says, "They consisted of a leather, secured and fitted into a frame, from which a long pipe extended for carrying the wind to the fire. They were worked by the feet, the operator standing upon them, with one under each foot, and pressing them alternately, while he pulled up each exhausted skin with a string he held in his hand."
In (Exodus 28:33) the bells alluded to were the golden ones 72 in number, round the hem of the his priest's ephod. The object of them was so that his sound might be heard." (Exodus 28:34) Ecclus. 45:9. To this day bells are frequently attached, for the sake of their pleasant sound, to the anklets of women. The little girls of Cairo wear strings of them around their feet. In (Zechariah 14:20) "bells of the horses" were concave or flat pieces of brass, which were sometimes attached to horses for the sake of ornament.
(prince of Bel), the last king of Babylon. In (Daniel 5:2) Nebuchadnezzar is called the father of Belshazzar. This, of course, need only mean grandfather or ancestor. According to the well-known narrative Belshazzar gave a splendid feast in his palace during the siege of Babylon (B.C. 538), using the sacred vessels of the temple, which Nebuchadnezzer had brought from Jerusalem. The miraculous appearance of the handwriting on the wall, the calling in of Daniel to interpret its meaning the prophecy of the overthrow of the kingdom, and Belshazsar's death, accorded in Dan. 5.
(favored by Bel .) [Daniel, Daniel, The Book Of]
(son), a Levite, one of the porters appointed by David for the ark. (1 Chronicles 15:18)
(made by the Lord).
(son of my people), the son of the younger daughter of Lot, and progenitor of the Ammonites. (Genesis 19:38) (B.C. 1897.)
(son of lightning), one of the cities of the tribe of Dan, mentioned only in (Joshua 19:45)
(sons of Jaakan), a tribe who gave their name to certain wells in the desert which formed one of the halting-places of the Israelites on their journey to Canaan. [Beeroth Of The Children Of Jaakan BENE-JAAKAN] Also given in (Genesis 36:27) as Akan.
(the children of the East), an appellation given to a people or to peoples dwelling to the east of Palestine. It occurs in (Genesis 29:1; Judges 6:3,33; 7:12; 8:10; Job 1:3)
(son of Hadad), the name of three kings of Damascus. BENHADAD I., King of Damascus, which in his time was supreme in Syria. He made an alliance with Asa, and conquered a great part of the north of Israel. (1 Kings 15:18) His date is B.C. 950. BEN-HADAD II., son of the preceding, and also king of Damascus. Long wars with Israel characterized his reign. Some time after the death of Ahab, Benhadad renewed the war with Israel, attacked Samaria a second time, and pressed the siege so closely that there was a terrible famine in the city. But the Syrians broke up in the night in consequence of a sudden panic. Soon after Ben-hadad fell sick, and sent Hazael to consult Elisha as to the issue of his malady. On the day after Hazael's return Ben-hadad was murdered, probably by some of his own servants. (2 Kings 8:7-15) Ben-hadad's death was about B.C. 890, and he must have reigned some 30 years. BEN-HADAD III., son of Hazael, and his successor on the throne of Syria. When he succeeded to the throne, Jehoash recovered the cities which Jehoahaz had lost to the Syrians, and beat him in Aphek. (2 Kings 13:17,25) The date of Ben-hadad III is B.C. 840.
(son of the host, strong), one of the princes whom King Jehoshaphat sent to teach in the cities of Judah. (2 Chronicles 17:7)
(son of the gracious), son of Shimon, in the line of Judah. (1 Chronicles 4:20)
(our son), a Levite; one of those who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:13,14)
(son of the right hand, fortunate).
(Jeremiah 20:2; 37:13; 38:7; Zechariah 14:10) [Jerusalem]
The proximity of Benjamin to Ephraim during the march to the promised land was maintained in the territory allotted to each. That given to Benjamin formed almost a parallelogram, of about 26 miles in length by 12 in breadth, lying between Ephraim, the Jordan, Judah and Dan. The general level of this part of Palestine is not less than 2000 feet above the Mediterranean or than 3000 feet above the valley of the Jordan, the surrounding country including a large number of eminences--almost every one of which has borne some part in the history of the tribe--and many torrent beds and deep ravines.
The contrast between the warlike character of the tribe and the peaceful image of its progenitor comes out in many scattered notices. Benjamin was the only tribe which seems to have pursued archery to any purpose, and their skill in the bow, (1 Samuel 20:20,36; 2 Samuel 1:232; 1 Chronicles 8:40; 12:2; 2 Chronicles 17:17) and the sling, (Judges 20:16) is celebrated. The dreadful deed recorded in Judges 19 was defended by Benjamin. Later the tribe seems, however, to assume another position, as Ramah, (1 Samuel 9:12) etc., Mizpeh, (1 Samuel 7:5) Bethel and Gibeon, (1 Kings 3:4) were all in the land of Benjamin. After the struggles and contests which followed the death of Saul, the history of Benjamin becomes merged in that of the southern kingdom.
(his son), a Levite of the sons of Merari. (1 Chronicles 24:26,27)
(Numbers 32:3) [BETH-BAALMEON] Comp. ver. 38.
(son of my sorrow). (Genesis 35:18) [Benjamin, Benjamin, The Tribe Of]
(son of Zoheth), a descendant of Judah. (1 Chronicles 4:20)
(burning or torch).
(son of evil) king of Sodom. (Genesis 14:2) also (Genesis 14:17,21)
(blessing), a Benjamite who attached himself to David at Ziklag. (1 Chronicles 12:3) (B.C. 1054.)
a valley in which Jehoshaphat and his people assembled to "bless" Jehovah after the overthrow of the hosts of Moabites. (2 Chronicles 20:26) It is now called Bereikut, and lies between Tekua and the main road from Bethlehem to Hebron.
(blessed of Jehovah), a Gershonite Levite, father of Asaph. (1 Chronicles 6:39) [Berechiah]
(created by Jehovah), son of Shimhi, a chief man of Benjamin. (1 Chronicles 8:21)
(blessed of Jehovah).
[Bernice, Or Berenice]
(a well), son of Zophah, of the tribe of Asher. (1 Chronicles 7:36)
(in evil, or a gift).
A tribe of people who are named with Abel and Beth-maachah, and who were therefore doubtless situated in the north of Palestine. (2 Samuel 20:14)
(Judges 9:46) [BAAL-BERITH]
(bringing victory), the eldest daughter of Herod Agrippa I. (Acts 12:1) etc. She was first married to her uncle Herod, king of Chaleis, and after his death (A.D. 48) she lived under circumstances of great suspicion with her own brother, Agrippa II., in connection with whom she is mentioned, (Acts 25:13,23; 26:30) as having visited Festus on his appointment as procurator of Judea.
(2 Kings 20:12) [MERODACH-BALADAN]
(toward the wells), Bero'-tha-i (my wells). The first of these two names is given by Ezekiel, (Ezekiel 47:16) in connection with Hahlath and Damascus as forming part of the northern boundary of the promised land. The second is mentioned, (2 Samuel 8:8) in the same connection. The well-known city Beirut (Berytus) naturally suggests itself as identical with one at least of the names; but in each instance the circumstances of the case seem to require a position farther east. They were probably in the vicinity of the springs near the present Hasbeya.
(1 Chronicles 11:39) [Beeroth Of The Children Of Jaakan]
(tarshish) occurs in (Exodus 28:20) It is generally supposed that the tarshish derives its name from the place so called, in Spain. Beryl is a mineral of great hardness, and, when transparent, of much beauty. By tarshish the modern yellow topaz is probably intended, while in (Revelation 21:20) a different stone is perhaps referred to, probably the mineral now called beryl, which is identical with the emerald except in color, being a light green or bluish-green.
(sword). "Children of Besai" were among the Nethinim who returned to Judea with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:49; Nehemiah 7:52)
(n the secret of the Lord) father of one of the repairers of the wall of Jerusalem. (Nehemiah 3:6)
a brush or broom of twigs for sweeping (Isaiah 14:23)
(cool), a torrent-bed or wady in the extreme south of Judah. (1 Samuel 30:9,10,21)
(confidence), a city belonging to Hadadezer king of Zobah, mentioned with Berothai. (2 Samuel 8:8) In the parallel account, (1 Chronicles 18:8) the name is called Tibhath.
(height), one of the cities on the border of the tribe of Asher. (Joshua 19:25)
the most general word for a house or habitation. It has the special meaning of a temple or house of worship Beth is more frequently employed in compound names of places than any other word.
(house of the ford), a place beyond Jordan, in which according to the Received Text of the New Testament, John was baptizing. (John 1:28) If this reading be correct, Bethabara is identical with Beth-barah (fords of Abarah) the ancient ford of Jordan on the road to Gilead; or, which seems more likely, with Beth-nimrah, on the east of the river, nearly opposite Jericho. The Revised Version reads Bethany, which see below.
(house of echo or reply), one of the "fenced cities" of Naphtali, named with Beth-shemesh, (Joshua 19:38) from neither of them were the Canaanites expelled. (Judges 1:33)).
(house of echo), a town in the mountainous district of Judah, named with Halhul, Beth-zur and others in (Joshua 15:58) only.
In the Revised Version for Bethabara, (John 1:28) where Jesus was baptized by John. It was probably an obscure village near Bethabara, and in time its name faded out and was replaced by the larger and more important Bethabara.
(house of dates, or house of misery), a village which, scanty as are the notices of it contained in Scripture, is more intimately associated in our minds than perhaps any other place with the most familiar acts and scenes of the last days of the life of Christ. It was situated "at" the Mount of Olives, (Mark 11:1; Luke 19:29) about fifteen stadia (furlongs, i.e. 1 1/2 or 2 miles) from Jerusalem (John 11:18) on or near the usual road From Jericho to the city, (Luke 19:29) comp. Mark 11:1 comp. Mark 10:46 And close by the west(?) of another village called Bethphage, the two being several times mentioned together. Bethany was the home of Mary and Martha and Lazarus, and is now known by a name derived from Lazarus--el-Azariyeh or Lazarieh . It lies on the eastern slope of the Mount of Olives, fully a mile beyond the summit, and not very far from the point at which the road to Jericho begins its more sudden descent towards the Jordan valley. El-'Azariyeh is a ruinous and wretched village, a wild mountain hamlet of some twenty families. Bethany has been commonly explained "house of dates," but it more probably signifies "house of misery." H. Dixon, "Holy Land," ii. 214, foll.
(house of the desert), one of the six cities of Judah which were situated down in the Arabah, the sunk valley of the Jordan and Dead Sea, (Joshua 15:61) on the north border of the tribe. It is also included in the list of the towns of Benjamin. (Joshua 18:22)
(house of the height), accurately BETH-HARAM, one of the towns of Gad on the east of Jordan, described as in "the valley," (Joshua 13:27) and no doubt the same place as that named BETH-HARAN in (Numbers 32:36)
(house of nothingness, i.e. of idols), a place on the mountains of Benjamin, east of Bethel, (Joshua 7:2; 18:12) and lying between that place and Michmash. (1 Samuel 13:5; 14:28) In (Hosea 4:15; 5:8; 10:5) the name is transferred to the neighboring Bethel,--once the "house of God" but then the house of idols of "naught."
(house of Azmaveth). Under this name is mentioned, in (Nehemiah 7:28) only, the town of Benjamin which is elsewhere called Azmaveth and BETH-SAMOS.
(house of Baalmeon), a place in the possessions of Reuben, on the downs (Authorized Version "plain") east of the Jordan. (Joshua 13:17) At the Israelites' first approach is name was BAAL-MEON, (Numbers 32:38) or, in its contracted form, BEON (Numbers 32:3) to which the Beth was possibly a Hebrew addition. Later it would seem to have come into possession of Moab, and to be known either as Beth-meon, (Jeremiah 48:23) or Baal-meon. (Ezekiel 25:9) The name is still attached to a ruined place of considerable size a short distance to the southwest of Hesban, and bearing the name of "the fortress of Mi'un, " or Makin .
(house of the ford), named only in (Judges 7:24) It derived its chief interest in the possibility that its more modern representative may have been Beth-abara, where John baptized. It was probably the chief ford of the district.
(house of my creation), a town of Simeon, (1 Chronicles 4:31) which by comparison with the parallel list in (Joshua 19:6) appears to have had also the name Of BETH-LEBAOTH. It lay to the extreme south.
(house of the lamb), a place named as the point to which the Israelites pursued the Philistines, (1 Samuel 7:11) and therefore west of Mizpeh.
(house of Dagon).
(house of fig-cakes), a town of Moab, (Jeremiah 48:22) apparently the place elsewhere called ALMON-DIBLATHAIM.
(the house of God) well known city and holy place of central Palestine, about 12 mlles north of Jerusalem. If we are to accept the precise definition of (Genesis 12:8) the name of Bethel would appear to have existed at this spot even before the arrival of Abram in Canaan. (Genesis 12:8; 13:3,4) Bethel was the scene of Jacob's vision. (Genesis 28:11-19; 31:13) Jacob lived there. (Genesis 35:1-8) The original name was Luz. (Judges 1:22,23) After the conquest Bethel is frequently heard of. In the troubled times when there was no king in Israel, it was to Bethel that the people went up in their distress to ask counsel of God. (Judges 20:18,26,31; 21:2) Authorized Version, "house of God." Here was the ark of the covenant. (Judges 20:26-28; 21:4) Later it is named as one of the holy cities to which Samuel went on circuit. (1 Samuel 7:16) Here Jeroboab placed one of the two calves of gold. Toward the end of Jeroboam's life Bethel fell into the hands of Judah. (2 Chronicles 13:19) Elijah visited Bethel, and we hear of "sons of the prophets" as resident there. (2 Kings 2:2,3) But after the destruction of Baal worship by Jehu Bethel comes once more into view. (2 Kings 10:29) After the desolation of the northern kingdom by the king of Assyria, Bethel still remained an abode of priests. (2 Kings 17:27,28) In later times Bethel is named only once under the scarcely-altered name of Beitin . Its ruins still lie on the righthand side of the road from Jerusalem to Nablus.
(house of the valley), a place on or near the border of Asher, on the north side of which was the ravine of Jiphthah-el (Joshua 19:27)
(depth), The mountains of. (Song of Solomon 2:17) There is no clue to guide us as to what mountains are intended here.
(house of mercy, or the flowing water), the Hebrew name of a reservoir or tank, with five "porches," close upon the sheep-gate or "market" in Jerusalem. (John 5:2) The largest reservoir - Birket Israil - 360 feet long, 120 feet wide and 80 feet deep, within the walls of the city, close by St. Stephen's Gate, and under the northeast wall of the Haram area, is generally considered to be the modern representative of Bethesda. Robinson, however, suggests that the ancient Bethesda is identical with what is now called the Pool of the Virgin, an intermittent pool, south of Birket Israil and north of the pool of Siloam.
(neighbor's house), a place named only in (Micah 1:11) From the context it was doubtless situated in the plain of Philistia.
(house of the wall), doubtless a place, though it occurs in the genealogies of Judah as if a person. (1 Chronicles 2:51)
(camel-house), a town of Moab, in the downs east of Jordan. (Jeremiah 48:23) comp. Jere 48:21
Same as Gilgal. (Nehemiah 12:29)
(house of the vine). (Nehemiah 3:14; Jeremiah 6:1) A beacon station near Tekoa, supposed to be the Frank Mountain, a few miles southeast of Bethlehem.
(Numbers 32:36) It is no doubt the same place as BETH-ARAM. (Joshua 13:27)
(partridge-house), and Holg'lah a place on the border of Judah, (Joshua 15:6) and of Benjamin. (Joshua 18:19,21) A magnificent spring and a ruin between Jericho and the Jordan still bear the names of Ainhajala.
(house of caverns), the name of two towns or villages, an "upper" and a "nether," (Joshua 16:3,5; 1 Chronicles 7:24) on the road from Gibeon to Azekah, (Joshua 10:10,11) and the Philistine plain. 1 Macc. 3:24. Beth-horon lay on the boundary line between Benjamin and Ephraim, (Joshua 16:3,5) and Josh 18:13,14 Was counted to Ephraim, (Joshua 21:22; 1 Chronicles 7:24) and given to the Kohathites. (Joshua 21:22; 1 Chronicles 6:68) (1Chr 6:53) The two Beth-horons still survive in the modern villages of Beit-ur, et-tahta and el-foka .
(house of deserts) or Jes'imoth, a town or place east of Jordan, on the lower level at the south end of the Jordan valley, (Numbers 33:49) and named with Ashdod-pisgah and Beth-peor. It was one of the limits of the encampment of Israel before crossing the Jordan. Later it was allotted to Reuben, (Joshua 12:3; 13:20) but came at last into the hands of Moab, and formed one of the cities which were "the glory of the country." (Ezekiel 25:9)
(house of lionesses), a town in the lot of Simeon, (Joshua 19:6) in the extreme south of Judah. [ (Joshua 15:32) Lebaoth] In (1 Chronicles 4:31) the name is given BETH-BIREI.
(house of bread).
1 Esd. 5:17. [Bethlehem, 1]
(house of oppression), a place named only in (2 Samuel 20:14,15) In the absence of more information we can only conclude that it is identical with Maachah or Aram-maachah, one of the petty Syrian kingdoms in the north of Palestine. (Comp. (2 Kings 15:29)
(house of the chariots), one of the towns of Simeon, situated to the extreme south of Judah. (Joshua 19:5; 1 Chronicles 4:31) In the parallel list, (Joshua 15:31) Madmannah occurs in place of Beth-marcaboth.
(Jeremiah 48:23) A contracted form of Beth-baal-meon.
(house of leopards) one of the fenced cities on the east of Jordan taken and built by the tribe of Gad (Numbers 32:36) and described as being in the valley beside Beth-haran. (Joshua 13:27) In (Numbers 32:3) it is called simply Nimrah. The name still survives in the modern Nahr Nimrim, above Jericho on the Jordan.
(house of flight), a town among those in the extreme south of Judah, named in (Joshua 15:27)
(house of the dispersion), a town of Issachar named with En-haddah (Joshua 19:21) and of which nothing is known.
(house of Peor), a place on the east of Jordan, opposite Jericho and six miles above Libias or Beth-haran. (Joshua 13:20; 3:29; 4:46)
(g hard) (house of figs) the name of a place on the Mount of Olives on the road between Jericho and Jerusalem. It was apparently close to Bethany. (Matthew 21:1; Mark 11:1; Luke 19:29)
(Nehemiah 11:26) [Bethpalet]
a name which occurs in the genealogy of Judah as the son of Eshton. (1 Chronicles 4:12)
(house of Rehob), place mentioned as having near it the valley in which lay the town of Laish or Dan. (Judges 18:28) It was one of the little kingdoms of Aram or Syria. (2 Samuel 10:6) Robinson conjectures that this ancient place is represented by the modern Hunin .
(house of fish) of Galilee, (John 12:21) a city which was the native place of Andrew, Peter and Philip, (John 1:44; 12:21) in the land of Gennesareth, (Mark 6:46) comp. Mark 6:53 And therefore on the west side of the lake. By comparing the narratives in (Mark 6:31-53) and Luke 9:10-17 It appears certain that the Bethsaida at which the five thousand were fed must have been a second place of the same name on the east of the lake. (But in reality "there is but one Bethsaida, that known on our maps at Bethsaida Julias." L. Abbot in Biblical and Oriental Journal . The fact is that Bethsaida was a village on both sides of the Jordan as it enters the sea of Galilee on the north, so that the western part of the village was in Galilee and the eastern portion in Gaulonitis, part of the tetrarchy of Philip. This eastern portion was built up into a beautiful city by Herod Philip, and named by him Bethsaida Julias, after Julia the daughter of the Roman emperor Tiberius Caesar. On the plain of Butaiha, a mile or two to the east, the five thousand were fed. The western part of the town remained a small village.--ED.)
(house of rest), or in Samuel, BETHSHAN, a city which belonged to Manasseh, (1 Chronicles 7:29) though within the limits of Issachar (Joshua 17:11) and therefore on the west of Jordan. Comp. 1 Macc. 5:62. In later times it was called Scythopolis. 2 Macc. 12:29. The place is still known as Beisan . It lies in the Ghor or Jordan valley, about twelve miles south of the Sea of Galilee and four miles west of the Jordan.
(house of the sun).
(home of the acacia), one of the spots to which the flight of the host of the Midianites extended after their discomfiture by Gideon. (Judges 7:22)
(house of apples), one of the towns of Judah in the mountainous district, and near Hebron. (Joshua 15:53) comp. 1Chr 2:43 Here it has actually been discovered by Robinson under the modern name of Teffuh, five miles west of Hebron, on a ridge of high table-land.
(dweller in God), the son of Nahor by Milcah; nephew of Abraham, and father of Rebekah, (Genesis 22:22,23; 24:15,24,47; 28:2) In (Genesis 25:20) and (Genesis 28:5) he is called "Bethuel the Syrian."
(dweller in God) a town of Simeon in the south named with Eltolad and Hormah, (Joshua 19:4) called also Chesil and Bethuel. (Joshua 15:30; 1 Chronicles 4:30)
(house of rock) a town in the mountains of Judah, built by Jeroboam, (Joshua 15:58; 2 Chronicles 11:7) now Beit-zur . It commands the road from Beersheba and Hebron, which has always been the main approach to Jerusalem from the south.
a town of Gad, apparently on the northern boundary. (Joshua 13:26)
(married), the name which the land of Israel is to bear when "the land shall be married." (Isaiah 62:4)
(conqueror). "Children of Bezai," to the number of 328, returned from captivity with Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:17; Nehemiah 7:23; 10:18)
(in the shadow of God).
(gold ore), son of Zophah, one of the heads of the houses of Asher. (1 Chronicles 7:37)
a city of refuge in the downs on the east of the Jordan. (4:43; Joshua 20:8; 21:36; 1 Chronicles 6:78)
The Bible is the name given to the revelation of God to man contained in sixty-six books or pamphlets, bound together and forming one book and only one, for it has in reality one author and one purpose and plan, and is the development of one scheme of the redemption of man. I. ITS Names.-- (1) The Bible, i.e. The Book, from the Greek "ta biblia," the books. The word is derived from a root designating the inner bark of the linden tree, on which the ancients wrote their books. It is the book as being superior to all other books. But the application of the word BIBLE to the collected books of the Old and New Testaments is not to be traced farther back than the fifth century of our era. (2) The Scriptures, i.e. the writings, as recording what was spoken by God. (3) The Oracles, i.e. the things spoken, because the Bible is what God spoke to man, and hence also called (4) The Word. (5) The Testaments or Covenants, because it is the testimony of God to man, the truths to which God bears witness; and is also the covenant or agreement of God with man for his salvation. (6) The Law, to express that it contains God's commands to men. II. COMPOSITION.--The Bible consists of two great parts, called the Old and New Testaments, separated by an interval of nearly four hundred years. These Testaments are further divided into sixty-six books, thirty-nine in the Old Testament and twenty-seven in the New. These books are a library in themselves being written in every known form old literature. Twenty-two of them are historical, five are poetical, eighteen are prophetical, twenty-one are epistolary. They contain logical arguments, poetry, songs and hymns, history, biography, stories, parables, fables, eloquence, law, letters and philosophy. There are at least thirty-six different authors, who wrote in three continents, in many countries, in three languages, and from every possible human standpoint. Among these authors were kings, farmers, mechanics, scientific men, lawyers, generals, fishermen, ministers and priests, a tax-collector, a doctor, some rich, some poor, some city bred, some country born--thus touching all the experiences of men extending over 1500 years. III. UNITY.--And yet the Bible is but one book, because God was its real author, and therefore, though he added new revelations as men could receive them, he never had to change what was once revealed. The Bible is a unit, because (1) It has but one purpose, the salvation of men. (2) The character of God is the same. (3) The moral law is the same. (4) It contains the development of one great scheme of salvation. IV. ORIGINAL LANGUAGES.--The Old Testament was written in Hebrew, a Shemitic language, except that parts of the books of Ezra (Ezra 5:8; 6:12; 7:12-26) and of Daniel (Daniel 2:4-7,28) and one verse in Jeremiah (Jeremiah 10:11) were written in the Chaldee language. The New Testament is written wholly in Greek. V. ANCIENT MANUSCRIPTS OF THE ORIGINAL.--There are no ancient Hebrew manuscripts older than the tenth century, but we know that these are in the main correct, because we have a translation of the Hebrew into Greek, called the Septuagint, made nearly three hundred years before Christ. Our Hebrew Bibles are a reprint from what is called the Masoretic text. The ancient Hebrew had only the consonant printed, and the vowels were vocalized in pronunciation, but were not written. Some Jewish scholars living at Tiberias, and at Sora by the Euphrates, from the sixth to the twelfth century, punctuated the Hebrew text, and wrote is the vowel points and other tone-marks to aid in the reading of the Hebrew; and these, together with notes of various kinds, they called Masora (tradition), hence the name Masoretic text. 0F the Greek of the New Testament there are a number of ancient manuscripts They are divided into two kinds, the Uncials, written wholly in capitals, and the Cursives, written in a running hand . The chief of these are-- (1) the Alexandrian (codex Alexandrinus, marked A), so named because it was found in Aiexandria in Egypt, in 1628. It date back to A.D. 350, and is now in the British Museum. (2) The Vatican (codex Vaticanus, B), named from the Vatican library at Rome, where it is kept. Its date is A.D. 300 to 325. (3) The Sinaitic (codex Sinaiticus) so called from the convent of St. Catherine on Mount Sinai, there it was discovered by or Tichendorf in 1844. It is now at St. Petersburg Russia. This is one of the earliest best of all the manuscripts. VI. TRANSLATIONS.--The Old Testament was translated into Greek by a company of learned Jews at Alexandria, who began their labor about the year B.C. 286. It is called the Septuagint, i.e. the seventy, from the tradition that it was translated by seventy (more exactly seventy-two) translators. The Vulgate, or translation of the Bible into Latin by Jerome, A.D. 385-405, is the authorized version of the Roman Catholic Church. The first English translation of the whole Bible was by John Deuteronomy Wickliffe (1324-1384). Then followed that of William Tyndale (1525) and several others. As the sum and fruit of all these appeared our present Authorized Version, or King James Version, in 1611. It was made by forty-seven learned men, in two years and nine months, with a second revision which took nine months longer. These forty-seven formed themselves into six companies, two of whom met at Westminster, two at Oxford and two at Cambridge. The present English edition is an improvement, in typographical and grammatical correctness, upon this revision, and in these respects is nearly perfect. [See Versions, Authorized] A REVISED VERSION of this authorized edition was made by a group of American and English scholars, and in 1881 the Revised New Testament was published simultaneously in the United States and England. Then followed the Revised Old Testament in 1885, and the Apocrypha in 1894. The American revision committee was permitted to publish its own revision, which appeared in 1901 as the American Standard Version. Modern-speech translations have been made from time to time between 1898-1945. Among these were Moulton's Modern Reader's Bible, the Twentieth century New Testament, Weymouth's, Moffatt's, and the American translation. As a result of the modern-speech translations that have appeared and been widely received, the American Revision Committee set to work again, and in 1946 the Revised Standard Version of the New Testament was published. VII. DIVISIONS INTO CHAPTERS AND VERSES.--The present division of the whole Bible into chapters was made by Cardinal Hugo Deuteronomy St. Gher about 1250. The present division into verses was introduced by Robert Stephens in his Greek Testament, published in 1551, in his edition of the Vulgate, in 1555. The first English Bible printed with these chapters and verses was the Geneva Bible, in 1560. VIII. CIRCULATION OF THE BIBLE.--The first book ever printed was the Bible; and more Bibles have been printed than any other book. It has been translated, in its entirety or in part, into more than a thousand languages and dialects and various systems for the blind. The American Bible Society (founded in 1816) alone has published over 356 million volumes of Scripture.
(first-born), (2 Samuel 20:1) an ancestor of Sheba.
(son of stabbing, i.e, one who stabs), Jehu's "captain," originally his fellow officer, (2 Kings 9:25) who completed the sentence on Jehoram, son of Ahab.
(gift of God), one of the seven chamberlains or eunuchs of the harem of King Ahasuerus. (Esther 1:10) (B.C. 483.)
(gift of God), a eunuch (chamberlain, Authorized Version) in the court of Ahasuerus, one of those "who kept the door," and conspired with Teresh against the king's life. (Esther 2:21) (B.C. 479.)
(son of contention), the second of Job's three friends. He is called "the Shuhite," which implies both his family and nation. (Job 2:11) (B.C. about 2000.)
(foreigners), a town in the western half of the tribe of Manasseh, named only in (1 Chronicles 6:70) same as Ibleam and Gath-rimmon. (Joshua 17:11) and Josh 21:24
(Nehemiah 10:8) [Bilgah, 2]
(timid, bashful), handmaid of Rachel, (Genesis 29:29) and concubine of Jacob, to whom she bore Dan and Naphtali. (Genesis 30:3-8; 35:25; 46:25; 1 Chronicles 7:13) (B.C 53.)
(eloquent), one of Zerubbabel's companions on his expedition from Babylon. (Ezra 2:2; Nehemiah 7:7) (B.C. 536).
(circumcised), one of the sons of Japhlet in the line of Asher. (1 Chronicles 7:33)
(fountain), one of the descendants of Saul. (1 Chronicles 8:37; 7:43) (B.C. 850.)
(son of godlessness), a king of Gomorrah. (Genesis 14:2)
The custom of observing birthdays is very ancient, (Genesis 40:20; Jeremiah 20:15) and in (Job 1:4) etc., we read that Job's sons "feasted every one his day." In Persia birthdays were celebrated with peculiar honors and banquets, and in Egypt those of the king were kept with great pomp. It is very probable that in (Matthew 14:6) the feast to commemorate Herod's accession is intended, for we know that such feasts were common, and were called "the day of the king." (Hosea 7:5)
the advantages accruing to the eldest son. These were not definitely fixed in patriarchal times. Great respect was paid to him in the household, and, as the family widened into a tribe, this grew into a sustained authority, undefined save by custom, in all matters of common interest. Thus the "princes" of the congregation had probably rights of primogeniture. (Numbers 7:2; 21:18; 25:14) (Gradually the rights of the eldest son came to be more definite: (1) The functions of the priesthood in the family with the paternal blessing. (2) A "double portion" of the paternal property was allotted by the Mosaic law. (21:16-17) (3) The eldest son succeeded to the official authority of the father. The first-born of the king was his successor by law. (2 Chronicles 21:3) In all these Jesus was the first-born of the father.
a name occurring in the genealogies of Asher. (1 Chronicles 7:31)
The word originally signified an "overseer" or spiritual superintendent. The titles bishop and elder, or presbyter, were essentially equivalent. Bishop is from the Greek, and denotes one who exercises the function of overseeing. Presbyter was derived from the office in the synagogue. Of the order in which the first elders or bishops were appointed, as of the occasion which led to the institution of the office, we have no record. The duties of the bishop-elders appear to have been as follows:
the district over which the jurisdiction of a bishop extended. (Acts 1:20; 1 Timothy 3:1)
(daughter of the Lord), daughter of a Pharaoh, and wife of Mered. (1 Chronicles 4:18) (B.C. about 1491.)
more accurately the Bithron (a craggy gorge or ravine), a place, doubtless a district, in the Jordan valley on the east side of the river. (2 Samuel 2:29)
a Roman province of Asia Minor. Mentioned only in (Acts 16:7) and in 1Pet 1:1 The chief town of Bithynia was Nicaea, celebrated for the general Council of the Church held there in A.D. 325 against the Arian heresy.
The Israelites were commanded to eat the Paschal lamb "with unleavened bread and with bitter herbs." (Exodus 12:8) These "bitter herbs" consisted of such plants as chicory, bitter cresses, hawkweeds, sow-thistles and wild lettuces, which grow abundantly in the peninsula of Sinai, in Palestine and in Egypt. The purpose of this observance was to recall to the minds of the Israelites their deliverance from the bitter bondage of the Egyptians.
The word occurs in (Isaiah 14:23; 34:11; Zephaniah 2:14) and we are inclined to believe that the Authorized Version is correct. The bittern (Botaurus stellaris) belongs to the Ardeidae, the heron family of birds, and is famous for the peculiar nocturnal booming sound which it emits.
(contempt of Jehovah), a town in the south of Judah. (Joshua 15:28)
(eunuch), the second of the seven eunuchs of King Ahasuerus' harem. (Esther 1:10) (B.C. 483.)
violent ulcerous inflammations, the sixth plague of Egypt, (Exodus 9:9,10) and hence called in (28:27,35) "the botch of Egypt." It seems to have been the black leprosy, a fearful kind of elephantiasis.
in its technical English sense, signifies the speaking evil of God and in this sense it is found (Psalms 74:18; Isaiah 52:5; Romans 2:24) etc. But according to its derivation it may mean any species of calumny and abuse: see (1 Kings 21:10; Acts 18:6; Jude 1:9) etc. Blasphemy was punished by stoning, which was inflicted on the son of Shelomith. (Leviticus 24:11) On this charge both our Lord and St. Stephen were condemned to death by the Jews. The blasphemy against the Holy Ghost, (Matthew 12:32; Mark 3:28) consisted in attributing to the power of Satan those unquestionable miracles which Jesus performed by "the finger of God" and the power of the Holy Spirit. It is plainly such a state of wilful, determined opposition to God and the Holy Spirit that no efforts will avail to lead to repentance. Among the Jews it was a sin against God answering to treason in our times.
(sprout), the chamberlain of Herod Agrippa I. (Acts 12:20)
is extremely common in the East from many causes. Blind beggars figure repeatedly in the New Testament (Matthew 12:22) and "opening the eyes of the blind" is mentioned in prophecy as a peculiar attribute of the Messiah. (Isaiah 29:18; 42:7) etc. The Jews were specially charged to treat the blind with compassion and care. (Leviticus 19:14; 27:18) Blindness willfully inflicted for political or other purposes is alluded to in Scripture. (1 Samuel 11:2; Jeremiah 39:7)
To blood is ascribed in Scripture the mysterious sacredness which belongs to life, and God reserved it to himself when allowing man the dominion over and the use of the lower animals for food. Thus reserved, it acquires a double power: (1) that of sacrificial atonement; and (2) that of becoming a curse when wantonly shed, unless duly expiated. (Genesis 9:4; Leviticus 7:26; 17:11-13)
He who avenged the blood of one who had been killed. The nearest relative of the deceased became the authorized avenger of blood. (Numbers 35:19) The law of retaliation was not to extend beyond the immediate offender. (24:16; 2 Kings 14:6; 2 Chronicles 25:4; Jeremiah 31:29,30; Ezekiel 18:20)
a name signifying sons of thunder, given by our Lord to the two sons of Zebedee, James and John, probably on account of their fiery earnestly. (Mark 3:17) See (Luke 9:54; Mark 9:38) comp. Matt 20:20 etc.
(youth), son of Azel, according to the present Hebrew text of (1 Chronicles 8:38)
(the weepers) a place on the west of Jordan, above Gilgal; so named from the weeping of Israel. (Judges 2:1,6)
(thumb), a Reubenite. (Joshua 15:6; 18:17)
a stone erected in honor of Bohan on the boundary between Judah and Benjamin, in the valley of Achor, along the eastern side of the present Wady Dahr, running into the Dead Sea.
[Succoth; Tabernacles, The Feast Of, FEAST OF]
consisted of captives of both sexes, cattle, and whatever a captured city might contain, especially metallic treasures. Within the limits of Canaan no captives were to be made, (20:14,16) beyond these limits, in case of warlike resistance, all the women and children were to be made captives, and the men put to death. The law of booty is given in (Numbers 31:26-47) As regarded the army, David added a regulation that the baggage guard should share equally with the troops engaged. (1 Samuel 30:24; 25)
(Matthew 1:5; Luke 3:32) [Boaz]
(2 Kings 22:1) [Bozkath]
same as Beor. (2 Peter 2:15)
The Arabs keep their water, milk and other liquids in leathern bottles. These are made of goatskins. When the animal is killed they cut off its feet and its head, and draw it in this manner out of the skin without opening its belly. The great leathern bottles are made of the skin of a he-goat, and the small ones, that serve instead of a bottle of water on the road, are made of a kid's skin. The effect of external heat upon a skin bottle is indicated in (Psalms 119:83) "a bottle in the smoke," and of expansion produced by fermentation in (Matthew 9:17) "new wine in old bottles." Vessels of metal, earthen or glassware for liquids were in use among the Greeks, Egyptians, Etruscans and Assyrians, and also no doubt among the Jews, especially in later times. Thus (Jeremiah 19:1) "a potter's earthen bottle." (Bottles were made by the ancient Egyptians of alabaster, gold, ivory and stone. They were of most exquisite workmanship and elegant forms. Tear-bottles were small urns of glass or pottery, made to contain the tears of mourners at funerals, and placed in the sepulchres at Rome and in Palestine. In some ancient tombs they are found in great numbers. (Psalms 56:8) refers to this custom.--ED.)
(Genesis 37:10) The eastern mode of salutation, by kneeling upon one knee and bending the head forward till it touched the ground.
(Isaiah 41:19; 60:13) A beautiful evergreen growing in many parts of Europe and Asia. Its hard wood is much prized by engravers. The reference in (Isaiah 60:13) is supposed by some to mean a species of cedar.
(the height), one of the two sharp rocks between the passages which Jonathan entered the Philistine garrison. It seems to have been that on the north. (1 Samuel 14:4,5)
(rocky height), a city of Judah in the lowlands (Joshua 15:39; 2 Kings 22:1)
[See Armlet] Bracelets of fine twisted Venetian gold are still common in Egypt. In (Genesis 38:18,25) the word rendered "bracelet" means probably a string by which a seal-ring was suspended. Men as well as women wore bracelets, as we see from (Song of Solomon 5:14) Layard says of the Assyrian kings, "The arms were encircled by armlets, and the wrists by bracelets."
The word nechosheth is improperly translated by "brass." In most places of the Old Testament the correct translation would be copper, although it may sometimes possibly mean bronze a compound of copper and tin. Indeed a simple metal was obviously intended, as we see from (8:9; 33:25; Job 28) Copper was known at a very early period. (Genesis 4:22)
The preparation of bread as an article of food dates from a very early period. (Genesis 18:6) The corn or grain employed was of various sorts. The best bread was made of wheat, but "barley" and spelt were also used. (John 6:9,13; Isaiah 28:25) The process of making bread was as follows: the flour was first mixed with water or milk; it was then kneaded with the hands (in Egypt with the feet also) in a small wooden bowl or "kneading-trough" until it became dough. (Exodus 12:34,39; 2 Samuel 13:3; Jeremiah 7:18) When the kneading was completed, leaven was generally added [Leaven]; but when the time for preparation was short, it was omitted, and unleavened cakes, hastily baked, were eaten as is still the prevalent custom among the Bedouins. ((Genesis 18:6; 19:3; Exodus 12:39; Judges 6:19; 1 Samuel 28:24) The leavened mass was allowed to stand for some time, (Matthew 13:33; Luke 13:21) the dough was then divided into round cakes, (Exodus 29:23; Judges 7:13; 8:5; 1 Samuel 10:3; Proverbs 6:26) not unlike flat stones in shape and appearance, (Matthew 7:9) comp. Matt 4:8 About a span in diameter and a finger's breadth in thickness. In the towns where professional bakers resided, there were no doubt fixed ovens, in shape and size resembling those in use among ourselves; but more usually each household poured a portable oven, consisting of a stone or metal jar, about three feet high which was heated inwardly with wood, (1 Kings 17:12; Isaiah 44:15; Jeremiah 7:18) or dried grass and flower-stalks. (Matthew 6:30)
[James The Less]
(Genesis 11:3) The brick in use among the Jews were much larger than with us, being usually from 12 to 13 inches square and 3 1/2 inches thick; they thus possess more of the character of tiles. (Ezekiel 4:1) The Israelites, in common with other captives, were employed by the Egyptian monarchs in making bricks and in building. (Exodus 1:14; 5:7) Egyptian bricks were not generally dried in kilns, but in the sun. That brick-kilns were known is evident from (2 Samuel 12:31; Jeremiah 43:9) When made of the Nile mud they required straw to prevent cracking. [See Straw]
(Jeremiah 46:4) elsewhere "habergeon," or "coat of mail."
Brimstone, or sulphur, is found in considerable quantities on the shores of the Dead Sea. (Genesis 19:24) It is a well-known simple mineral substance, crystalline, easily melted, very inflammable, and when burning emits a peculiar suffocating odor. It is found in great abundance near volcanoes. The soil around Sodom and Gomorrah abounded in sulphur and bitumen.
The Hebrew word is used in various senses in the Old Testament, as,
(wasting from Jehovah), a Kohathite Levite, of the sons of Heman, one of the musicians in the temple. (1 Chronicles 25:4,13)
terms used synonymously with ox, oxen, and properly a generic name for horned cattle when a full age and fit for the plough. It is variously rendered "bullock," (Isaiah 65:25) "cow," (Ezekiel 4:15) "oxen," (Genesis 12:16) Kine is used in the Bible as the plural of cow. In (Isaiah 51:20) the "wild bull" ("wild ox" in (14:5)) was possibly one of the larger species of antelope, and took its name from its swiftness. Dr. Robinson mentions larger herds of black and almost harmless buffaloes as still existing in Palestine, and these may be the animal indicated.
(or papyrus), a red growing in the shallow water on the banks of the Nile. It grows to the height of 12 or 15 feet, with a stalk two or three inches in diameter. The stalks are very pliable and can be very closely interwoven, as is evident from their having been used in the construction of arks. (Exodus 2:3,5) Paper was made from this plant, from which it derives its name.
(understanding), a son of Jerahmeel, of the family of Pharez in Judah. (1 Chronicles 2:25)
(understanding), a son of Jerahmeel, of the family of Pharez in Judah. (1 Chronicles 2:25)
[TOMBS] On this subject we have to notice--
The word is applied to the offering which was wholly consumed by fire on the altar, and the whole of which, except the refuse ashes "ascended" in the smoke to God. The meaning of the whole burnt offering was that which is the original idea of all sacrifice, the offering by the sacrificer of himself, soul and body, to God--the submission of his will to the will of the Lord. The ceremonies of the burnt offering are given in detail in the book of Leviticus. [Sacrifice]
The Hebrew word seneh occurs only in those passages which refer to Jehovah's appearance to Moses "in the flame of fire in the bush." (Exodus 3:2,3,4; 33:16) It is quite impossible to say what kind of thorn bush is intended; but it was probably the acacia a small variety of the shittim tree found in the Sinai region.
[Weights And Measures AND Measures]
One of the officers of the king's household, (Nehemiah 1:11) who had charge of the wine and poured it out for the king. The chief butler, as the title signifies, was in charge of the butlers. (Genesis 40:1-13)
Curdled milk. (Genesis 18:8; 32:14; Judges 5:25; Job 20:17) Milk is generally offered to travellers in Palestine in a curdled or sour state, leben, thick, almost like butter. Hasselquist describes the method of making butter employed by the Arab women: "they made butter in a leather bag, hung on three poles erected for the purpose, in the form of a cone, and drawn to and fro by two women."
(contempt), father of Ezekiel the prophet. (Ezekiel 1:3)
a town in the low country of Judah. (Joshua 15:40)
always in the New Testament the Roman emperor, the sovereign of Judea. (John 19:12,15; Acts 17:7)
(Acts 8:40; 9:30; 10:1,24; 11:11; 12:19; 18:22; 21:8,16; 23:23,33; 25:1,4,6,13) was situated on the coast of Palestine, on the line of the great road from Tyre to Egypt, and about halfway between Joppa and Dora. The distance from Jerusalem was about 70 miles; Josephus states it in round numbers as 600 stadia. In Strabo's time there was on this point of the coast merely a town called "Strato's Tower," with a landing-place, whereas in the time of Tacitus Caesarea is spoken of as being the head of Judea. It was in this interval that the city was built by Herod the Great. It was the official residence of the Herodian kings, and of Festus, Felix and the other Roman procurators of Judea. Here also lived Philip the deacon and his four prophesying daughters. Caesarea continued to be a city of some importance even in the time of the Crusades, and the name still lingers on the site (Kaisariyeh), which is a complete desolation, many of the building-stones having been carried to other towns.
is mentioned only in the first two Gospels, (Matthew 16:13; Mark 8:27) and in accounts of the same transactions. It was at the easternmost and most important of the two recognized sources of the Jordan, the other being at Tel-el-Kadi . The spring rises from and the city was built on a limestone terrace in a valley at the base of Mount Hermon 20 miles north of the Sea of Galilee. It was enlarged by Herod Philip, and named after Caesar, with his own name added to distinguish it from Caesarea. Its present name is Banias, a village of some 50 houses, with many interesting ruins. Caesarea Philippi has no Old Testament history, though it has been not unreasonably identified with Baal-gad . It was visited by Christ shortly before his transfiguration, (Matthew 16:13-28) and was the northern limit of his journeys. (Mark 8:27)
The term so rendered in (Jeremiah 5:27) is more properly a trap in which decoy birds were placed. In (Revelation 18:2) the (Greek term means a prison.
(depression), in full Joseph CAIAPHAS, high priest of the Jews under Tiberius. (Matthew 26:3,57; John 11:49; 18:13,14,24,28; Acts 4:6) The procurator Valerius Gratus appointed him to the dignity, He was son-in-law of Annas. [Annas]
one of the cities in the low country of Judah, named with Zanoah and Gibeah. (Joshua 15:57)
(possession). Gen. 4. He was the eldest son of Adam and Eve; he followed the business of agriculture. In a fit of jealousy, roused by the rejection of his own sacrifice and the acceptance of Abel's, he committed the crime of murder, for which he was expelled from Eden, and led the life of an exile. He settled in the land of Nod, and built a city, which he named after his son Enoch. His descendants are enumerated together with the inventions for which they were remarkable. (B.C. 4000.)
(completion, old age), one of the most ancient cities of Assyria. (Genesis 10:11) The site of Calah is probably market by the Nimrud ruins. If this be regarded as ascertained, Calah must be considered to have been at one time (about B.C. 930-720) the capital of the empire.
(sustenance), a man of Judah, son or descendant of Zerah. (1 Chronicles 2:6) Probably identical with Chalcol.
a vessel for boiling flesh, for either ceremonial or domestic use. (1 Samuel 2:14; 2 Chronicles 35:13; Job 41:20; Micah 3:3)
The calf was held in high esteem by the Jews as food. (1 Samuel 28:24; Luke 15:23) The molten calf prepared by Aaron for the people to worship, (Exodus 32:4) was probably a wooden figure laminated with gold, a process which is known to have existed in Egypt. [Aaron]
The species of camel which was in common use among the Jews and the heathen nations of Palestine was the Arabian or one-humped camel, Camelus arabicus . The dromedary is a swifter animal than the baggage-camel, and is used chiefly for riding purposes; it is merely a finer breed than the other. The Arabs call it the heirie . The speed, of the dromedary has been greatly exaggerated, the Arabs asserting that it is swifter than the horse. Eight or nine miles an hour is the utmost it is able to perform; this pace, however, it is able to keep up for hours together. The Arabian camel carries about 500 pounds. "The hump on the camel's back is chiefly a store of fat, from which the animal draws as the wants of his system require; and the Arab is careful to see that the hump is in good condition before a long journey. Another interesting adaptation is the thick sole which protects the foot of the camel from the burning sand. The nostrils may be closed by valves against blasts of sand. Most interesting is the provision for drought made by providing the second stomach with great cells in which water is long retained. Sight and smell is exceedingly acute in the camel."--Johnson's Encyc. It is clear from (Genesis 12:16) that camels were early known to the Egyptians. The importance of the camel is shown by (Genesis 24:64; 37:25; Judges 7:12; 1 Samuel 27:9; 1 Kings 19:2; 2 Chronicles 14:15; Job 1:3; Jeremiah 49:29,32) and many other texts. John the Baptist wore a garment made of camel hair, (Matthew 3:4; Mark 1:6) the coarser hairs of the camel; and some have supposed that Elijah was clad in a dress of the same stuff.
(full of grain), the place in which Jair the judge was buried. (Judges 10:5)
There can be no doubt that "camphire" is the Lawsonia alba of botanists, the henna of Arabian naturalists. The henna plant grows in Egypt, Syria, Arabia and northern India. The flowers are white and grow in clusters, and are very fragrant. The whole shrub is from four to six feet high, (Song of Solomon 4:13)
(place of reeds) of Galilee, once Cana in Galilee, a village or town not far from Capernaum, memorable as the scene of Christ's first miracle, (John 2:1,11; 4:46) as well as of a subsequent one, (John 4:46,54) and also as the native place of the apostle Nathanael. (John 21:2) The traditional site is at Kefr-Kenna, a small village about 4 1/2 miles northwest of Nazareth. The rival site is a village situated farther north, about five miles north of Seffurieh (Sepphoris) and nine north of Nazareth.
(Ca'nan) (low, flat).
(lit. lowland), a name denoting the country west of the Jordan and the Dead Sea, and between those waters and the Mediterranean; given by God to Abraham's posterity, the children of Israel. (Exodus 6:4; Leviticus 25:38) [Palestina And Palestine]
the designation of the apostle Simon, otherwise known as "Simon Zelotes." It occurs in (Matthew 10:4; Mark 3:18) and is derived from a Chaldee or Syriac word by which the Jewish sect or faction of the "Zealots" was designated--a turbulent and seditious sect, especially conspicuous at the siege of Jerusalem. They taught that all foreign rule over Jews was unscriptural, and opposed that rule in every way.
a word used in two senses:
(Matthew 10:4) Used in the Revised Version in place of "Canaanite." [See Canaanite, The]
(prince of servants), a queen of Ethiopia (Meroe), mentioned (Acts 8:27) (A.D. 38.) The name was not a proper name of an individual, but that of a dynasty of Ethiopian queens.
in (Matthew 5:15; Mark 4:21) is merely a lamp-stand, made in various forms, to hold up the simple Oriental hand-lamps.
which Moses was commanded to make for the tabernacle, is described (Exodus 25:31-37; 37:17-24) It was not strictly a "candlestick," as it held seven richly-adorned lamps. With its various appurtenances it required a talent of "pure gold;" and it was not moulded, but "of beaten work," and has been estimated to have been worth in our money over,000. From the Arch of Titus, where the sculptured the spoils taken from Jerusalem, we learn that it consisted of a central stem, with six branches, three on each side. It was about five feet high. [See Arch Of Titus OF TITUS] The candlestick was placed on the south side of the first apartment of the tabernacle, opposite the table of shewbread, (Exodus 25:37) and was lighted every evening and dressed every morning. (Exodus 27:20,21; 30:8) comp. 1Sam 3:2 Each lamp was supplied with cotton and about two wineglasses of the purest olive oil, which was sufficient to keep it burning during a long night. In Solomon's temple, instead of or in addition to this candlestick there were ten golden candlesticks similarly embossed, five in the right and five on the left. (1 Kings 7:49; 2 Chronicles 4:7) They were taken to Babylon. (Jeremiah 52:19) In the temple of Zerubbabel there was again a single candlestick. 1Macc 1:21: 4:49.
(Ezekiel 27:23) [SEE CALNEH]
may be generally described as the "collection of books which form the original and authoritative written rule of the faith and practice of the Christian Church," i.e. the Old and New Testaments. The word canon, in classical Greek, is properly a straight rod, "a rule" in the widest sense, and especially in the phrases "the rule of the Church," "the rule of faith," "the rule of truth," The first direct application of the term canon to the Scriptures seems to be in the verses of Amphilochius (cir. 380 A.D.), where the word indicates the rule by which the contents of the Bible must be determined, and thus secondarily an index of the constituent books. The uncanonical books were described simply as "those without" or "those uncanonized." The canonical books were also called "books of the testament," and Jerome styled the whole collection by the striking name of "the holy library," which happily expresses the unity and variety of the Bible. After the Maccabean persecution the history of the formation of the Canon is merged in the history of its contents. The Old Testament appears from that time as a whole. The complete Canon of the New Testament, as commonly received at present, was ratified at the third Council of Carthage (A.D. 397), and from that time was accepted throughout the Latin Church. Respecting the books of which the Canon is composed, see the article Bible. (The books of Scripture were not made canonical by act of any council, but the council gave its sanction to the results of long and careful investigations as to what books were really of divine authority and expressed the universally-accepted decisions of the church. The Old Testament Canon is ratified by the fact that the present Old Testament books were those accepted in the time of Christ and endorsed by him, and that of 275 quotations of the Old Testament in the New, no book out of the Canon is quoted from except perhaps the word of Enoch in Jude.--ED.)
Judith 10:21; 13:9; 16:19. The canopy of Holofernes is the only one mentioned.
(Song of Songs), entitled in the Authorized Version THE SONG OF Solomon. It was probably written by Solomon about B.C. 1012. It may be called a drama, as it contains the dramatic evolution of a simple love-story. Meaning.-- The schools of interpretation may be divided into three: the mystical or typical, the allegorical, and the literal .
(village of Nahum) was on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee. (Matthew 4:13) comp. John 6:24 It was in the "land of Gennesaret," [ (Matthew 14:34) comp. John 6:17,21,24 ] It was of sufficient size to be always called a "city," (Matthew 9:1; Mark 1:33) had its own synagogue, in which our Lord frequently taught, (Mark 1:21; Luke 4:33,38; John 6:59) and there was also a customs station, where the dues were gathered both by stationary and by itinerant officers. (Matthew 9:9; 17:24; Mark 2:14; Luke 5:27) The only interest attaching to Capernaum is as the residence of our Lord and his apostles, the scene of so many miracles and "gracious words." It was when he returned thither that he is said to have been "in the house." (Mark 2:1) The spots which lay claim to its site are,
one of the numerous words employed in the Bible to denote a village or collection of dwellings smaller than a city (Ir). Mr Stanley proposes to render it by "hamlet." In names of places it occurs in Chephar-he-Ammonai, Chephirah, Caphar-salama. To us its chief interest arises from its forming a part of the name of Capernaum, i.e. Capharnahum.
(a crown), thrice mentioned as the primitive seat of the Philistines, (2:23; Jeremiah 47:4; Amos 9:7) who are once called Caphtorim . (2:23) Supposed to be in Egypt, or near to it in Africa.
(province of good horses), (Acts 2:3; 1 Peter 1:1) the largest province in ancient Asia Minor. Cappadocia is an elevated table-land intersected by mountain chains. It seems always to have been deficient in wood, but it was a good grain country, and particularly famous for grazing. Its Roman metropolis was Caesarea. The native Cappadocians seem to have originally belonged to the Syrian stock.
A prisoner of war. Such were usually treated with great cruelty by the heathen nations. They were kept for slaves, and often sold; but this was a modification of the ancient cruelty, and a substitute for putting them to death Although the treatment of captives by the Jews seems sometimes to be cruel, it was very much milder than that of the heathen, and was mitigated, as far as possible in the circumstances, by their civil code.
The present article is confined to the forcible deportation of the Jew; from their native land, and their forcible detention, under the Assyrian or Babylonian kings. Captives of Israel.--The kingdom of Israel was invaded by three or four successive kings of Assyria. Pul or Surdanapalus, according to Rawlinson, imposed a tribute (B.C. 771 or 712), Rawl.) upon Menahem. (2 Kings 15:19) and 1Chr 5:26 Tiglath-pileser carried away (B.C. 740) the trans-Jordanic tribes, (1 Chronicles 5:26) and the inhabitants of Galilee, (2 Kings 15:29) comp. Isai 9:1 To Assyria. Shalmaneser twice invaded, (2 Kings 17:3,5) the kingdom which remained to Hoshea, took Samaria (B.C. 721) after a siege of three years, and carried Israel away into Assyria. This was the end of the kingdom of the ten tribes of Israel. Captivities of Judah .--Sennacherib (B.C. 713) is stated to have carried into Assyria 200,000 captives from the Jewish cities which he took. (2 Kings 18:13) Nebuchadnezzar, in the first half of his reign (B.C. 606-562), repeatedly invaded Judea, besieged Jerusalem, carried away the inhabitants to Babylon, and destroyed the temple. The 70 years of captivity predicted by Jeremiah, (Jeremiah 25:12) are dated by Prideaux from B.C. 606. The captivity of Ezekiel dates from B.C. 598, when that prophet, like Mordecai the uncle of Esther (Esther 2:6) accompanied Jehoiachin. The captives were treated not as slaves but as colonists. The Babylonian captivity was brought to a close by the decree, (Ezra 1:2) of Cyrus (B.C. 536), and the return of a portion of the nation under Sheshbazzar or Zerubbabel (B.C. 535), Ezra (B.C. 458) and Nehemiah (B.C. 445). Those who were left in Assyria, (Esther 8:9,11) and kept up their national distinctions, were known as The Dispersion. (John 7:35; 1:1; James 1:1) The lost tribes.--Many attempts have been made to discover the ten tribes existing as a distinct community; but though history bears no witness of the present distinct existence, it enables us to track the footsteps of the departing race in four directions after the time of the Captivity.
This word represents two Hebrew words. The first may he a general term to denote any bright, sparkling gem, (Isaiah 54:12) the second, (Exodus 28:17; 39:10; Ezekiel 28:13) is supposed to be and smaragdus or emerald.
(severe), the seventh of the seven "chamberlains," i.e. eunuchs, of King Ahasuerus. (Esther 1:10) (B.C. 483.).
(fortress of Chemosh) occupied nearly the site of the later Mabug or Hierapolis. It seems to have commanded the ordinary passage of the Euphrates at Bir or Birekjik . Carchemish appears to have been taken by Pharoah Necho shortly after the battle of Megiddo (cir. B.C. 608), and retaken by Nebuchadnezzar after a battle three years later, B.C. 605. (Jeremiah 46:2)
(bald head), father of Johanan, (2 Kings 25:23) elsewhere spelt Kareah.
the southern part of the region which int he New Testament is called Asia, and the southwestern part of the peninsula of Asia Minor. (Acts 20:15; 27:7)
(fruitful place or park).
a Christian at Troas. (2 Timothy 4:13)
This word signifies what we now call "baggage." In the margin of (1 Samuel 17:20) and 1Sam 26:5-7 And there only, "carriage" is employed int he sense of a wagon or cart.
(illustrious), one of the seven princes of Persia and Media. (Esther 1:14)
(Genesis 45:19,27; Numbers 7:3,7,8) a vehicle drawn by cattle, (2 Samuel 6:6) to be distinguished from the chariot drawn by horses. Carts and wagons were either open or covered, (Numbers 7:3) and were used for conveyance of person, (Genesis 45:19) burdens, (1 Samuel 6:7,8) or produce. (Amos 2:13) The only cart used in western Asia has two wheels of solid wood.
The arts of carving and engraving were much in request in the construction of both the tabernacle and the temple. (Exodus 31:5; 35:33; 1 Kings 6:18,35; Psalms 74:6) as well as in the ornamentation of the priestly dresses. (Exodus 28:9-36; 2 Chronicles 2:7,14; Zechariah 3:9)
(silvery, white), a place of uncertain site on the road between Babylon and Jerusalem. (Ezra 8:17)
(fortified), a Mizraite people or tribe. (Genesis 10:14; 1 Chronicles 1:12)
(Exodus 30:24; Ezekiel 27:19) The cassia bark of commerce is yielded by various kinds of Cinnamomum, which grow in different parts of India. The Hebrew word in (Psalms 45:8) is generally supposed to be another term for cassia.
[Fenced Cities CITIES]
(Acts 28:11) the twin sons of Jupiter and Leda, were regarded as the tutelary divinities of sailors; hence their image was often used as a figure-head for ships. They appeared in heaven as the constellation Gemini . In art they were sometimes represented simply as stars hovering over a ship.
The representative in the Authorized Version of the Hebrew word chasil and yelek .
(Acts 27:16) The form given in the Revised Version to Clauda, an island south of Crete. It bears a closer relation to the modern name Gaudonesi of the Greek, the Gauda of P. Mela. (Clauda .--ED.)
a sort of ornamental head-dress, (Isaiah 3:18) with a net for its base. The name is derived from the caul, the membranous bag which encloses the heart--the pericardium.--ED.
The most remarkable caves noticed in Scripture are, that in which Lot dwelt after the destruction of Sodom, (Genesis 19:30) the cave of Machpelah, (Genesis 23:17) cave of Makkedah, (Joshua 10:10) cave of Adullam, (1 Samuel 22:1) cave od Engedi, (1 Samuel 24:3) Obadiah's cave, (1 Kings 18:4) Elijah's cave in Horeb, (1 Kings 19:9) the rock sepulchres of Lazarus and of our Lord. (Matthew 27:60; John 11:38) Caves were used for temporary dwelling-places and for tombs.
The Hebrew word erez, invariably rendered "cedar" by the Authorized Version, stands for that tree in most of the passages where the word occurs. While the word is sometimes used in a wider sense, (Leviticus 14:6) for evergreen cone-bearing trees, generally the cedar of Lebanon (Cedrus libani) is intended. (1 Kings 7:2; 10:27; Psalms 92:12; Song of Solomon 5:15; Isaiah 2:13; Ezekiel 31:3-6) The wood is of a reddish color, of bitter taste and aromatic odor, offensive to insects, and very durable. The cedar is a type of the Christian, being evergreen, beautiful, aromatic, wide spreading, slow growing, long lived, and having many uses. As far as is at present known, the cedar of Lebanon is confined in Syria to one valley of the Lebanon range, viz., that of the Kedisha river, which flows from near the highest point of the range westward to the Mediterranean, and enters the sea at the port of Tripoli. The grove is at the very upper part of the valley, about 15 miles from the sea, 6500 feet above that level, and its position is moreover above that of all other arboreous vegetation. ("Of the celebrated cedars on Mount Lebanon, eleven groves still remain. The famous B'Sherreh grove is three-quarters of a mile in circumference, and contains about 400 trees, young and old. Perhaps a dozen of these are very old; the largest, 63 feet in girth and 70 feet high, is thought by some to have attained the age of 2000 years."--Johnson's Encycl.)
(John 18:1) [SEE Kidron, Or Kedron]
The descriptions of Scripture, (1 Kings 6:9,15; 7:3; 2 Chronicles 3:5,9; Jeremiah 22:14; Haggai 1:4) and of Josephus, show that the ceilings of the temple and the palaces of the Jewish kings were formed of cedar planks applied to the beams or joists crossing from wall to wall. "Oriental houses seem to have been the reverse of ours, the ceiling being of wood, richly ornamented, and the floor of plaster or tiles."
(accurately Cenchre'ae) (millet), the eastern harbor of Corinth (i.e. its harbor on the Saronic Gulf) and the emporium of its trade with the Asiatic shores of the Mediterranean, as Lechaeum on the Crointhian Gulf connected it with Italy and the west. St. Paul sailed from Cenchrae, (Acts 18:18) on his return to Syria from his second missionary journey. An organized church seems to have been formed here. (Romans 16:1)
A small portable vessel of metal fitted to receive burning coals from the altar, and on which the incense for burning was sprinkled. (2 Chronicles 26:19; Luke 1:9) The only distinct precepts regarding the use of the censer are found in (Leviticus 16:12) and in (Numbers 4:14) Solomon prepared "censers of pure gold" as part of the temple furniture. (1 Kings 7:50; 2 Chronicles 4:22) The word rendered "censer" in (Hebrews 9:4) probably means the "altar of incense."
the husk of corn or wheat which was separated from the grain by being thrown into the air, the wind blowing away the chaff, while the grain was saved. The carrying away of chaff by the wind is an ordinary scriptural image of the destruction of the wicked and of their powerlessness to resist God's judgments. (Psalms 1:4; Isaiah 17:13; Hosea 13:3; Zephaniah 2:2)
Chains were used,
only in (Revelation 21:19) The name is applied in modern mineralogy to one of the varieties of agate. It is generally translucent and exhibits a great variety of colors. So named because it was found near the ancient Chalcedon, near Constantinople.
(1 Kings 4:31) [Calcol]
more correctly Chaldae'a, the ancient name of a country of Asia bordering on the Persian Gulf. Chaldea proper was the southern part of Babylonia, and is used in Scripture to signify that vast alluvial plain which has been formed by the deposits of the Euphrates and the Tigris. This extraordinary flat, unbroken except by the works of man, extends a distance of 400 miles along the course of the rivers, and is on an average about 100 miles in width. In addition to natural advantages these plains were nourished by a complicated system of canals, and vegetation flourished bountifully. It is said to be the only country in the world where wheat grows wild. Herodotus declared (i. 193) that grain commonly returned two hundred fold to the sower, and occasionally three hundred fold. Cities.--Babylonia has long been celebrated for the number and antiquity of its cities. The most important of those which have been identified are Borsippa (Birs-Nimrun), Sippara or Sepharvaim (Mosaib), Cutha (Ibrahim), Calneh (Niffer), Erech (Warka), Ur (Mugheir), Chilmad (Kalwadha), Larancha (Senkereh), Is (Hit), Durabe (Akkerkuf); but besides these there were a multitude of others, the sites of which have not been determined. Present condition--This land, once so rich in corn and wine, is to-day but a mass of mounds, "an arid waste; the dense population of former times is vanished, and no man dwells there." The Hebrew prophets applied the term "land of the Chaldeans" to all Babylonia and "Chaldeans" to all the subjects of the Babylonian empire.
It appears that the Chaldeans (Kaldai or Kaldi) were in the earliest times merely one out of many Cushite tribes inhabiting the great alluvial plain known afterwards as Chaldea or Babylonia. Their special seat was probably that southern portion of the country which is found to have so late retained the name of Chaldea. In process of time, as the Kaldi grew in power, their name gradually prevailed over those of the other tribes inhabiting the country; and by the era of the Jewish captivity it had begun to be used generally for all the inhabitants of Babylonia. It appears that while, both in Assyria and in later Babylonia, the Shemitic type of speech prevailed for civil purposes, the ancient Cushite dialect was retained, as a learned language for scientific and religious literature. This is no doubt the "learning" and the "tongue" to which reference it made in the book of Daniel, (Daniel 1:4) The Chaldeans were really the learned class; they were priests, magicians or astronomers, and in the last of the three capacities they probably effected discoveries of great importance. In later times they seem to have degenerated into mere fortune-tellers.
[Chaldeans, Or Chaldees]
(Genesis 43:30; 2 Samuel 18:33; Psalms 19:5; Daniel 6:10) The word chamber in these passages has much the same significance as with us, meaning the private rooms of the house--the guest chamber, as with us, meaning a room set apart for the accommodation of the visiting friend. (Mark 14:14,15; Luke 22:12) The upper chamber was used more particularly for the lodgment of strangers. (Acts 9:37)
an officer attached to the court of a king, who formerly had charge of the private apartments or chambers of the palace. He kept the accounts of the public revenues. The office held by Blastus, "the king's chamberlain," was entirely different from this. (Acts 12:20) It was a post of honor which involved great intimacy and influence with the king. For chamberlain as used in the Old Testament, see [Eunuch]
a species of lizard. The reference in (Leviticus 11:30) is to some kind of an unclean animal, supposed to be the lizard, known by the name of the "monitor of the Nile," a large, strong reptile common in Egypt and other parts of Africa.
(pronounced often shame), the translation of the Hebrew zemer in (14:5) But the translation is incorrect; for there is no evidence that the chamois have ever been seen in Palestine or the Lebanon. It is probable that some mountain sheep is intended.
[Canaan, Canaan, The Land Of]
the capital of a pillar; i.e. the upper part, as the term is used in modern architecture.
(i.e. cheap man), merchant.
(ravine of craftsmen), a place near Lydda, a few miles east of Joppa. (1 Chronicles 4:14)
(2 Chronicles 35:20) [Carchemish]
a shallow vessel for receiving water or blood, also for presenting offerings of fine flour with oil. (Numbers 7:79) The daughter of Herodias brought the head of St. John the Baptist in a charger, (Matthew 14:8) probably a trencher or platter. [Basin]
a vehicle used either for warlike or peaceful purposes, but most commonly the former. The Jewish chariots were patterned after the Egyptian, and consisted of a single pair of wheels on an axle, upon which was a car with high front and sides, but open at the back. The earliest mention of chariots in Scripture is in Egypt, where Joseph, as a mark of distinction, was placed in Pharaoh's second chariot. (Genesis 41:43) Later on we find mention of Egyptian chariots for a warlike purpose. (Exodus 14:7) In this point of view chariots among some nations of antiquity, as elephants among others, may be regarded as filling the place of heavy artillery in modern times, so that the military power of a nation might be estimated by the number of its chariots. Thus Pharaoh in pursuing Israel took with him 600 chariots. The Philistines in Saul's time had 30,000. (1 Samuel 13:5) David took from Hadadezer, king of Zobah, 1000 chariots, (2 Samuel 8:4) and from the Syrians a little later 700, (2 Samuel 10:18) who in order to recover their ground, collected 32,000 chariots. (1 Chronicles 19:7) Up to this time the Israelites possessed few or no chariots. They were first introduced by David, (2 Samuel 8:4) who raised and maintained a force of 1400 chariots, (1 Kings 10:25) by taxation on certain cities agreeably to eastern custom in such matters. (1 Kings 9:19; 10:25) From this time chariots were regarded as among the most important arms of war. (1 Kings 22:34; 2 Kings 9:16,21; 13:7,14; 18:24; 23:30; Isaiah 31:1) Most commonly two persons, and sometimes three, rode in the chariot, of whom the third was employed to carry the state umbrella. (1 Kings 22:34; 2 Kings 9:20,24; Acts 8:38) The prophets allude frequently to chariots as typical of power. (Psalms 20:7; 104:3; Jeremiah 51:21; Zechariah 6:1)
(Acts 7:2,4) [Haran]
(a contraction of Chenaniah), one of the Levites who assisted at the solemn purification of the people under Ezra. (Nehemiah 9:4)
(length), a river in the "land of the Chaldeans." (Ezekiel 1:3; 3:15,23) etc. It is commonly regarded as identical with the Habor, (2 Kings 17:6) and perhaps the Royal Canal of Nebuchadnezzar,--the greatest of all the cuttings in Mesopotamia.
(cord), one of the singular topographical terms in which the ancient Hebrew language abounded. We find it always attached to the region of Argob. (3:4,13,14; 1 Kings 4:13)
(handful of sheaves), a king of Elam, in the time of Abraham, who with three other chiefs made war upon the kings of Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboim and Zoar, and reduced them to servitude. (Genesis 14:17)
is mentioned only three times in the Bible, and on each occasion under a different name in the Hebrew. (1 Samuel 17:18; 2 Samuel 17:29; Job 10:10) It is difficult to decide how far these terms correspond with our notion of cheese, for they simply express various degrees of coagulation. Cheese is not at the present day common among the Bedouin Arabs, butter being decidedly preferred; but there is a substance closely corresponding to those mentioned in 1Sam 17, 2Sam 17, consisting of coagulated buttermilk, which is dried until it become quite hard, and is then ground; the Arabs eat it mixed with butter.
(perfection), (Ezra 10:30) one who had a strange wife.
(completed), (Ezra 10:35) another like the above.
(capable), the son of Hezron. Same as Caleb. (1 Chronicles 2:9,18,42)
(those who go about in black, i.e. ascetics). In the Hebrew applied to the priests of the worship of false gods. (2 Kings 23:5; Hosea 10:5) in margin; (Zephaniah 1:4)
(subduer), the national deity of the Moabites. (Numbers 21:29; Jeremiah 48:7,13,46) In (Judges 11:24) he also appears as the god of the Ammonites. Solomon introduced, and Josiah abolished, the worship of Chemosh at Jerusalem. (1 Kings 11:7; 2 Kings 23:13) Also identified with Baal-peor, Baalzebub, Mars and Saturn.
(established by the Lord), chief of the Levites when David carried the ark to Jerusalem. (1 Chronicles 15:22; 26:29)
(hamlet of the Ammonites), a place mentioned among the town of Benjamin. (Joshua 18:24)
(the hamlet), one of the four cities of the Gibeonites, (Joshua 9:17) named afterwards among the towns of Benjamin. (Ezra 2:25; Nehemiah 7:29)
(lyre), one of the sons of Dishon the Horite "duke." (Genesis 36:26; 1 Chronicles 1:41)
(axe-men), (Ezekiel 25:16) same as Cherethites.
(executioners) and of King David. (2 Samuel 8:18; 15:18; 20:7,23; 1 Kings 1:38,44; 1 Chronicles 18:17) It is plain that these royal guards were employed as executioners., (2 Kings 11:4) and as couriers, (1 Kings 14:27) But it has been conjectured that they may have been foreign mercenaries, and therefore probably Philistines, of which name Pelethites may be only another form.
(cutting, ravine), the torrent-bed or wady in which Elijah hid himself during the early part of the three-years drought. (1 Kings 17:3,5) The position of the Cherith has been much disputed. The argument from probability is in favor of the Cherith being on the east of Jordan, and the name may possibly be discovered there.
apparently a place in Babylonia from which some persons of doubtful extraction returned to Judea with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:59; Nehemiah 7:61)
The symbolical figure so called was a composite creature-form which finds a parallel in the religious insignia of Assyria, Egypt and Persia, e.g. the sphinx, the winged bulls and lions of Nineveh, etc. A cherub guarded paradise. (Genesis 3:24) Figures of Cherubim were placed on the mercy-seat of the ark. (Exodus 25:18) A pair of colossal size overshadowed it in Solomon's temple with the canopy of their contiguously extended wings. (1 Kings 6:27) Those on the ark were to be placed with wings stretched forth, one at each end of the mercy-seat." Their wings were to be stretched upwards, and their faces "towards each other and towards the mercy-seat." It is remarkable that with such precise directions as to their position, attitude and material, nothing, save that they were winged, is said concerning their shape. On the whole it seems likely that the word "cherub" meant not only the composite creature-form, of which the man, lion, ox and eagle were the elements, but, further, some peculiar and mystical form. (Some suppose that the cherubim represented God's providence among men, the four faces expressing the characters of that providence: its wisdom and intelligence (man), its strength (ox), its kingly authority (lion), its swiftness, far-sighted (eagle). Others, combining all the other references with the description of the living creatures in Revelation, make the cherubim to represent God's redeemed people. The qualities of the four faces are those which belong to God's people. Their facing four ways, towards all quarters of the globe, represents their duty of extending the truth. The wings show swiftness of obedience; and only the redeemed can sing the song put in their mouths in (Revelation 5:8-14)--ED).
(hopes), a place named as one of the landmarks on the west part of the north boundary of Judah, (Joshua 15:10) probably Kesla, about six miles to the northeast of Ainshems, on the western mountains of Judah.
(increase), fourth son of Nahor. (Genesis 22:22)
(idolatrous), a town in the extreme south of Palestine, (Joshua 15:30) 15 Miles southwest of Beersheba. In (Joshua 19:4) the name is Bethul.
By this word are translated in the Authorized Version two distinct Hebrew terms:
(Heb. 'armon .) (Genesis 30:37; Ezekiel 31:8) Probably the "palm tree" (Platanus orientalis) is intended. This tree thrives best in low and rather moist situations in the north of Palestine, and resembles our sycamore or buttonwood (Platanus occidentalis).
(the loins), one of the towns of Issachar. (Joshua 19:18) From its position int he lists it appears to be between Jezreel and Shunem (Salam).
(lying), a name which occurs but once, (Genesis 38:5) probably the same as Achzib.
(a javelin), the name which in (1 Chronicles 13:9) is given to the threshing-floor at which the accident to the ark took place. In the parallel account in 2Sam 6 the name is given as NACHON.
The blessing of offspring, but especially of the male sex, is highly valued among all eastern nations, while a the absence is regarded as one of the severest punishments. (Genesis 16:2; 7:14; 1 Samuel 1:6; 2 Samuel 6:23; 2 Kings 4:14; Isaiah 47:9; Jeremiah 20:15; Psalms 127:3,5) As soon as the child was born it was washed in a bath, rubbed with salt and wrapped in swaddling clothes. (Ezekiel 16:4; Job 38:9; Luke 2:7) On the 8th day the rite of circumcision, in the case of a boy, was performed and a name given. At the end of a certain time (forty days if a son and twice as long if a daughter) the mother offered sacrifice for her cleansing. (Leviticus 12:1-8; Luke 2:22) The period of nursing appears to have been sometimes prolonged to three years. (Isaiah 49:15) 2 Macc. 7:27. The time of weaning was an occasion of rejoicing. (Genesis 21:8) Both boys and girls in their early years were under the care of the women. (Proverbs 31:1) Afterwards the boys were taken by the father under his charge. Daughters usually remained in the women's apartments till marriage. (Leviticus 21:9; Numbers 12:14; 1 Samuel 9:11) The authority of parents, especially of the father, over children was very great, as was also the reverence enjoined by the law to be paid to parents. The inheritance was divided equally between all the sons except the eldest, who received a double portion. (Genesis 25:31; 49:3; 21:17; Judges 11:2,7; 1 Chronicles 5:1,2) Daughters had by right no portion in the inheritance; but if a man had no son, his inheritance passed to his daughters, who were forbidden to marry out of the father's tribe. (Numbers 27:1,8; 36:2,8)
(like his father), a son of David by Abigail. [Abigail]
(pining, sickly), the son of Naomi and husband of Ruth. (Ruth 1:2-5; 4:9) (B.C. 1250.)
(enclosure), a place or country mentioned in conjunction with Sheba and Asshur. (Ezekiel 27:23)
(longing), a follower and probably a son, of Barzillai the Gileadite, who returned from beyond Jordan with David. (2 Samuel 19:37,38,40) (B C 1023.) David appears to have bestowed on him a possession at Bethlehem, on which, in later times, an inn or khan was standing. (Jeremiah 41:17)
(circuit), accurately Cinnareth, a fortified city in the tribe of Naphtali, (Joshua 19:35) only, of which no trace is found in later writers, and no remains by travellers.
(Numbers 34:11; Joshua 13:27) the inland sea, which is most similarly known to us as the "Lake of Gennesareth" or "Sea of Galilee."
[Chinnereth, Chinnereth, Sea Of]
(snowy), an island of the Aegean Sea, 12 miles from Smyrna. It is separated from the mainland by a strait of only 5 miles. Its length is about 12 miles, and in breadth it varies from 8 to 18. Paul passed it on his return voyage from Troas to Caesarea. Acts 20:15 it is now called Scio.
(confidence), father of Elidad, the prince of the tribe of Benjamin chosen to assist in the division of the land of Canaan among the tribes. (Numbers 34:21) (B.C. 1450.)
(loins of Tabor) a place to the border of which reached the border of Zebulun. (Joshua 19:12) It may be the village Iksal, which is now standing about 2 1/2 miles to the west of Mount Tabor.
(bruisers), a family or race descended from Javan. (Genesis 10:4; 1 Chronicles 1:7) Authorized Version Kittim. Chittim is frequently noticed in Scripture. (Numbers 24:24; Isaiah 23:1,12; Jeremiah 2:10; Ezekiel 27:6; Daniel 11:30) In the above passages, the "isles of Chittim," the "ships of Chittim, the "coasts of Chittim," are supposed to refer to the island of Cyprus. Josephus considered Cyprus the original seat of the Chittim. The name Chittim, which in the first instance had implied to Phoenicians only, passed over to the islands which they had occupied, and thence to the people who succeeded the Phoenicians in the occupation of them.
(a statue, perhaps of Saturn), an idol made by the Israelites in the wilderness. [Remphan]
(green herb), a woman mentioned in (1 Corinthians 1:11)
(1 Samuel 30:30) It may perhaps, be identified with Ashan of Simeon.
one of the cities in which our Lord's mighty works were done, but named only in his denunciation. Matt. 11:21; Luke 10:13 St. Jerome describes it as on the shore of the lake, two miles from Capernaum, but its modern site is uncertain.
(1 Chronicles 4:22) Perhaps the same as Achzib.
The disciples, we are told, (Acts 11:26) were first called Christians at Antioch on the Orontes, somewhere about A.D. 43. They were known to each other as, and were among themselves called, brethren, (Acts 15:1,23; 1 Corinthians 7:12) disciples, (Acts 9:26; 11:29) believers, (Acts 5:14) saints, (Romans 8:27; 15:25) The name "Christian," which, in the only other cases where it appears in the New Testament, (Acts 26:28; 1 Peter 4:16) is used contemptuously, could not have been applied by the early disciples to themselves, but was imposed upon them by the Gentile world. There is no reason to suppose that the name "Christian" of itself was intended as a term of scurrility or abuse, though it would naturally be used with contempt.
the name originally given to the record made by the appointed historiographers in the kingdoms of Israel and Judah. In the LXX. these books are called Paralipomena (i.e. things omitted), which is understood as meaning that they are supplementary to the books of Kings. The constant tradition of the Jews is that these books were for the most part compiled by Ezra. One of the greatest difficulties connected with the captivity and return must have been the maintenance of that genealogical distribution of the land which yet was a vital point of the Jewish economy. To supply this want and that each tribe might secure the inheritance of its fathers on its return was one object of the author of these books. Another difficulty intimately connected with the former was the maintenance of the temple services at Jerusalem. Zerubbabel, and after him Ezra and Nehemiah, labored most earnestly to restore the worship of God among the people, and to reinfuse something of national life and spirit into their hearts. Nothing could more effectually aid these designs than setting before the people a compendious history of the kingdom of David, its prosperity under God; the sins that led to its overthrow; the captivity and return. These considerations explain the plan and scope of that historical work which consists of the two books of Chronicles. The first book contains the sacred history by genealogies from the Creation to David, including an account of David's reign. In the second book he continues the story, giving the history of the kings of Judah, without those of Israel, down to the return from the captivity. As regards the materials used by Ezra, they are not difficult to discover. The genealogies are obviously transcribed from some register in which were preserved the genealogies of the tribes and families drawn up at different times; while the history is mainly drawn from the same document as those used in the books of King. [Kings, First And Second Books Of, BOOKS OF]
By this term we understand the technical and historical chronology of the Jews and their ancestors from the earliest time to the close of the New Testament Canon.
occurs only in (Revelation 21:20) The true chrysoprase is sometimes found in antique Egyptian jewelry set alternately with bits of lapis-lazuli. It is problem therefore, that this is the stone named as the tenth in the walls of the heavenly Jerusalem.
one of the precious stones in the foundation of the heavenly Jerusalem. (Revelation 21:20) It has been already stated [Beryl] that the chrysolite of the ancients is identical with the modern oriental topaz the tarhish of the Hebrew Bible.
Latin form of CHRYSOPRAS.
the name of a people in alliance with Egypt in the time of Nebuchadnezzar, (Ezekiel 30:5) and probably of northern Africa.
(1 Chronicles 18:8) called Berothai in (2 Samuel 8:8)
(chief of two governments), the king of Mesopotamia who oppressed Israel during eight years in the generation immediately following Joshua. (Judges 3:8) (B.C. after 1420.) His yoke was broken from the neck of the people of Israel by Othniel, Caleb's nephew. (Judges 3:10)
properly Chu'zas (the seer), the house-steward of Herod Antipas. (Luke 8:3)
(the land of Celix), a maritime province int he southeast of Asia Minor, bordering on Pamphylia in the west, Lycaonia and Cappadocia in the north, and Syria in the east. (Acts 6:9) Cilicia was from its geographical position the high road between Syria and the west; it was also the native country of St. Paul, hence it was visited by him, firstly, soon after his conversion, (Acts 9:30; Galatians 1:21) and again in his second apostolical journey. (Acts 15:41)
a well-known aromatic substance, the rind of the Laurus cinnamomum, called Korunda-gauhah in Ceylon. It is mentioned in (Exodus 30:23) as one of the component parts of the holy anointing oil. In (Revelation 18:13) it is enumerated among the merchandise of the great Babylon.
(1 Kings 15:20) This was possibly the small enclosed district north of Tiberias, and by the side of the lake, afterwards known as "the plain of Gennesareth."
was peculiarly, though not exclusively, a Jewish rite. It was enjoined upon Abraham, the father of the nation, by God, at the institution and as the token of the covenant, which assured to him and his descendants the promise of the Messiah. Gen. 17. It was thus made a necessary condition of Jewish nationality. Every male child was to be circumcised when eight days old, (Leviticus 12:3) on pain of death. The biblical notice of the rite describes it as distinctively Jewish; so that in the New Testament "the circumcision" and "the uncircumcision" are frequently used as synonyms for the Jews and the Gentiles. The rite has been found to prevail extensively in both ancient and modern times. Though Mohammed did not enjoin circumcision in the Koran, he was circumcised himself, according to the custom of his country; and circumcision is now as common among the Mohammedans as among the Jews. The process of restoring a circumcised person to his natural condition by a surgical operation was sometimes undergone. Some of the Jews in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, wishing to assimilate themselves to the heathen around them, "made themselves uncircumcised." Against having recourse to this practice, from an excessive anti-Judaistic tendency, St. Paul cautions the Corinthians. (1 Corinthians 7:18)
the father of Saul, (Acts 13:21) usually called Kish.
a receptacle for water, either conducted from an external spring or proceeding from rain-fall. The dryness of the summer months and the scarcity of springs in Judea made cisterns a necessity, and they are frequent throughout the whole of Syria and Palestine. On the long-forgotten way from Jericho to Bethel, "broken cisterns" of high antiquity are found at regular intervals. Jerusalem depends mainly for water upon its cisterns, of which almost every private house possesses one or more, excavated in the rock on which the city is built. The cisterns have usually a round opening at the top, sometimes built up with stonework above and furnished with a curb and a wheel for a bucket. (Ecclesiastes 12:6) Empty cisterns were sometimes used as prisons and places of confinement. Joseph was cast into a "pit," (Genesis 37:22) as was Jeremiah. (Jeremiah 38:6)
The earliest notice in Scripture of city-building is of Enoch by Cain, in the land of his exile. (Genesis 4:17) After the confusion of tongues the descendants of Nimrod founded Babel, Erech, Accad and Calneh, in the land of Shinar, and Asshur, a branch from the same stock, built Nineveh, Rehoboth-by-the-river, Calah and Resen, the last being "a great city." The earliest description of a city, properly so called, is that of Sodom, (Genesis 19:1-22) Even before the time of Abraham there were cities in Egypt, (Genesis 12:14,15; Numbers 13:22) and the Israelites, during their sojourn there, were employed in building or fortifying the "treasure cities" of Pithom and Raamses. (Exodus 1:11) Fenced cities, fortified with high walls, (3:5) were occupied and perhaps partly rebuilt after the conquest, by the settled inhabitants of Syria on both sides of the Jordan.
six Levitical cities specially chosen for refuge to the involuntary homicide until released from banishment by the death of the high priest. (Numbers 35:6,13,15; Joshua 20:2,7,9) There were three on each side of Jordan.
1 Macc. 8:5. [Chittim, Kittim]
The use of this term in Scripture has exclusive reference to the usages of the Roman empire. The privilege of Roman citizenship was originally acquired in various ways, as by purchase, (Acts 22:28) by military services, by favor or by manumission. The right once obtained descended to a man's children. (Acts 22:28) Among the privileges attached to citizenship we may note that a man could not be bound or imprisoned without a formal trial, (Acts 22:29) still less be scourged. (Acts 16:37) Cic. in Verr. v. 63,66. Another privilege attaching to citizenship was the appeal from a provincial tribunal to the emperor at Rome. (Acts 25:11)
[Apple Tree, Apple TREE]
(lame), (Acts 27:16) a small island nearly due west of Cape Matala on the south coast of Crete, and nearly due south of Phoenice; now Gozzo .
(lame), a Christian woman mentioned in (2 Timothy 4:21) as saluting Timotheus.
(lame), fourth Roman emperor, reigned from 41 to 54 A.D. He was nominated to the supreme power mainly through the influence of Herod Agrippa the First. In the reign of Claudius there were several famines, arising from unfavorable harvests, and one such occurred in Palestine and Syria. (Acts 11:28-30) Claudius was induced by a tumult of the Jews in Rome to expel them from the city. cf. (Acts 18:2) The date of this event is uncertain. After a weak and foolish reign he was poisoned by his fourth wife, Agrippina, the mother of Nero, October 13, A.D. 54.
As the sediment of water remaining in pits or in streets, the word is used frequently in the Old Testament. (Psalms 18:42; Isaiah 57:20; Jeremiah 38:6) and in the New Testament, (John 9:6) a mixture of sand or dust with spittle. It is also found in the sense of potter's clay. (Isaiah 41:25) The great seat of the pottery of the present day in Palestine is Gaza, where are made the vessels in dark-blue clay so frequently met with. Another use of clay was for sealing. (Job 38:14) Our Lord's tomb may have been thus sealed, (Matthew 27:66) as also the earthen vessel containing the evidences of Jeremiah's purchase. (Jeremiah 32:14) The seal used for public documents was rolled on the moist clay, and the tablet was then placed in the fire and baked.
(mild, merciful), (Philippians 4:3) a fellow laborer of St. Paul when he was at Philippi. (A.D. 57.) It was generally believed in the ancient Church that this Clement was identical with the bishop of Rome who afterwards became so celebrated.
(of a renowned father), one of the two disciples who were going to Emmaus on the day of the resurrection. (Luke 24:18) Some think the same as Cleophas in (John 19:25) But they are probably two different persons. Cleopas is a Greek name, contracted from Cleopater, while Cleophas, or Clopas as in the Revised Version, is an Aramaic name, the same as Alphaeus.
Revised Version Clo'pas, the husband of Mary the sister of Virgin Mary. (John 19:25) He was probably dead before Jesus' ministry began, for his wife and children constantly appear with Joseph's family in the time of our Lord's ministry.--Englishman's Cyc. [Cleopas; Alphaeus]
The shelter given, and refreshment of rain promised, by clouds give them their peculiar prominence in Oriental imagery. When a cloud appears rain is ordinarily apprehended, and thus the "cloud without rain" becomes a proverb for the man of promise without performance. (Proverbs 16:15; Isaiah 18:4; 25:5; Jude 1:12) comp. Prov 25:14 The cloud is a figure of transitoriness, (Job 30:15; Hosea 6:4) and of whatever intercepts divine favor or human supplication. (Lamentations 2:1; 3:44) A bright cloud at times visited and rested on the mercy-seat. (Exodus 29:42,43; 1 Kings 8:10,11; 2 Chronicles 5:14; Ezekiel 43:4) and was by later writers named Shechinah.
The pillar of cloud by day and of fire by night that God caused to pass before the camp of the children of Israel when in the wilderness. The cloud, which became a pillar when the host moved, seems to have rested at other times on the tabernacle, whence god is said to have "come down in the pillar." (Numbers 12:5; Exodus 33:9,10) It preceded the host, apparently resting on the ark which led the way. (Exodus 13:21; 40:36) etc.; Numb 9:15-23; 10:34
patched. (Joshua 9:5)
(nidus), a city of great consequence, situated at the extreme south west of the peninsula of Asia Minor, on a promontory now called Cape Crio, which projects between the islands of Cos and Rhodes. See (Acts 21:1) It is now in ruins.
The first and most frequent use of the word rendered coal is a live ember, burning fuel. (Proverbs 26:21) In (2 Samuel 22:9,13) "coals of fire" are put metaphorically for the lightnings proceeding from God. (Psalms 18:8,12,13; 140:10) In (Proverbs 26:21) fuel not yet lighted is clearly signified. The fuel meant in the above passage is probably charcoal, and not coal in our sense of the word.
border, with no more reference to lands bordering on the sea than to any other bordering lands.
(Matthew 26:34; Mark 13:35; 14:30) etc. The domestic cock and hen were early known to the ancient Greeks and Romans, and as no mention is made in the Old Testament of these birds, and no figures of them occur on the Egyptian monuments, they probably came into Judea with the Romans, who, as is well known, prized these birds both as articles of food and for cock-fighting.
probably signifies bad weeds or fruit. (Job 31:40)
(hollow Syria), the remarkable valley or hollow which intervenes between Libanus and Anti-Libanus, stretching a distance of nearly a hundred miles. The only mention of the region as a separate tract of country which the Jewish Scriptures contain is probably that in (Amos 1:5) where "the inhabitants of the plain of Aven" are threatened in conjunction with those of Damascus. The word is given in the Authorized Version as CELO-SYRIA.
(argaz), a movable box hanging from the side of a cart. (1 Samuel 6:8,11,15) The word is found nowhere else.
(all-seeing), a man of the tribe of Judah in the time of Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 3:15; 11:5) (B.C. 536.)
For the proper sense of this term, as it occurs in (Judges 8:26) see Earrings.
In (2 Kings 22:14) it is probable that the word translated "college" represents here not an institution of learning, but that part of Jerusalem known as the "lower city" or suburb, built on the hill Akra, including the Bezetha or new city.
a designation of Philippi, in (Acts 16:12) After the battle of Actium, Augustus assigned to his veterans those parts of Italy which had espoused the cause of Antony, and transported many of the expelled inhabitants to Philippi, Dyrrhachium and other cities. In this way Philippi was made a Roman colony with the "Jus Italicum." At first the colonists were all Roman citizens, and entitled to vote at Rome.
The terms relative to color, occurring in the Bible, may be arranged in two classes, the first including those applied to the description of natural objects, the second those artificial mixtures which were employed in dyeing or painting. The purple and the blue were derived from a small shellfish found in the Mediterranean, and were very costly, and hence they were the royal colors. Red, both scarlet and crimson, was derived from an insect resembling the cochineal. The natural colors noticed in the Bible are white, black, red, yellow and green. The only fundamental color of which the Hebrews appear to have had a clear conception was red ; and even this is not very often noticed.
more properly Colos'sae, was a city of Phrygia in Asia Minor, in the upper part of the basin of the Maeander, on the Lycus. Hierapolis and Laodicea were in its immediate neighborhood. (Colossians 1:2; 4:13,15,16) see Reve 1:11; 3:14 St. Paul is supposed by some to have visited Colosse and founded or confirmed the Colossian church on his third missionary journey. (Acts 18:23; 19:1)
was written by the apostle St. Paul during his first captivity at Rome. (Acts 28:16) (A.D. 62.) The epistle was addressed to Christians of the city of Colosse, and was delivered to them by Tychicus, whom the apostle had sent both to them, (Colossians 4:7,8) and to the church of Ephesus, (Ephesians 6:21) to inquire into their state and to administer exhortation and comfort. The main object of the epistle is to warn the Colossians against the spirit of semi-Judaistic and semi-Oriental philosophy which was corrupting the simplicity of their belief, and was noticeably tending to obscure the eternal glory and dignity of Christ. The similarity between this epistle and that to the Ephesians is striking. The latter was probably written at a later date.
(John 14:16) The name given by Christ to the Holy Spirit. The original word is Paraclete, and means first Advocate, a defender, helper, strengthener, as well as comforter.
From the time that men began to live in cities, trade, in some shape, must have been carried on to supply the town-dwellers with necessaries from foreign as well as native sources, for we find that Abraham was rich, not only in cattle, but in silver, gold and gold and silver plate and ornaments. (Genesis 13:2; 24:22,53) Among trading nations mentioned in Scripture, Egypt holds in very early times a prominent position. The internal trade of the Jews, as well as the external, was much promoted by the festivals, which brought large numbers of persons to Jerusalem. (1 Kings 8:63) The places of public market were chiefly the open spaces near the gates, to which goods were brought for sale by those who came from the outside. (Nehemiah 13:15,16; Zephaniah 1:10) The traders in later times were allowed to intrude into the temple, in the outer courts of which victims were publicly sold for the sacrifice. (Zechariah 14:21; Matthew 21:12; John 2:14)
(made by Jehovah), one of the chiefs of the Levites in the time of Josiah. (2 Chronicles 35:9) (B.C. 628).
The difference between wife and concubine was less marked among the Hebrews than among us, owing to the absence of moral stigma. The difference probably lay in the absence of the right of the bill of divorce, without which the wife could not be repudiated. With regard to the children of wife and of concubine, there was no such difference as our illegitimacy implies. The latter were a supplementary family to the former; their names occur in the patriarchal genealogies, (Genesis 22:24; 1 Chronicles 1:22) and their position and provision would depend on the father's will. (Genesis 25:6) The state of concubinage is assumed and provided for by the law of Moses. A concubine would generally be either (1) a Hebrew girl bought of her father; (2) a Gentile captive taken in war; (3) a foreign slave bought; or (4) a Canaanitish woman, bond or free. The rights of the first two were protected by the law, (Exodus 21:7; 21:10-14) but the third was unrecognized and the fourth prohibited. Free Hebrew women also might become concubines. To seize on royal concubines for his use was probably the intent of Abner's act, (2 Samuel 3:7) and similarly the request on behalf of Adonijah was construed. (1 Kings 2:21-24)
meaning an aqueduct or trench through which water was carried. Tradition, both oral and as represented by Talmudical writers, ascribes to Solomon the formation of the original aqueduct by which water was brought to Jerusalem.
(shaphan), a gregarious animal of the class Pachydermata, which is found in Palestine, living in the caves and clefts of the rocks, and has been erroneously identified with the rabbit or coney. Its scientific name as Hyrax syriacus . The hyrax satisfies exactly the expressions in (Psalms 104:18; Proverbs 30:26) Its color is gray or brown on the back, white on the belly; it is like the alpine marmot, scarcely of the size of the domestic cat, having long hair, a very short tail and round ears. It is found on Lebanon and in the Jordan and Dead Sea valleys.
This describes the Hebrew people in its collective capacity under its peculiar aspect as a holy community, held together by religious rather than political bonds. Sometimes it is used in a broad sense as inclusive of foreign settlers, (Exodus 12:19) but more properly as exclusively appropriate to the Hebrew element of the population. (Numbers 15:15) The congregation was governed by the father or head of each family and tribe. The number of these representatives being inconveniently large for ordinary business, a further selection was made by Moses of 70, who formed a species of standing committee. (Numbers 11:16) Occasionally indeed the whole body of people was assembled at the door of the tabernacle, hence usually called the tabernacle of the congregation. (Numbers 10:3) The people were strictly bound by the acts of their representatives, even in cases where they disapproved of them. (Joshua 9:18)
(appointed by the Lord), a Levite, ruler of the offerings and tithes in the time of Hezekiah. (2 Chronicles 31:12,13) (B.C. 726.)
This term (with one exception)-- (Isaiah 1:13) is applied invariably to meetings of a religious character, in contradistinction to congregation.
As meet did not form an article of ordinary diet among the Jews, the art of cooking was not carried to any perfection. Few animals were slaughtered except for purposes of hospitality or festivity. The proceedings on such occasions appear to have been as follows:--On the arrival of a guest, the animal, either a kid, lamb or calf, was killed, (Genesis 18:7; Luke 15:23) its throat being cut so that the blood might be poured out, (Leviticus 7:26) it was then flayed, and was ready for either roasting or boiling. In the former case the animal was preserved entire, (Exodus 12:46) and roasted either over a fire, (Exodus 12:8) of wood, (Isaiah 44:16) or perhaps in an oven, consisting simply of a hole dug in the earth, well heated, and covered up. Boiling, however, was the more usual method of cooking.
(Acts 21:1) [Cos, Or Coos]
Heb. nechosheth, in the Authorized Version always rendered "brass," except in (Ezra 8:27) and Jere 15:12 It was almost exclusively used by the ancients for common purposes, and for every kind of instrument, as chains, pillars, lavers and the other temple vessels. We read also of copper mirrors, (Exodus 38:8) and even of copper arms, as helmets, spears, etc. (1 Samuel 17:5,6,38; 2 Samuel 21:16)
(Ezekiel 27:16) A production of the sea, formed by minute animals called zoophytes. It is their shell or house. It takes various forms, as of trees, shrubs, hemispheres. The principal colors are red and white. It was used for beads and ornaments. With regard to the estimation in which coral was held by the Jews and other Orientals, it must be remembered that coral varies in price with us. Pliny says that the Indians valued coral as the Romans valued pearls. (Job 28:18)
an offering to God of any sort, bloody or bloodless, but particularly in fulfillment of a vow. The law laid down rules for vows, (1) affirmative; (2) negative. (Leviticus 27:1; Numbers 30:1) ... Upon these rules the traditionists enlarged, and laid down that a man might interdict himself by vow, not only from using for himself, bur from giving to another or receiving from him, some particular object, whether of food or any other kind whatsoever. The thing thus interdicted was considered as corban . A person might thus exempt himself from any inconvenient obligation under plea of corban. It was practices of this sort that our Lord reprehended, (Matthew 15:5; Mark 7:11) as annulling the spirit of the law.
The materials of which cord was made varied according to the strength required; the strongest rope was probably made of strips of camel hide, as still used by the Bedouins. The finer sorts were made of flax, (Isaiah 19:9) and probably of reeds and rushes. In the New Testament the term is applied to the whip which our Saviour made, (John 2:15) and to the ropes of a ship. (Acts 27:32)
(Jude 1:11) [Korah, 1]
The plant called Coriandrum sativum is found in Egypt, Persia and India, and has a round tall stalk; it bears umbelliferous white or reddish flowers, from which arise globular, grayish, spicy seed-corns, marked with fine striae. It is mentioned twice in the Bible. (Exodus 16:31; Numbers 11:7)
an ancient and celebrated city of Greece, on the Isthmus of Corinth, and about 40 miles west of Athens. In consequence of its geographical position it formed the most direct communication between the Ionian and AEgean seas. A remarkable feature was the AcroCorinthus, a vast citadel of rock, which rises abruptly to the height of 2000 feet above the level of the sea, and the summit of which is so extensive that it once contained a whole town. The situation of Corinth, and the possession of its eastern and western harbors, Cenchreae and Lechaeum, are the secrets of its history. Corinth was a place of great mental activity, as well as of commercial and manufacturing enterprise. Its wealth was so celebrated as to be proverbial; so were the vice and profligacy of its inhabitants. The worship of Venus where was attended with shameful licentiousness. Corinth is still an episcopal see. The city has now shrunk to a wretched village, ont he old site and bearing the old name, which, however, is corrupted into Gortho . St. Paul preached here, (Acts 18:11) and founded a church, to which his Epistles to the Corinthians are addressed. [EPISTLES TO THE Corinthians, First Epistle To The, Corinthians, Second Epistle To The]
was written by the apostle St. Paul toward the close of his nearly three-years stay at Ephesus, (Acts 19:10; 20:31) which, we learn from (1 Corinthians 16:8) probably terminated with the Pentecost of A.D. 57 or 58. The bearers were probably (according to the common subscription) Stephanas, Fortunatus and Achaicus. It appears to have been called forth by the information the apostles had received of dissension in the Corinthian church, which may be thus explained:--The Corinthian church was planted by the apostle himself, (1 Corinthians 3:6) in his second missionary journey. (Acts 18:1) seq. He abode in the city a year and a half. (Acts 18:11) A short time after the apostle had left the city the eloquent Jew of Alexandria, Apollos, went to Corinth, (Acts 19:1) and gained many followers, dividing the church into two parties, the followers of Paul and the followers of Apollos. Later on Judaizing teachers from Jerusalem preached the gospel in a spirit of direct antagonism to St. Paul personally. To this third party we may perhaps add a fourth, that, under the name of "the followers of Christ," (1 Corinthians 2:12) sought at first to separate themselves from the factious adherence to particular teachers, but eventually were driven by antagonism into positions equally sectarian and inimical to the unity of the church. At this momentous period, before parties had become consolidated and that distinctly withdrawn from communion with one another, the apostle writes; and in the outset of the epistle, 1Cor 1-4:21, we have this noble and impassioned protest against this fourfold rending of the robe of Christ.
was written a few months subsequent to the first, in the same year--about the autumn of A.D. 57 or 58--at Macedonia. The epistle was occasioned by the information which the apostle had received form Titus, and also, as it would certainly seem probable, from Timothy, of the reception of the first epistle. This information, as it would seem from our present epistle, was mainly favorable; the better part of the church were returning to their spiritual allegiance to the founder, (2 Corinthians 1:13,14; 7:9,15,16) but there was still a faction who strenuously denied Paul's claim to apostleship. The contents of this epistle comprise, (1) the apostle's account of the character of his spiritual labors, chs. 1-7; (2) directions about the collections, chs. 8,9; (3) defence of his own apostolical character, chs. 10-13:10. The words in (1 Corinthians 5:9) seem to point to further epistles to the church by Paul, but we have no positive evidence of any.
the representative in the Authorized Version of the Hebrew words kaath and shalac . As to the former, see Pelican. Shalac occurs only as the name of an unclean bird in (Leviticus 11:17; 14:17) The word has been variously rendered. The etymology points to some plunging bird. The common cormorant (phalacrocorax carbo), which some writers have identified with the shalac, is unknown in the eastern Mediterranean; another species is found south of the Red Sea, but none on the west coast of Palestine.
The most common kinds were wheat, barley, spelt, Authorized Version, (Exodus 9:32) and Isai 28:25 "Rye;" (Ezekiel 4:9) "fitches" and millet; oats are mentioned only by rabbinical writers. Our Indian corn was unknown in Bible times. Corn-crops are still reckoned at twentyfold what was sown, and were anciently much more. (Genesis 41:22) The Jewish law permitted any one in passing through a filed of standing corn to pluck and eat. (23:25) see also Matt 12:1 From Solomon's time, (2 Chronicles 2:10,15) as agriculture became developed under a settled government, Palestine was a corn-exporting country, and her grain was largely taken by her commercial neighbor Tyre. (Ezekiel 27:17) comp. Amos 8:5
(of a horn), a Roman centurion of the Italian cohort stationed in Caesarea, (Acts 10:1) etc., a man full of good works and alms-deeds. With his household he was baptized by St. Peter, and thus Cornelius became the firstfruits of the Gentile world to Christ.
The "corner" of the field was not allowed, (Leviticus 19:9) to be wholly reaped. It formed a right of the poor to carry off what was so left, and this was a part of the maintenance from the soil to which that class were entitled. Under the scribes, minute legislation fixed one-sixtieth as the portion of a field which was to be left for the legal "corner." The proportion being thus fixed, all the grain might be reaped, and enough to satisfy the regulation subsequently separated from the whole crop. This "corner" was, like the gleaning, tithe-free.
a quoin or cornerstone, of great importance in binding together the sides of a building. The phrase "corner-stone" is sometimes used to denote any principal person, as the princes of Egypt, (Isaiah 19:13) and is thus applied to our Lord. (Isaiah 28:16; Matthew 21:42; 1 Peter 2:6,7)
(Heb. shophar), a loud-sounding instrument, made of the horn of a ram or a chamois (sometimes of an ox), and used by the ancient Hebrews for signals, (Leviticus 25:9) and much used by the priests. (1 Chronicles 15:28)
(now Stanchio or Stanko). This small island of the Grecian Archipelago has several interesting points of connection with the Jews. Herod the Great conferred many favors on the island. St. Paul, on the return from his third missionary journey, passed the night here, after sailing from Miletus. Probably referred to in (Acts 21:1)
(a diviner), son of Elmodam, in the line of Joseph the husband of Mary. (Luke 3:28)
Cotton is now both grown and manufactured in various parts of Syria and Palestine; but there is no proof that, till they came in contact with Persia, the Hebrews generally knew of it as a distinct fabric from linen. [Linen]
(Heb. chatser), an open enclosure surrounded by buildings, applied in the Authorized Version most commonly to the enclosures of the tabernacle and the temple. (Exodus 27:9; 40:33; Leviticus 6:16; 1 Kings 6:36; 7:8; 2 Kings 23:12; 2 Chronicles 33:5) etc.
The Heb. berith means primarily "a cutting," with reference to the custom of cutting or dividing animals in two and passing between the parts in ratifying a covenant. (Genesis 15; Jeremiah 34:18,19) In the New Testament the corresponding word is diathece (diatheke), which is frequently translated testament in the Authorized Version. In its biblical meaning two parties the word is used--
(thorn), a man among the descendants of Judah. (1 Chronicles 4:8)
(deceitful), daughter of Zur, a chief of the Midianites. (Numbers 25:15,18)
The crane (Grus cinerea) is a native of Europe and Asia. It stand about four feet high. Its color is ashen gray, with face and neck nearly black. It feeds on seeds, roots, insects and small quadrupeds. It retires in winter to the warmer climates. (Jeremiah 8:7)
To create is to cause something to exist which did not exist before, as distinguished from make, to re-form something already in existence.
(The creation of all things is ascribed in the Bible to God, and is the only reasonable account of the origin of the world. The method of creation is not stated in Genesis, and as far as the account there is concerned, each part of it may be, after the first acts of creation, by evolution, or by direct act of God's will. The word create (bara) is used but three times in the first chapter of Genesis-- (1) as to the origin of matter; (2) as to the origin of life; (3) as to the origin of man's soul; and science has always failed to do any of these acts thus ascribed to God. All other things are said to be made . The order of creation as given in Genesis is in close harmony with the order as revealed by geology, and the account there given, so long before the records of the rocks were read or the truth discoverable by man, is one of the strongest proofs that the Bible was inspired by God.--Ed.)
(growing), (2 Timothy 4:10) an assistant of St. Paul, said to have been one of the seventy disciples.
the modern Candia. This large island, which closes int he Greek Archipelago on the south, extends through a distance of 140 miles between its extreme points. Though exceedingly bold and mountainous, this island has very fruitful valleys, and in early times it was celebrated for its hundred cities. It seems likely that a very early acquaintances existed between the Cretans and the Jews. Cretans, (Acts 2:11) were among those who were at Jerusalem at the great Pentecost. In [Acts 27:7-12 We have an account of Paul's shipwreck near this island; and it is evident from (Titus 1:5) that the apostle himself was here at no long interval of time before he wrote the letter. The Cretans were proverbial liars. (Titus 1:12)
(Acts 2:11) Cretans, inhabitants of Crete.
(Isaiah 3:22) The original word means some kind of female ornament, probably a reticule or richly ornamented purse, often made of silk inwrought with gold or silver.
(curled), ruler of the Jewish synagogue at Corinth, (Acts 18:8) baptized with his family by St. Paul. (1 Corinthians 1:14) (A.D. 50.)
As the emblem of a slave's death and a murderer's punishment, the cross was naturally looked upon with the profoundest horror. But after the celebrated vision of Constantine, he ordered his friends to make a cross of gold and gems, such as he had seen, and "the towering eagles resigned the flags unto the cross," and "the tree of cursing and shame" "sat upon the sceptres and was engraved and signed on the foreheads of kings." (Jer. Taylor, "Life of Christ," iii., xv. 1.) The new standards were called by the name Labarum, and may be seen on the coins of Constantine the Great and his nearer successors. The Latin cross on which our Lord suffered, was int he form of the letter T, and had an upright above the cross-bar, on which the "title" was placed. There was a projection from the central stem, on which the body of the sufferer rested. This was to prevent the weight of the body from tearing away the hands. Whether there was also a support to the feet (as we see in pictures) is doubtful. An inscription was generally placed above the criminal's head, briefly expressing his guilt, and generally was carried before him. It was covered with white gypsum, and the letter were black.
This ornament, which is both ancient and universal, probably originated from the fillets used to prevent the hair from being dishevelled by the wind. Such fillets are still common; they gradually developed into turbans, which by the addition of ornamental or precious materials assumed the dignity of mitres or crowns. Both the ordinary priests and the high priest wore them. The crown was a symbol of royalty, and was worn by kings, (2 Chronicles 23:11) and also by queens. (Esther 2:17) The head-dress of bridegrooms, (Ezekiel 24:17; Isaiah 61:10) Bar. 5:2, and of women, (Isaiah 3:20) a head-dress of great splendor, (Isaiah 28:5) a wreath of flowers, (Proverbs 1:9; 4:9) denote crowns. In general we must attach to it the notion of a costly turban irradiated with pearls and gems of priceless value, which often form aigrettes for feathers, as in the crowns of modern Asiatics sovereigns. Such was probably the crown which weighed (or rather "was worth") a talent, mentioned in (2 Samuel 12:30) taken by David from the king of Ammon at Rabbah, and used as the state crown of Judah. (2 Samuel 12:30) In (Revelation 12:3; 19:12) allusion is made to "many crowns" worn in token of extended dominion. The laurel, pine or parsley crowns given to victors int he great games of Greece are finely alluded to by St. Paul. (1 Corinthians 9:25; 2 Timothy 2:5) etc.
(Matthew 27:29) Our Lord was crowned with thorns in mockery by the Roman soldiers. Obviously some small flexile thorny shrub is meant perhaps Capparis spinosa. "Hasselquist, a Swedish naturalist, supposes a very common plant naba or nubka of the Arabs, with many small and sharp sines; soft, round and pliant branches; leaves much resembling ivy, of a very deep green, as if in designed mockery of a victor's wreath."--Alford.
was in used among the Egyptians, (Genesis 40:19) the Carthaginians, the Persians, (Esther 7:10) the Assyrians, Scythains, Indians, Germans, and from the earliest times among the Greeks and Romans. Whether this mode of execution was known to the ancient Jews is a matter of dispute. Probably the Jews borrowed it from the Romans. It was unanimously considered the most horrible form of death. Among the Romans the degradation was also a part of the infliction, and the punishment if applied to freemen was only used in the case of the vilest criminals. The one to be crucified was stripped naked of all his clothes, and then followed the most awful moment of all. He was laid down upon the implement of torture. His arms were stretched along the cross-beams, and at the centre of the open palms the point of a huge iron nail was placed, which, by the blow of a mallet, was driven home into the wood. Then through either foot separately, or possibly through both together, as they were placed one over the other, another huge nail tore its way through the quivering flesh. Whether the sufferer was also bound to the cross we do not know; but, to prevent the hands and feet being torn away by the weight of the body, which could not "rest upon nothing but four great wounds," there was, about the centre of the cross, a wooden projection strong enough to support, at least in part, a human body, which soon became a weight of agony. Then the "accursed tree" with its living human burden was slowly heaved up and the end fixed firmly in a hole in the ground. The feet were but a little raised above the earth. The victim was in full reach of every hand that might choose to strike. A death by crucifixion seems to include all that pain and death can have of the horrible and ghastly,--dizziness, cramp, thirst, starvation, sleeplessness, traumatic fever, tetanus, publicity of shame, long continuance of torment, horror of anticipation, mortification of untended wounds, all intensified just up to the point at which they can be endured at all, but all stopping just short of the point which would give to the sufferer the relief of unconsciousness. The unnatural position made every movement painful; the lacerated veins and crushed tendons throbbed with incessant anguish; the wounds, inflamed by exposure, gradually gangrened; the arteries, especially of the head and stomach, became swollen and oppressed with surcharged blood; and, while each variety of misery went on gradually increasing, there was added to them the intolerable pang of a burning and raging thirst. Such was the death to which Christ was doomed.--Farrar's "Life of Christ. " The crucified was watched, according to custom, by a party of four soldiers, (John 19:23) with their centurion, (Matthew 27:66) whose express office was to prevent the stealing of the body. This was necessary from the lingering character of the death, which sometimes did not supervene even for three days, and was at last the result of gradual benumbing and starvation. But for this guard, the persons might have been taken down and recovered, as was actually done in the case of a friend of Josephus. Fracture of the legs was especially adopted by the Jews to hasten death. (John 19:31) In most cases the body was suffered to rot on the cross by the action of sun and rain, or to be devoured by birds and beasts. Sepulture was generally therefore forbidden; but in consequence of (21:22,23) an express national exception was made in favor of the Jews. (Matthew 27:58) This accursed and awful mode of punishment was happily abolished by Constantine.
a small vessel for holding water, such as was carried by Saul when on his night expedition after David, (1 Samuel 26:11,12,16) and by Elijah. (1 Kings 19:6)
the representative in the Authorized Version of two Hebrew words.
[Weights And Measures AND Measures]
(Leviticus 11:16; 14:15) the name of some of the larger petrels which abound in the east of the Mediterranean.
(Heb. kishshuim). This word occurs in (Numbers 11:5) as one of the good things of Egypt produces excellent cucumbers, melons, etc., the Cucumis chate being the best of its tribe yet known. Besides the Cucumis chate, the common cucumber (C. sativus), of which the Arabs distinguish a number of varieties, is common in Egypt. "Both Cucumis chate and C. sativus," says Mr. Tristram, "are now grown in great quantities in Palestine. On visiting the Arab school in Jerusalem (1858) I observed that the dinner which the children brought with them to school consisted, without exception, of a piece of barley cake and a raw cucumber, which they ate rind and all." The "lodge in a garden of cucumbers," (Isaiah 1:8) is a rude temporary shelter erected int eh open grounds where vines, cucumbers, gourds, etc., are grown, in which some lonely man or boy is set to watch, either to guard the plants from robbers or to scare away the foxes and jackals from the vines.
one of the cultivated plants of Palestine. (Isaiah 28:25,27; Matthew 23:23) It is an umbelliferous plant something like fennel. The seeds have a bitterish warm taste and an aromatic flavor. The Maltese are said to grow it at the present day, and to thresh it in the manner described by Isaiah.
The cups of the Jews, whether of metal or earthenware, were possibly borrowed, in point of shape and design, from Egypt and from the Phoenicians, who were celebrated in that branch of workmanship. Egyptian cups were of various shapes, either with handles or without them. In Solomon's time all his drinking vessels were of gold, none of silver. (1 Kings 10:21) Babylon is compared to a golden cup. (Jeremiah 51:7) The great laver, or "sea," was made with a rim like the rim of a cup (cos), with flowers of lilies," (1 Kings 7:26) a form which the Persepolitan cups resemble. The cups of the New Testament were often no doubt formed on Greek and Roman models. They were sometimes of gold. (Revelation 17:4)
an officer of high rank with Egyptian, Persian and Assyrian as well as Jewish monarchs. (1 Kings 10:5) It was his duty to fill the king's cup and present it to him personally. (Nehemiah 1:11) The chief cupbearer, or butler, to the king of Egypt was the means of raising Joseph to his high position. (Genesis 40:1,21; 41:9)
the name of a son of Ham, apparently the eldest, and of a territory or territories occupied by his descendants. The Cushites appear to have spread along tracts extending from the higher Nile to the Euphrates and Tigris. History affords many traces of this relation of Babylonia, Arabia and Ethiopia.
(black), a Benjamite mentioned only in the title to (Psalms 7:1) He was probably a follower of Saul, the head of his tribe. (B.C. 1061).
(blackness), (Habakkuk 3:7) possibly the same as Cushan-rishathaim (Authorized Version Chushan-) king of Mesopotamia. (Judges 3:8,10)
Properly "the Cushite," "the Ethiopian," a man apparently attached to Joab's person. (2 Samuel 18:21-25,31,32)
one of the countries whence Shalmaneser introduced colonists into Samaria. (2 Kings 17:24,30) Its position is undecided.
Cuttings in the flesh, or the laceration of one's body for the "propitiation of their gods," (1 Kings 18:28) constituted a prominent feature of idolatrous worship, especially among the Syrians. The Israelites were prohibited from indulging in such practices. (Leviticus 19:28; 21:5; 14:1; Jeremiah 16:6)
a pecussive musical instrument. Two kinds of cymbals are mentioned in (Psalms 150:5) "loud cymbals" or castagnettes, and "high-sounding cymbals." The former consisted of our small plates of brass or of some other hard metal; two plates were attached to each hand of the performer, and were struck together to produce a great noise. The latter consisted of two larger plates, on held in each hand and struck together as an accompaniment to other instruments. Cymbals were used not only in the temple but for military purposes, and also by Hebrew women as a musical accompaniment to their national dances. Both kinds of cymbals are still common in the East.
(Heb. tirzah). The Hebrew word is found only in (Isaiah 44:14) We are quite unable to assign any definite rendering to it. The true cypress is a native of the Taurus. The Hebrew word points to some tree with a hard grain, and this is all that can be positively said of it.
an island of Asia in the Mediterranean. It is about 140 miles long and 50 miles wide at the widest part. Its two chief cities were Salamis, at the east end of the island, and Paphos, at the west end. "Cyprus occupies a distinguished place in both sacred and profane history. It early belonged to the Phoenicians of the neighboring coast; was afterwards colonized by Greeks' passed successively under the power of the Pharaohs, Persians, Ptolemies and Romans, excepting a short period of independence in the fourth century B.C. It was one of the chief seats of the worship of Venus, hence called Cypria. Recently the discoveries in Cyprus by Cesnola have excited new interest.--Appleton's Am. Encyc. It was the native place of Barnabas, (Acts 4:36) and was visited by Paul. (Acts 13:4-13; 15:39; 21:3) See also (Acts 27:4)
the principal city of that part of northern Africa which was sufficiently called Cyrenaica, lying between Carthage and Egypt, and corresponding with the modern Tripoli. Though on the African coast, it was a Greek city, and the Jews were settled there in large numbers. The Greek colonization of this part of Africa under Battus began of early as B.C. 631. After the death of Alexander the Great it became a dependency of Egypt, and a Roman province B.C. 75. Simon, who bore our Saviour's cross, (Matthew 27:32) was a native of Cyrene. Jewish dwellers in Cyrenaica were in Jerusalem at Pentecost, (Acts 2:10) and gave their name to one of the synagogues in Jerusalem. (Acts 6:9) Christian converts from Cyrene were among those who contributed actively to the formation of the first Gentile church at Antioch. (Acts 11:20)
(warrior), the Greek form of the Roman name of Quirinus. The full name is Publius Sulpicius Quirinus. He was consul B.C. 12, and was made governor of Syria after the banishment of Archelaus in A.D. 6. He probably was twice governor of Syria; his first governorship extended from B.C. 4 (the year of Christ's birth) to B.C. 1. It was during this time that he was sent to make the enrollment which caused Joseph and Mary to visit Bethlehem. (Luke 2:2) The second enrollment is mentioned in (Acts 5:37)
(the sun), the founder of the Persian empire--see (2 Chronicles 36:22,23; Daniel 6:28; 10:1,13)--was, according to the common legend, the son of Cambyses, a Persian of the royal family of the Achaemenidae. When he grew up to manhood his courage and genius placed him at the head of the Persians. His conquests were numerous and brilliant. He defeated and captured the Median king B.C. 559. In B.C. 546 (?) he defeated Croesus, and the kingdom of lydia was the prize of his success. Babylon fell before his army, and the ancient dominions of Assyria were added to his empire B.C. 538. The prophet Daniel's home for a time was at his court. (Daniel 6:28) The edict of Cyrus for the rebuilding of the temple, (2 Chronicles 36:22,23; Ezra 1:1-4; 3:7; 4:3; 5:13,17; 6:3) was in fact the beginning of Judaism; and the great changes by which the nation was transformed into a church are clearly marked. His tomb is still shown at Pasargadae, the scene of his first decisive victory.
(pasture), (Joshua 21:28) or Daberath, a town on the boundary of Zebulun. (Joshua 19:12) Under the name of Debarieh it still lies at the western foot of Tabor.
(a hill-place), a town on the boundary of Zebulun. (Joshua 19:11)
(a fish), apparently the masculine, (1 Samuel 5:3,4) correlative of Atargatis, was the national god of the Philistines. The most famous temples of Dagon were at Gaza, (Judges 16:21-30) and Ashdod. (1 Samuel 5:5,6; 1 Chronicles 10:10) The latter temple was destroyed by Jonathan in the Maccabaean wars. Traces of the worship of Dagon likewise appear in the names Caphar-dagon (near Jamnia) and Beth-dagon in Judah, (Joshua 15:41) and Asher. (Joshua 19:27) Dagon was represented with the face and hands of a man and the tail of a fish. (1 Samuel 5:5) The fish-like form was a natural emblem of fruitfulness, and as such was likely to be adopted by seafaring tribes in the representation of their gods.
(freed by Jehovah) a descendant of the royal family of Judah. (1 Chronicles 3:24)
a town on the west side of the Sea of Galilee, near Magdala. (Matthew 15:39) and Mark 8:10 [Magdala] Dalmnnutha probably stood at the place called 'Ain-el-Barideh, "the cold fountain."
a mountainous district on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea. St. Paul sent Titus there. (2 Timothy 4:10)
(swift), the second of the ten sons of Hamam (Esther 9:7) (B.C. 610.)
(a heifer), an Athenian woman converted to Christianity by St. Paul's preaching. (Acts 17:34) (A.D 48.) Chrysostom and others held her to have been the wife of Dionysius the Areopagite.
one of the most ancient and most important of the cities of Syria. It is situated 130 miles northeast of Jerusalem, in a plain of vast size and of extreme fertility, which lies east of the great chain of Anti-Libanus, on the edge of the desert. This fertile plain, which is nearly circular and about 30 miles in diameter, is due to the river Barada, which is probably the "Abana" of Scripture. Two other streams the Wady Helbon upon the north and the Awaj, which flows direct from Hermon upon the south, increase the fertility of the Damascene plain, and contend for the honor of representing the "Pharpar" of Scripture. According to Josephus, Damascus was founded by Uz grandson of Shem. It is first mentioned in Scripture in connection with Abraham, (Genesis 14:15) whose steward was a native of the place. (Genesis 15:2) At one time david became complete master of the whole territory, which he garrisoned with israelites. (2 Samuel 8:5,6) It was in league with Baasha, king of Israel against Asa, (1 Kings 15:19; 2 Chronicles 16:3) and afterwards in league with Asa against Baasha. (1 Kings 15:20) Under Ahaz it was taken by Tiglath-pileser, (2 Kings 16:7,8,9) the kingdom of Damascus brought to an end, and the city itself destroyed, the inhabitants being carried captive into Assyria. (2 Kings 16:9) comp. Isai 7:8 and Amos 1:5 Afterwards it passed successively under the dominion of the Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, Macedonians, Romans and Saracens, and was at last captured by the Turks in 1516 A.D. Here the apostle Paul was converted and preached the gospel. (Acts 9:1-25) Damascus has always been a great centre for trade. Its present population is from 100,000 to 150,000. It has a delightful climate. Certain localities are shown as the site of those scriptural events which specially interest us in its history. Queen's Street, which runs straight through the city from east to west, may be the street called Straight. (Acts 9:11) The house of Judas and that of Ananias are shown, but little confidence can be placed in any of these traditions.
a musical instrument of percussion, supposed to have been used by the Hebrews at an early period of their history.
The dance is spoken of in Holy Scripture universally as symbolical of some rejoicing, and is often coupled for the sake of contrast with mourning, as in (Ecclesiastes 3:4) comp. Psal 30:11; Matt 11:17 In the earlier period it is found combined with some song or refrain, (Exodus 15:20; 32:18,19; 1 Samuel 21:11) and with the tambourine (Authorized Version "timbrel"), more especially in those impulsive outbursts of popular feeling which cannot find sufficient vent in voice or in gesture singly. Dancing formed a part of the religious ceremonies of the Egyptians, and was also common in private entertainments. For the most part dancing was carried on by the women, the two sexes seldom and not customarily intermingling. The one who happened to be near of kin to the champion of the hour led the dance. In the earlier period of the Judges the dances of the virgins of Shiloh. (Judges 21:19-23) were certainly part of a religious festivity. Dancing also had its place among merely festive amusements, apart from any religious character. (Jeremiah 31:4,13; Mark 6:22)
(judgment of God).
The Greek translations of Daniel contain several pieces which are not found int he original text. The most important are contained in the Apocrypha of the English Bible under the titles of The Son of the Three Holy Children, The History of Susannah, and The History of...Bel and the Dragon. The first of these is supposed to be the triumphal song of the three confessors in the furnace, (Daniel 3:23) praising God for their deliverance, of which a chief part (35-66) has been used as a hymn in the Christian Church since the fourth century. The second, called also The Judgment of Daniel, relates the story of the clearing of Susannah from a charge of adultery; and the third gives an exaggerated account of Daniel's deliverance.
stands at the head of a series of writings in which the deepest thoughts of the Jewish people found expression after their close of the prophetic era. Daniel is composed partly in the vernacular Aramaic (Chaldee) and partly in the sacred Hebrew. The introduction, Dan. 1-2:4 a, is written in Hebrew. On the occasion of the "Syriac" (i.e. Aramaic) answer of the Chaldeans, the language changes to Aramaic, and this is retained till the close of the seventh chapter (2:4 b-7). The personal introduction of Daniel as the writer of the text, 8:1, is marked by the resumption of the Hebrew, which continues to the close of the book. ch. 8-12. The book may be divided into three parts. The first chapter forms an introduction. The next six chapters, 2-7, give a general view of the progressive history of the powers of the world, and of the principles of the divine government as seen in the events of the life of Daniel. The remainder of the book, chs. 8-12, traces in minuter detail the fortunes of the people of God, as typical of the fortunes of the Church in all ages. In the first seven chapters Daniel is spoken of historically ; int he last five he appears personally as the writer. The cause of the difference of person is commonly supposed to lie int he nature of the case. It is, however, more probable that the peculiarity arose from the manner in which the book assumed its final shape. The book exercised a great influence upon the Christian Church. The New Testament incidentally acknowledges each of the characteristic elements of the book, its miracles, (Hebrews 11:33,34) its predictions, (Matthew 24:15) and its doctrine of angels. (Luke 1:19,26) The authenticity of the book has been attacked in modern times. (But the evidence, both external and internal, is conclusive as to its genuineness. Rawlinson, in his "Historical Evidences," shows how some historical difficulties that had been brought against the book are solved by the inscription on a cylinder lately found among the ruins of Ur in Chaldea.--ED.)
The descendants of Dan and the members of his tribe. (Judges 13:2; 18:1,11; 1 Chronicles 12:35)
(Danian, i.e. belonging to Dan). (2 Samuel 24:6) Probably the same as Dan.
a city in the mountains of Judah, (Joshua 15:49) and probably south or southwest of Hebron. No trace of its name has been discovered.
(1 Chronicles 2:6) [DARDA]
(from dara, a king), Authorized Version "dram," (1 Chronicles 29:7; Ezra 2:69; 8:27; Nehemiah 7:70,71,72) a gold coin current in Palestine in the period after the return from Babylon. It weighed 128 grains, and was worth about five dollars. At these times there was no large issue of gold money except by the Persian kings. The darics which have been discovered are thick pieces of pure hold, of archaic style, bearing on the obverse the figure of a king with bow and javelin or bow and dagger, and on the reverse an irregular incuse square. The silver daric was worth about fifty cents.
(lord), the name of several kings of Media and Persia.
is spoken of as encompassing the actual presence of God, as that out of which he speaks,--the envelope, as it were, of divine glory. (Exodus 20:21; 1 Kings 8:12) The plague of darkness in Egypt was miraculous. The darkness "over all the land," (Matthew 27:45) attending the crucifixion has been attributed to an eclipse, but was undoubtedly miraculous, as no eclipse of the sun could have taken place at that time, the moon being at the full at the time of the passover. Darkness is also, as in the expression "land of darkness," used for the state of the dead, (Job 10:21,22) and frequently, figuratively, for ignorance and unbelief, as the privation of spiritual light. (John 1:5; 3:19)
(scatterer). Children of Darkon were among the "servants of Solomon" who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:56; Nehemiah 7:58) (B.C. before 536).
(2 Chronicles 31:5) marg. [Palm Tree TREE]
(belonging to a fountain) a Reubenite chieftain, son of Eliab, who joined the conspiracy of Korah the Levite. (Numbers 16:1; 26:9; 11:6; Psalms 106:17) (B.C. 1490-1452).
The word is used in Scripture not only for daughter, but for granddaughter or other female descendant. (Genesis 24:48) It is used of the female inhabitants of a place or country, (Genesis 6:2; Luke 23:28) and of cities in general, (Isaiah 10:32; 23:12) but more specifically of dependent towns or hamlets, while to the principal city the correlative "mother" is applied. (Numbers 21:25) "Daughters of music," i.e. singing birds, (Ecclesiastes 12:4) refers to the power of making and enjoying music.
(well-beloved), the son of Jesse. His life may be divided into three portions:
The variable length of the natural day at different seasons led in the very earliest times to the adoption of the civil day (or one revolution of the sun) as a standard of time. The Hebrews reckoned the day from evening to evening, (Leviticus 23:32) deriving it from (Genesis 1:5) "the evening and the morning were the first day." The Jews are supposed, like the modern Arabs, to have adopted from an early period minute specifications of the parts of the natural day. Roughly, indeed, they were content to divide it into "morning, evening and noonday," (Psalms 55:17) but when they wished for greater accuracy they pointed to six unequal parts, each of which was again subdivided. These are held to have been--
an old English term meaning umpire or arbitrator . (Job 9:33)
The office described by this title appears in the New Testament as the correlative of bishop. [Bishop] The two are mentioned together in (Philemon 1:1; 1 Timothy 3:2,8) Its original meaning implied a helper, an assistant. The bishops were the "elders," the deacons the young active men, of the church. The narrative of Acts 6 is commonly referred to as giving an account of the institution of this office. The apostles, in order to meet the complaints of the Hellenistic Jews that their widows were neglected in the daily ministration, call on the body of believers to choose seven men "full of the Holy Ghost and of wisdom," whom they "may appoint over this business." It may be questioned, however, whether the seven were not appointed to higher functions than those of the deacons of the New Testament. Qualifications and duties. Special directions as to the qualifications for and the duties of deacons will be found in Acts 6 and (1 Timothy 3:8-12) From the analogy of the synagogue, and from the scanty notices in the New Testament, we may think of the deacons or "young men" at Jerusalem as preparing the rooms for meetings, distributing alms, maintaining order at the meetings, baptizing new converts, distributing the elements at the Lord's Supper.
The word diakonos is found in (Romans 16:1) (Authorized Version "servant") associated with a female name, and this has led to the conclusion that there existed in the apostolic age, as there undoubtedly did a little later, an order of women bearing that title, and exercising in relation to their own sex functions which were analogous to those of the deacons. On this hypothesis it has been inferred that the women mentioned in (Romans 16:6,12) belonged to such an order. The rules given as to the conduct of women in (1 Timothy 3:11; Titus 2:3) have in like manner been referred to them, and they have been identified even with the "widows" of (1 Timothy 5:3-10)
This name nowhere occurs in the Bible, and appears not to have existed until the second century after Christ. [See Sea, The Salt, THE SALT]
king of Eglon; one of the five kings hanged by Joshua. (Joshua 10:3,23) (B.C. 1440.)
(a sanctuary), the name of three places of Palestine.
(a bee). (B.C. 1857.)
descendants of Dedan I. (Isaiah 21:13) [Dedan]
the festival instituted to commemorate the purging of the temple and the rebuilding of the altar after Judas Maccabbeus had driven out the Syrians, B.C. 164. 1 Macc. 4:52-59. It is named only once in the canonical Scriptures. (John 10:22) It commenced on the 25th of Chisleu (early in December), the anniversary of the pollution of the temple by Antiochus Epiphanes, B.C. 167. Like the great Mosaic feasts, it lasted eight days, but it did not require attendance at Jerusalem. It was an occasion of much festivity, and was celebrated in nearly the same manner as the feast of tabernacles, with the carrying of branches of trees and with much singing. In the temple at Jerusalem the "Hallel" was sung every day of the feast.
a title given to fifteen Psalms, from 120 to 134 inclusive. Four of them are attributed to David, one is ascribed to the pen of Solomon, and the other ten give no indication of their author. With respect to the term rendered in the Authorized Version "degrees" a great diversity of views prevails, but the most probable opinion is that they were pilgrim songs, sung by the people as they went up to Jerusalem.
mentioned only once in Scripture, (Ezra 4:9) among the colonists planted in Samaria after the completion of the captivity of Israel. They are probably the Dai or Dahi, mentioned by Herodotus (i. 125) among the nomadic tribes of Persia.
(a lancer). The son of Dekar, i.e. Ben Dekar, was Solomon's commissariat officer in the western part of the hill-country of Judah and Benjamin, Shaalbim and Bethshemesh. (1 Kings 4:9) (B.C. before 1014.)
(freed by Jehovah).
(languishing) a woman who dwelt in the valley Of Sorek, beloved by Samson. (Judges 16:4-18) There seems to be little doubt that she was a Philistine courtesan. [SAMS0N] (B.C. 1141.)
(governor of the people), most probably a contraction from Demetrius or perhaps from Demarchus, a companion of St. Paul, (Philemon 1:24; Colossians 4:14) during his first imprisonment at Rome. (A.D. 57.) At a later period, (2 Timothy 4:10) we find him mentioned as having deserted the apostle through love of this present world, and gone to Thessalonica.
(belonging to Ceres).
In the Gospels generally, in (James 2:19) and in Reve 16:14 The demons are spoken of as spiritual beings, at enmity with God, and having power to afflict man not only with disease, but, as is marked by the frequent epithet "un-clean," with spiritual pollution also. They "believe" the power of God "and tremble," (James 2:19) they recognized the Lord as the Son of God, (Matthew 8:29; Luke 4:41) and acknowledged the power of his name, used in exorcism. In the place of the name of Jehovah, by his appointed messengers, (Acts 19:15) and looked forward in terror to the judgment to come. (Matthew 8:29) The description is precisely that of a nature akin to the angelic in knowledge and powers, but with the emphatic addition of the idea of positive and active wickedness.
This word is frequently used in the New Testament, and applied to persons suffering under the possession of a demon or evil spirit, such possession generally showing itself visibly in bodily disease or mental derangement. It has been maintained by many persons that our Lord and the evangelists, in referring to demonical possession, spoke only in accommodation to the general belief of the Jews, without any assertion as to its truth or its falsity. It is concluded that, since the symptoms of the affliction were frequently those of bodily disease (as dumbness, (Matthew 9:32) blindness, (Matthew 12:22) epilepsy, (Mark 9:17-27)), or those seen in cases of ordinary insanity (as ill) (Matthew 8:28; Mark 5:1-5) the demoniacs were merely persons suffering under unusual diseases of body and mind. But demoniacs are frequently distinguished from those afflicted with bodily sickness, see (Mark 1:32; 16:17,18; Luke 6:17,18) the same outward signs are sometimes referred to possession sometimes merely to disease, comp. (Matthew 4:24) with Matt 17:15; (Matthew 12:22) with Mark 7:32 etc.; the demons are represented as speaking in their own persons with superhuman knowledge. (Matthew 8:29; Mark 1:24; 5:7; Luke 4:41) etc. All these things speak of a personal power of evil. Twice our Lord distinctly connects demoniacal possession with the power of the evil one. (Luke 10:18) Lastly, the single fact recorded of the entrance of the demons at (Gadara (Mark 5:10-14) into the herd of swine, and the effect which that entrance caused is sufficient to overthrow the notion that our Lord and the evangelists do not assert or imply any objective reality of possession. We are led, therefore, to the ordinary and literal interpretation of these passages, that there are evil spirits, subjects of the evil one, who, in the days of the Lord himself and his apostles especially, were permitted by (God to exercise a direct influence over the souls and bodies of certain men.
(containing ten), Authorized Version "penny," (Matthew 18:28; 20:2,9,13) a Roman silver coin in the time of our Saviour and the Apostles, worth about 15 cents. It took its name from its being first equal to ten "asses," a number afterwards increased to sixteen. It was the principal silver coin of the Roman commonwealth. From the parable of the laborers in the vineyard it would seem that a denarius was then the ordinary pay for a day's labor. (Matthew 20:2,4,7,9,10,13)
(Acts 13:7,8,12; 19:38) The Greek word signifies proconsul, the title of the Roman governors who were appointed by the senate.
(Acts 14:20,21; 16:1; 20:4) The exact position of this town has not yet been ascertained, but its general situation is undoubted. It was in the eastern part of the great upland plain of Lycaonia, which stretched from Iconium eastward along the north side of the chain of Taurus. (Rev. L. H. Adams, a missionary, identifies it with the modern Divle, a town of about 4500 inhabitants, on the ancient road between Tarsus and Lystra.--ED.)
Not a stretch of sand, an utterly barren waste, but a wild, uninhabited region. The words rendered in the Authorized Version by "desert," when used in the historical books denote definite localities.
(invocation of God), father of Eliasaph, the "captain" of the tribe of Gad at the time of the numbering of the people at Sinai. (Numbers 1:14; 7:42,47; 10:20) (B.C. 1491.) The same man is mentioned again in (Numbers 2:14) but here the name appears as Ruel.
--which means "the repetition of the law"--consists chiefly of three discourses delivered by Moses shortly before his death. Subjoined to these discourses are the Song of Moses the Blessing of Moses, and the story of his death.
(slanderer). The name describes Satan as slandering God to man and man to God. The former work is of course, a part of his great work of temptation to evil and is not only exemplified but illustrated as to its general nature and tendency by the narrative of Gen. 3. The other work, the slandering or accusing men before God, is the imputation of selfish motives, (Job 1:9,10) and its refutation is placed in the self-sacrifice of those "who loved not their own lives unto death." [Satan; Demon]
This in the summer is so copious in Palestine that it supplies to some extent the absence of rain and becomes important to the agriculturist. Thus it is coupled in the divine blessing with rain, or mentioned as a prime source of fertility, (Genesis 27:28; 33:13; Zechariah 8:12) and its withdrawal is attributed to a curse. (2 Samuel 1:21; 1 Kings 17:1; Haggai 1:10) It becomes a leading object in prophetic imagery by reason of its penetrating moisture without the apparent effort of rain, (32:2; Job 29:19; Psalms 133:3; Hosea 14:5) while its speedy evanescence typifies the transient goodness of the hypocrite. (Hosea 6:4; 13:3)
What the "diadem" of the Jews was we know not. That of other nations of antiquity was a fillet of silk, two inches broad, bound round the head and tied behind. Its invention is attributed to Liber. Its color was generally white, sometimes, however, it was of blue, like that of Darius; and it was sown with pearls or other gems, (Zechariah 9:16) and enriched with gold. (Revelation 9:7) It was peculiarly the mark of Oriental sovereigns. In (Esther 1:11; 2:17) we have cether for the turban worn by the Persian king, queen or other eminent persons to whom it was conceded as a special favor. The diadem of the king differed from that of others in having an erect triangular peak. The words in (Ezekiel 23:15) mean long and flowing turbans of gorgeous colors. [Crown]
"An instrument for showing the time of day from the shadow of a style or gnomon on a graduated arc or surface; "rendered" steps" in Authorized Version, (Exodus 20:26; 2 Kings 10:19) and "degrees," (2 Kings 20:9,10,11; Isaiah 38:8) where to give a consistent rendering we should read with the margin the "degrees" rather than the "dial" of Ahaz. It is probable that the dial of Ahaz was really a series of steps or stairs, and that the shadow (Perhaps of some column or obelisk on the top) fell on a greater or smaller number of them according as the sun was low or high. The terrace of a palace might easily be thus ornamented.
(Heb. yahalom), a gem crystallized carbon, the most valued and brilliant of precious stones, remarkable for its hardness, the third precious stone in the second row on the breastplate of the high priest, (Exodus 28:18; 39:11) and mentioned by Ezekiel, (Ezekiel 28:13) among the precious stones of the king of Tyre. Some suppose yahalom to be the "emerald." Respecting shamir, which is translated "Diamond" in (Jeremiah 17:1) see under Adamant.
This Latin word, properly denoting a Roman divinity, is the representative of the Greek Artemus, the tutelary goddess of the Ephesians, who plays so important a part in the narrative of Acts 19. The Ephesian Diana was, however, regarded as invested with very different attributes, and is rather to be identified with Astarte and other female divinities of the East. The head wore a mural crown, each hand held a bar of metal, and the lower part ended in a rude block covered with figures of animals and mystic inscriptions. This idol was regarded as an object of peculiar sanctity, and was believed to have fallen down from heaven. (Acts 19:35)
(double cake), mother of Hosea's wife Gomer. (Hosea 1:3) (B.C. before 725.)
(accurately DIBLAH), a place named only in (Ezekiel 6:14) Probably only another form of Riblah.
a Danite, father of Shelomith. (Leviticus 24:11)
(the twin), a surname of the apostle Thomas. (John 11:16; 20:24; 21:2) [Thomas]
(palm grove). (Genesis 10:27; 1 Chronicles 1:21) a son of Joktan, whose settlements, in common with those of the other sons of Joktan, must be looked for in Arabia. It is thought that Diklah is a part of Arabia containing many palm trees.
(gourd), one of the cities in the lowlands of Judah. (Joshua 15:38) It has not been identified with certainty.
(dung), a city int he tribe of Zebulun, given to the Merarite Levites. (Joshua 21:35)
(river bed), The waters of, some streams on the east of the Dead Sea, in the land of Moab, against which Isaiah uttered denunciation. (Isaiah 15:9) Gesenius conjectures that the two names Dimon and Dibon are the same.
a city in the south of Judah, (Joshua 15:22) perhaps the same as Dibon in (Nehemiah 11:25)
(judged, acquitted), the daughter of Jacob by Leah. (Genesis 30:21) (B.C. about 1751.) She accompanied her father from Mesopotamia to Canaan, and, having ventured among the inhabitants, was violated by Shechem the son of Hamor, the chieftain of the territory in which her father had settled. Gen. 34. Shechem proposed to make the usual reparation by paying a sum to the father and marrying her. (Genesis 34:12) This proposal was accepted, the sons of Jacob demanding, as a condition of the proposed union, the circumcision of the Shechemites. They therefore assented; and on the third day, when the pain and fever resulting from the operation were at the highest, Simeon and Levi, own brothers of Dinah, attacked them unexpectedly, slew all the males, and plundered their city.
(Ezra 4:9) the name of some of the Cuthaean colonists who were placed in the cities of Samaria after the captivity of the ten tribes.
(Genesis 36:32; 1 Chronicles 1:43) the capital city, and probably the birthplace, of Bela, son of Beor king of Edom.
(devoted to Dionysus, i.e., Bacchus) the Areop'agite, (Acts 17:34) an eminent Athenian, converted to Christianity by the preaching of St. Paul. (A.D. 52.) He is said to have been first bishop of Athens. The writings which were once attributed to him are now confessed to be the production of some neo-Platonists of the sixth century.
(nourished by Jove), a Christian mentioned in (3 John 1:9) but of whom nothing is known.
(antelope), the youngest son of Seir the Horite. (Genesis 36:21,28,30; 1 Chronicles 1:38,42)
or simply THE DISPERSION, was the general title applied to those Jews who remained settled in foreign countries after the return from the Babylonian exile, and during the period of the second temple. At the beginning of the Christian era the Dispersion was divided into three great sections, the Babylonian, the Syrian, the Egyptian. From Babylon the Jews spread throughout Persia, Media and Parthia. Large settlements of Jews were established in Cyprus, in the islands of the AEgean, and on the western coast of Asia Minor. Jewish settlements were also established at Alexandria by Alexander and Ptolemy I. The Jewish settlements in Rome, were consequent upon the occupation of Jerusalem by Pompey, B.C. 63. The influence of the Dispersion on the rapid promulgation of Christianity can scarcely be overrated. The course of the apostolic preaching followed in a regular progress the line of Jewish settlements. The mixed assembly from which the first converts were gathered on the day of Pentecost represented each division of the Dispersion. (Acts 2:9-11) (1) Parthians...Mesopotamia; (2) Judea (i.e. Syria)...Pamphylia; (3) Egypt...Greece; (4) Romans..., and these converts naturally prepared the way for the apostles int he interval which preceded the beginning of the separate apostolic missions. St. James and St. Peter wrote to the Jews of the Dispersion. (James 1:1; 1 Peter 1:1)
is a "foretelling future events, or discovering things secret by the aid of superior beings, or other than human means." It is used in Scripture of false systems of ascertaining the divine will. It has been universal in all ages, and all nations alike civilized and savage. Numerous forms of divination are mentioned, such as divination by rods, (Hosea 4:12) divination by arrows, (Ezekiel 21:21) divination by cups, (Genesis 44:5) consultation of teraphim, (1 Samuel 15:23; Ezekiel 21:21; Zechariah 10:2) [Teraphim]; divination by the liver, (Ezekiel 21:21) divination by dreams, (13:2,3; Judges 7:13; Jeremiah 23:32) consultation of oracles. (Isaiah 41:21-24; 44:7) Moses forbade every species of divination, because a prying into the future clouds the mind with superstition, and because it would have been an incentive to idolatry. But God supplied his people with substitutes for divination which would have rended it superfluous, and left them in no doubt as to his will in circumstances of danger, had they continued faithful. It was only when they were unfaithful that the revelation was withdrawn. (1 Samuel 28:6; 2 Samuel 2:1; 5:23) etc. Superstition not unfrequently goes hand in hand with skepticism, and hence, amid the general infidelity prevalent throughout the Roman empire at our Lord's coming, imposture was rampant. Hence the lucrative trade of such men as Simon Magus, (Acts 8:9) Bar-jesus, (Acts 13:6) the slave with the spirit of Python, (Acts 16:16) the vagabond jews, exorcists, (Luke 11:19; Acts 19:13) and others, (2 Timothy 3:13; Revelation 19:20) etc., as well as the notorious dealers in magical books at Ephesus. (Acts 19:19)
"a legal dissolution of the marriage relation." The law regulating this subject is found (24:1-4) and the cases in which the right of a husband to divorce his wife was lost are stated ibid ., (22:19,29) The ground of divorce is appoint on which the Jewish doctors of the period of the New Testament differed widely; the school of Shammai seeming to limit it to a moral delinquency in the woman, whilst that the Hillel extended it to trifling causes, e.g., if the wife burnt the food she was cooking for her husband. The Pharisees wished perhaps to embroil our Saviour with these rival schools by their question, (Matthew 19:3) by his answer to which, as well as by his previous maxim, (Matthew 5:31) he declares that he regarded all the lesser causes than "fornication" as standing on too weak ground, and declined the question of how to interpret the words of Moses.
(region of gold), a place in the Arabian desert, mentioned (1:1) is identified with Dahab, a cape on the western shore of the Gulf of Akabah.
(loving, amorous), an Ahohite who commanded the course of the second month. (1 Chronicles 27:4) It is probable that he is the same as Dodo. 2.
(leaders), (Genesis 10:4; 1 Chronicles 1:7) a family or race descended from Javan, the son of Japhet. (Genesis 10:4; 1 Chronicles 1:7) Dodanim is regarded as identical with the Dardani, who were found in historical times in Illyricum and Troy.
(love of the Lord), a man of Maresha in Judah; father of Eliezer, who denounced Jehoshaphat's alliance with Ahaziah. (2 Chronicles 20:37)
(fearful), an Idumean, chief of Saul's herdmen. (B.C. 1062.) He was at Nob when Ahimelech gave David the sword of Goliath, and not only gave information to Saul, but when others declined the office, himself executed the king's order to destroy the priests of Nob, with their families, to the number of 85 persons, together with all their property. (1 Samuel 21:7; 22:9,18,22; Psalms 52)
an animal frequently mentioned in Scripture. It was used by the hebrews as a watch for their houses, (Isaiah 56:10) and for guarding their flocks. (Job 30:1) Then also, as now troops of hungry and semi-wild dogs used to wander about the fields and the streets of the cities, devouring dead bodies and other offal, (1 Kings 14:11; 21:19,23; 22:38; Psalms 59:6) and thus became so savage and fierce and such objects of dislike that fierce and cruel enemies are poetically styled dogs in (Psalms 22:16,20) moreover the dog being an unclean animal, (Isaiah 66:3) the epithets dog, dead dog, dog's head, were used as terms of reproach or of humility in speaking of one's self. (1 Samuel 24:14; 2 Samuel 3:8; 9:8; 16:9; 2 Kings 8:13)
(cattle-driving), a place mentioned (Numbers 33:12) as a station in the desert where the Israelites encamped. [Wilderness Of The Wandering OF THE Wandering In The Wilderness]
(dwelling), (Joshua 17:11; 1 Kings 4:11) an ancient royal city of the Canaanites, (Joshua 12:23) whose ruler was an ally of Jabin king of Hazor against Joshua. (Joshua 11:1,2) It appears to have been within the territory of the tribe of Asher, though allotted to Manasseh, (Joshua 17:11; Judges 1:27) Solomon stationed at Dor one of his twelve purveyors. (1 Kings 4:11) jerome places it on the coast, "in the ninth mile from Caesarea, on the way to Ptolemais." Just at the point indicated is the small village of Tantura, probably an Arab corruption of Dora, consisting of about thirty houses, wholly constructed of ancient materials.
a "priest and Levite" who carried the translation of Esther to Egypt. (Esther 11:1,2)
(two wells), a place first mentioned (Genesis 37:17) in connection with the history of Joseph, and apparently as in the neighborhood of Shechem. It next appears as the residence of Elisha. (2 Kings 6:13) It was known to Eusebius, who places it 12 miles to the north of Sebaste (Samaria); and here it has been discovered in our own times, still bearing its ancient name unimpaired.
The first menton of this bird occurs in Gen. 8. The dove's rapidity of flight is alluded to in (Psalms 55:6) the beauty of its plumage in (Psalms 68:13) its dwelling int he rocks and valleys in (Jeremiah 48:28) and Ezek 7:16 Its mournful voice in (Isaiah 38:14; 59:11; Nahum 2:7) its harmlessness in (Matthew 10:16) its simplicity in (Hosea 7:11) and its amativeness in (Song of Solomon 1:15; 2:14) Doves are kept in a domesticated state in many parts of the East. In Persia pigeon-houses are erected at a distance from the dwellings, for the purpose of collecting the dung as manure. There is probably an allusion to such a custom in (Isaiah 60:8)
Various explanations have been given of the passage in (2 Kings 6:25) Bochart has labored to show that it denotes a species of cicer, "chick-pea," which he says the Arabs call usnan, and sometimes improperly "dove's" or "sparrow's dung." Great quantities of these are sold in Cairo to the pilgrims going to Mecca. Later authorities incline to think it the bulbous root of the Star of Bethlehem (ornithogalum, i.e. bird-milk), a common root in Palestine, and sometimes eaten.--ED. It can scarcely be believed that even in the worst horrors of a siege a substance so vile as is implied by the literal rendering should have been used for food.
(Luke 15:8,9) 2 Macc 4:19; 10:20; 12:43, a Greek silver coin, varying in weight on account of the use of different talents. In Luke denarii (Authorized Version "piece of silver") seem to be intended. [Money; Silver]
The translators of the Authorized Version, apparently following the Vulgate, have rendered by the same word "dragon" the two Hebrew words tan and tannin, which appear to be quite distinct in meaning.
The Scripture declares that the influence of the Spirit of God upon the soul extends to its sleeping as well as its waking thoughts. But, in accordance with the principle enunciated by St. Paul in (1 Corinthians 14:15) dreams, in which the understanding is asleep, are placed below the visions of prophecy, in which the understanding plays its part. Under the Christian dispensation, while we read frequently of trances and vision, dreams are never referred to as vehicles of divine revelation. In exact accordance with this principle are the actual records of the dreams sent by God. The greater number of such dreams were granted, for prediction or for warning, to those who were aliens to the Jewish covenant. And where dreams are recorded as means of God's revelation to his chosen servants, they are almost always referred to the periods of their earliest and most imperfect knowledge of him. Among the Jews, "if any person dreamed a dream which was peculiarly striking and significant, he was permitted to go to the high priest in a peculiar way, and see if it had any special import. But the observance of ordinary dreams and the consulting of those who pretend to skill in their interpretation are repeatedly forbidden. (13:1-5; 18:9-14)--Schaff.
This subject includes the following particulars:
The Hebrew term shecar, in its etymological sense, applies to any beverage that had intoxicating qualities. With regard to the application of the term in later times we have the explicit statement of Jerome, as well as other sources of information, from which we may state the that following beverages were known to the Jews:--
(watered by the dew), daughter of herod Agrippa *., (Acts 24:24) ff., and Cypros. Born A.D. 38. She was at first betrothed to Antiochus Epiphanes, prince of Commagene, but was married to Azizus, king of Emesa. Soon after, Felix, procurator of Judea, brought about her seduction by means of the Cyprian sorcerer Simon, and took her as his wife. In (Acts 24:24) we find her in company with Felix at Caesarea. Felix who, together with his mother, perished in the eruption of Vesuvius under Titus.
(Heb. sumphoniah) a musical instrument, mentioned in (Daniel 3:5,15) probably the bagpipe. The same instrument is still in use amongst peasants in the northwest of Asia and in southern Europe, where it is known by the similar name sampogna or zampogna.
The uses of dung were two-fold--as manure and as fuel. The manure consisted either of straw steeped in liquid manure, (Isaiah 25:10) or the sweepings, (Isaiah 5:25) of the streets and roads, which were carefully removed from about the houses, and collected in heaps outside the walls of the towns at fixed spots--hence the dung-gate at Jerusalem--and thence removed in due course to the fields. The difficulty of procuring fuel in Syria, Arabia and Egypt has made dung in all ages valuable as a substitute. It was probably used for heating ovens and for baking cakes, (Ezra 4:12,15) the equable heat which it produced adapting it pecularily for the latter operation. Cow's and camels dung is still used for a similar purpose by the Bedouins.
(a circle), the plain where Nebuchadnezzar set up the golden image, (Daniel 3:1) has been sometimes identified with a tract a little below Tekrit, on the left bank of the Tigris, where the name Dur is still found. M. Oppert places the plain (or, as he calls it, the "valley") of Dura to the southeast of Babylon, in the vicinity of the mound of Dowair or Duair, where was found the pedestal of a huge statue.
(Heb. nesher, i.e. a tearer with the beak). At least four distinct kinds of eagles have been observed in Palestine, viz., the golden eagle, Aquila chrysaetos, the spotted eagle, Aquila naevia, the imperial eagle, Aquila heliaca, and the very common Circaetos gallicus . The Hebrew nesher may stand for any of these different species, though perhaps more particular reference to the golden and imperial eagles and the griffon vulture may be intended. The passage in Micah, (Micah 1:16) "enlarge thy baldness as the eagle," may refer to the griffon vulture, Vultur fulvus, in which case the simile is peculiarly appropriate, for the whole head and neck of this bird are destitute of true feathers. The "eagles" of (Matthew 24:28; Luke 17:37) may include the Vultur fulvus and Neophron percnopterus ; though, as eagles frequently prey upon dead bodies, there is no necessity to restrict the Greek word to the Vulturidae . The figure of an eagle is now and has long been a favorite military ensign. The Persians so employed it; a fact which illustrates the passage in (Isaiah 46:11) The same bird was similarly employed by the Assyrians and the Romans.
(Genesis 45:6; Exodus 34:21) Derived from the Latin arare, to plough; hence it means ploughing.
(2 Corinthians 1:22; 5:5; Ephesians 1:14) The Hebrew word was used generally for pledge, (Genesis 38:17) and in its cognate forms for surety, (Proverbs 17:18) and hostage . (2 Kings 14:14) The Greek derivative, however, acquired a more technical sense as signifying the deposit paid by the purchaser on entering into an agreement for the purchase of anything. In the New Testament the word is used to signify the pledge or earnest of the superior blessings of the future life.
The material of which earrings were made was generally gold, (Exodus 32:2) and their form circular. They were worn by women and by youth of both sexes. These ornaments appear to have been regarded with superstitious reverence as an amulet. On this account they were surrendered along with the idols by Jacob's household. (Genesis 35:4) Chardin describes earrings with talismanic figures and characters on them as still existing in the East. Jewels were sometimes attached to the rings. The size of the earrings still worn in eastern countries far exceeds what is usual among ourselves; hence they formed a handsome present, (Job 42:11) or offering to the service of God. (Numbers 31:50)
The term is used in two widely-different senses: (1) for the material of which the earth's surface is composed; (2) as the name of the planet on which man dwells. The Hebrew language discriminates between these two by the use of separate terms, adamah for the former, erets for the latter.
Earthquakes, more or less violent, are of frequent occurrence in Palestine. The most remarkable occurred in the reign of Uzziah. (Zechariah 14:5) From (Zechariah 14:4) we are led to infer that a great convulsion took place at this time in the Mount of Olives, the mountain being split so as to leave a valley between its summit. An earthquake occurred at the time of our Saviour's crucifixion. (Matthew 27:51-54) Earthquakes are not unfrequently accompanied by fissures of the earth's surface; instances of this are recorded in connection with the destruction of Korah and his company, (Numbers 16:32) and at the time of our Lord's death, (Matthew 27:51) the former may be paralleled by a similar occurrence at Oppido in Calabria A.D. 1783, where the earth opened to the extent of five hundred and a depth of more than two hundred feet.
The Hebrew term kedem properly means that which is before or in front of a person, and was applied to the east form the custom of turning in that direction when describing the points of the compass, before, behind, the right and the left representing respectively east, west, south and north. (Job 23:8,9) The term as generally used refers to the lands lying immediately eastward of Palestine, viz., Arabia, Mesopotamia and Babylonia; on the other hand mizrach is used of the far east with a less definite signification. (Isaiah 42:2,25; 43:5; 46:11)
(Acts 12:4) In the earlier English versions Easter has been frequently used as the translation of pascha (passover). In the Authorized Version Passover was substituted in all passages but this; and in the new Revision Passover is used here. [Passover]
(stone, bare mountain).
a mount in the promised land, on which the Israelites were to "put" the curse which should fall upon them if they disobeyed the commandments of Jehovah. The blessing consequent on obedience was to be similarly localized on Mount Gerizim. (11:26-29) Ebal and Gerizim are the mounts which form the sides of the fertile valley in which lies Nablus, the ancient Shechem-Ebal on the north and Gerizim on the south. (They are nearly in the centre of the country of Samaria, about eight hundred feet above Nablus in the valley; and they are so near that all the vast body of the people could hear the words read from either mountain. The experiment has repeatedly been tried in late years.--Ed.) The modern name of Ebal is Sitti Salamiyah, from a Mohammedan female saint, whose tomb is standing on the eastern part of the ridge, a little before the highest point is reached.
(a servant). (Many MSS. have Eber.)
(a king's servant), an Ethiopian eunuch in the service of King Zedekiah, through whose interference Jeremiah was released from prison. (Jeremiah 38:7) ff.; Jere 39:15 ff. (B.C. 1589).
(stone of help), a stone set up by Samuel after a signal defeat of the Philistines, as a memorial of the "help" received on the occasion from Jehovah. (1 Samuel 7:12) Its position is carefully defined as between Mizpeh and Shen.
(the region beyond).
(1 Chronicles 6:23,37) [See Abiasaph]
(Ezekiel 27:15) one of the valuable commodities imported into Tyre by the men of Dedan; a hard, heavy and durable wood, which admits of a fine polish or gloss. The most usual color is black, but it also occurs red or green. The black is the heart of a tree called Diospyros ebenum . It was imported from India or Ceylon by Phoenician traders.
(passage), one of the halting-places of the Israelites in the desert, immediately preceding Ezion-geber. (Numbers 33:34,35)
Ezra 6:2 margin. In the apocryphal books Ecbatana is frequently mentioned. Two cities named Ecbatana seem to have existed in ancient times, one the capital of northern Media--the Media Atropatene of Strabo--the other the metropolis of the larger and more important province known as Media Magna. The site of the former appears to be marked by the very curious ruins at Takht-i-Suleiman.
(the preacher). The title of this book is in Hebrew Koheleth, signifying one who speaks publicly in an assembly. Koheleth is the name by which Solomon, probably the author, speaks of himself throughout the book. The book is that which it professes to be,--the confession of a man of wide experience looking back upon his past life and looking out upon the disorders and calamities which surround him. The writer is a man who has sinned in giving way to selfishness and sensuality, who has paid the penalty of that sin in satiety and weariness of life, but who has through all this been under the discipline of a divine education, and has learned from it the lesson which God meant to teach him.
one of the books of the Apocrypha. This title is given in the Latin version to the book which is called in the Septuagint THE WISDOM OF JESUS THE SON OF SIRACH. The word designates the character of the writing, as publicly used in the services of the Church.
No historical notice of an eclipse occurs in the Bible, but there are passages in the prophets which contain manifest allusion to this phenomenon. (Joel 2:10,31; 3:15; Amos 8:9; Micah 3:6; Zechariah 14:6) Some of these notices probably refer to eclipses that occurred about the time of the respective compositions: thus the date of Amos coincides with a total eclipse which occurred Feb. 9, B.C. 784, and was visible at Jerusalem shortly after noon; that of Micah with the eclipse of June 5, B.C. 716. A passing notice in (Jeremiah 15:9) coincides in date with the eclipse of Sept. 30, B.C. 610, so well known from Herodotus' account (i. 74, 103). The darkness that overspread the world at the crucifixion cannot with reason be attributed to an eclipse, as the moon was at the full at the time of the passover.
(witness), a word inserted in the Authorized Version of (Joshua 22:34) apparently on the authority of a few MSS., and also of the Syriac and Arabic versions, but not existing in the generally-received Hebrew text.
(accur. Eder, a flock), a place named only in (Genesis 35:21) According to Jerome it was one thousand paces from Bethlehem.
(red). The name Edom was given to Esau, the first-born son of Isaac and twin brother of Jacob, when he sold his birthright to the latter for a meal of lentil pottage. The country which the Lord subsequently gave to Esau was hence called "the country of Edom," (Genesis 32:3) and his descendants were called Edomites. Edom was called Mount Seir and Idumea also. Edom was wholly a mountainous country. It embraced the narrow mountainous tract (about 100 miles long by 20 broad) extending along the eastern side of the Arabah from the northern end of the Gulf of Elath to near the southern end of the Dead Sea. The ancient capital of Edom was Bozrah (Buseireh). Sela (Petra) appears to have been the principal stronghold in the days of Amaziah (B.C. 838). (2 Kings 14:7) Elath and Ezion-geber were the seaports. (2 Samuel 8:14; 1 Kings 9:26) History.--Esau's bitter hatred to his brother Jacob for fraudulently obtaining his blessing appears to have been inherited by his latest posterity. The Edomites peremptorily refused to permit the Israelites to pass through their land. (Numbers 20:18-21) For a period of 400 years we hear no more of the Edomites. They were then attacked and defeated by Saul, (1 Samuel 14:47) and some forty years later by David. (2 Samuel 8:13,14) In the reign of Jehoshaphat (B.c. 914) the Edomites attempted to invade Israel, but failed. (2 Chronicles 20:22) They joined Nebuchadnezzar when that king besieged Jerusalem. For their cruelty at this time they were fearfully denounced by the later prophets. (Isaiah 34:5-8; 63:1-4; Jeremiah 49:17) After this they settled in southern Palestine, and for more than four centuries continued to prosper. But during the warlike rule of the Maccabees they were again completely subdued, and even forced to conform to Jewish laws and rites, and submit to the government of Jewish prefects. The Edomites were now incorporated with the Jewish nation. They were idolaters. (2 Chronicles 25:14,15,20) Their habits were singular. The Horites, their predecessors in Mount Seir, were, as their name implies, troglodytes, or dwellers in caves; and the Edomites seem to have adopted their dwellings as well as their country. Everywhere we meet with caves and grottos hewn in the soft sandstone strata.
[Edom, Idumaea Or Idumea]
There is little trace among the Hebrews in earlier times of education in any other subjects than the law. The wisdom therefore and instruction, of which so much is said in the book of Proverbs, are to be understood chiefly of moral and religious discipline, imparted, according to the direction of the law, by the teaching and under the example of parents. (But Solomon himself wrote treatises on several scientific subjects, which must have been studied in those days.) In later times the prophecies and comments on them, as well as on the earlier Scriptures, together with other subjects, were studied. Parents were required to teach their children some trade. (Girls also went to schools, and women generally among the Jews were treated with greater equality to men than in any other ancient nation.) Previous to the captivity, the chief depositaries of learning were the schools or colleges, from which in most cases proceeded that succession of public teachers who at various times endeavored to reform the moral and religious conduct of both rulers and people. Besides the prophetical schools instruction was given by the priests in the temple and elsewhere. [See Schools]
(a heifer), one of David's wives during his reign in Hebron. (2 Samuel 3:5; 1 Chronicles 3:3) (B.C. 1055.)
(two ponds), a place named only in (Isaiah 15:8) probably the same as EN-EGLAIM.
(land of the Copts), a country occupying the northeast angle of Africa. Its limits appear always to have been very nearly the same. It is bounded on the north by the Mediterranean Sea, on the east by Palestine, Arabia and the Red Sea, on the south by Nubia, and on the west by the Great Desert. It is divided into upper Egypt--the valley of the Nile--and lower Egypt, the plain of the Delta, from the Greek letter; it is formed by the branching mouths of the Nile, and the Mediterranean Sea. The portions made fertile by the Nile comprise about 9582 square geographical miles, of which only about 5600 is under cultivation.--Encyc. Brit. The Delta extends about 200 miles along the Mediterranean, and Egypt is 520 miles long from north to south from the sea to the First Cataract. Names.--The common name of Egypt in the Bible is "Mizraim." It is in the dual number, which indicates the two natural divisions of the country into an upper and a lower region. The Arabic name of Egypt--Mizr-- signifies "red mud." Egypt is also called in the Bible "the land of Ham," (Psalms 105:23,27) comp. Psalms 78:51--a name most probably referring to Ham the son of Noah--and "Rahab," the proud or insolent: these appear to be poetical appellations. The common ancient Egyptian name of the country is written in hieroglyphics Kem, which was perhaps pronounced Chem. This name signifies, in the ancient language and in Coptic, "black," on account of the blackness of its alluvial soil. We may reasonably conjecture that Kem is the Egyptian equivalent of Ham. GENERAL APPEARANCE, CLIMATE, ETC.--The general appearance of the country cannot have greatly changed since the days of Moses. The whole country is remarkable for its extreme fertility, which especially strikes the beholder when the rich green of the fields is contrasted with the utterly bare, yellow mountains or the sand-strewn rocky desert on either side. The climate is equable and healthy. Rain is not very unfrequent on the northern coast, but inland is very rare. Cultivation nowhere depends upon it. The inundation of the Nile fertilizes and sustains the country, and makes the river its chief blessing. The Nile was on this account anciently worshipped. The rise begins in Egypt about the summer solstice, and the inundation commences about two months later. The greatest height is attained about or somewhat after the autumnal equinox. The inundation lasts about three months. The atmosphere, except on the seacoast, is remarkably dry and clear, which accounts for the so perfect preservation of the monuments, with their pictures and inscriptions. The heat is extreme during a large part of the year. The winters are mild,--from 50
the native or natives of Egypt.
(my brother), head of one of the Benjamite houses according to the list in (Genesis 46:21) He seems to be the same as Ahiram in the list in (Numbers 26:38) In (1 Chronicles 8:1) he is called Aharah, and perhaps also Ahoah in ver. 4, Ahiah, ver. 7, and Aher, (1 Chronicles 7:12)
(a rooting up), a descendant of Judah. (1 Chronicles 2:27)
(torn up by the roots; emigration), one of the five towns belonging to the lords of the Philistines, and the most northerly of the five. (Joshua 13:3) Like the other Philistine cities its situation was in the lowlands. It fell to the lot of Judah. (Joshua 15:45,46; Judges 1:18) Afterwards we find it mentioned among the cities of Dan. (Joshua 19:43) Before the monarchy it was again in full possession of the Philistines. (1 Samuel 5:10) Akir, the modern representative of Ekron, lies about five miles southwest of Ramleh . In the Apocrypha it appears as Accaron. 1Macc 10:89 only.
(whom God has put on), a descendant of Ephraim through Shuthelah. (1 Chronicles 7:20)
(an oak, strength).
(valley of the terebinth), the valley in which David killed Goliath. (1 Samuel 17:2,19) It lay somewhere near Socoh of Judah and Azekah, and was nearer Ekron than any other Philistine town. 1Sam. 17.
This word is found only in (Ezra 4:9) The Elamites were the original inhabitants of the country called Elam; they were descendants of Shem, and perhaps drew their name from an actual man Elam. (Genesis 10:22)
(whom God made).
(a grove), the name of a town of the land of Edom, commonly mentioned with Ezion-geber, and situated at the head of the Arabian Gulf, which was thence called the Elanitic Gulf. It first occurs in the account of the wanderings, (2:8) and in later times must have come under the rule of David. (2 Samuel 8:14) We find the place named again in connection with Solomon's navy. (1 Kings 9:26) comp. 2Chr 8:17 In the Roman period it became a frontier town of the south and the residence of a Christian bishop. The Arabic name is Eyleh, and palm groves still exist there, after which it was named.
(the God of Bethel), the name which Jacob is said to have bestowed on the place at which God appeared to him when he was flying from Esau. (Genesis 35:7)
(Genesis 25:4; 1 Chronicles 1:3) the last in order of the sons of Midian.
(favored of God) and Me'dad (love), two of the seventy elders to whom was communicated the prophetic power of Moses. (Numbers 11:16,26) (B.C. 1490.) Although their names were upon the last which Moses had drawn up, (Numbers 11:26) they did not repair with the rest of their brethren to the tabernacle, but continued to prophesy in the camp. moses, being requested by Joshua to forbid this, refused to do so, and expressed a wish that the gift of prophecy might be diffused throughout the people.
The term elder, or old man as the Hebrew literally imports, was one of extensive use, as an official title, among the Hebrews and the surrounding nations, because the heads of tribes and the leading people who had acquired influence were naturally the older people of the nation. It had reference to various offices. (Genesis 24:2; 50:7; 2 Samuel 12:17; Ezekiel 27:9) As betokening a political office, it applied not only to the Hebrews, but also to the Egyptians, (Genesis 50:7) the Moabites and the Midianites. (Numbers 22:7) The earliest notice of the elders acting in concert as a political body is at the time of the Exodus. They were the representatives of the people, so much so that elders and people are occasionally used as equivalent terms; comp. (Joshua 24:1) with (Joshua 24:2,19,21) and (1 Samuel 8:4) with (1 Samuel 8:7,10,19) Their authority was undefined, and extended to all matters concerning the public weal. Their number and influence may be inferred from (1 Samuel 30:26)ff. They retained their position under all the political changes which the Jews underwent. The seventy elders mentioned in Exodus and Numbers were a sort of governing body, a parliament, and the origin of the tribunal of seventy elders called the Sanhedrin or Council. In the New Testament Church the elders or presbyters were the same as the bishops. It was an office derived from the Jewish usage of elders or rulers of the synagogues. [Bishop]
(praised by God), a descendant of Ephraim. (1 Chronicles 7:21)
(the ascending of God), a place on the east of Jordan, taken possession of and rebuilt by the tribe of Reuben. (Numbers 32:3,37) By Isaiah and Jeremiah it is mentioned as a Moabite town. (Isaiah 15:4; 16:9; Jeremiah 48:34)
(whom God made).
(help of God).
(God, the God of Israel), the name bestowed by Jacob on the altar which he erected facing the city of Shechem. (Genesis 33:19,20)
(the ox), one of the towns allotted to Benjamin, and named next to Jerusalem. (Joshua 18:28)
(the grace of God).
(ascension), a descendant of Aaron through Ithamar, the youngest of his two surviving sons. (Leviticus 10:1,2,12) comp. 1Kin 2:27 with 2Sam 8:17; 1Chr 24:3 (B.C. 1214-1116.) he was the first of the line of Ithamar who held the office of high priest. The office remained in his family till Abiathar was thrust out by Solomon, (1 Kings 1:7; 2:26,27) when it passed back again to the family of Eleazar int he person of Zadok. (1 Kings 2:35) Its return to the elder branch was one part of the punishment which had been denounced against Eli during his lifetime, for his culpable negligence. (1 Samuel 2:22-25) when his sons profaned the priesthood; comp. (1 Samuel 2:27-36) with 1Kin 2:27 Notwithstanding this one great blemish, the character of Eli is marked by eminent piety, as shown by his meek submission to the divine judgment, (1 Samuel 3:18) and his supreme regard for the ark of God. (1 Samuel 4:18) In addition to the office of high priest he held that of judge. He died at the advanced age of 98 years, (1 Samuel 4:18) In addition to the office of high priest he held that of judge. He died at the advanced age of 98 years, (1 Samuel 4:18) overcome by the disastrous intelligence that the ark of God had been taken in battle by the Philistines, who had also slain his sons Hophni and Phinehas.
The Hebrew form, as Eloi, Eloi, etc., is the Syro-Chaldaic (the common language in use by the Jews in the time of Christ) of the first words of the twenty-second Psalm; they mean "My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?"
(God is my father).
(known by God).
father of Rezon, the captain of a marauding band that annoyed Solomon. (1 Kings 11:23)
(my God is Jehovah).
(whom God hides), on of the thirty of David's guard. (2 Samuel 23:32; 1 Chronicles 11:33) (B.C. 1046.)
(raised up by God.).
the Greek form of Elijah.
(whom God restores).
(to whom God comes), a musician in the temple in the time of King David. (1 Chronicles 25:4,27)
(whom God loves), the man chosen to represent the tribe of Benjamin in the division of the land of Canaan. (Numbers 34:21) (B.C. 1452.)
(to whom God is strength).
(my eyes are toward God) a descendant of Benjamin, and a chief man in the tribe. (1 Chronicles 8:20)
(God is his help).
(my eyes are toward Jehovah), son of Zerahiah, who with 200 men returned from the captivity with Ezra. (Ezra 8:4) (B.C. 459.)
(God is his reward), one of Solomon's scribes. (1 Kings 4:3)
(whose God is he (Jehovah)).
(my God is Jehovah) has been well entitled "the grandest and the most romantic character that Israel ever produced." "Elijah the Tishbite,... of the inhabitants of Gilead" is literally all that is given us to know of his parentage and locality. Of his appearance as he "stood before" Ahab (B.C. 910) with the suddenness of motion to this day characteristic of the Bedouins from his native hills, we can perhaps realize something from the touches, few but strong, of the narrative. His chief characteristic was his hair, long and thick, and hanging down his back. His ordinary clothing consisted of a girdle of skin round his loins, which he tightened when about to move quickly. (1 Kings 18:46) But in addition to this he occasionally wore the "mantle" or cape of sheepskin which has supplied us with one of our most familiar figures of speech. His introduction, in what we may call the first act of his life, is the most startling description. He suddenly appears before Ahab, prophesies a three-years drought in Israel, and proclaims the vengeance of Jehovah for the apostasy of the king. Obliged to flee from the vengeance of king, or more probably of the queen (comp. (1 Kings 19:2) he was directed to the brook Cherith. There in the hollow of the torrent bed he remained, supported in the miraculous manner with which we are all familiar, till the failing of the brook obliged him to forsake it. His next refuge was at Zarephath. Here in the house of the widow woman Elijah performed the miracles of prolonging the oil and the meal, and restored the son of the widow to life after his apparent death. 1Kin 17. In this or some other retreat an interval of more than two years must have elapsed. The drought continued, and at last the full horrors of famine, caused by the failure of the crops, descended on Samaria. Again Elijah suddenly appears before Ahab. There are few more sublime stories in history than the account of the succeeding events--with the servant of Jehovah and his single attendant on the one hand, and the 850 prophets of Baal on the other; the altars, the descending fire of Jehovah consuming both sacrifice and altar; the rising storm, and the ride across the plain to Jezreel. 1Kin 18. Jezebel vows vengeance, and again Elijah takes refuge in flight into the wilderness, where he is again miraculously fed, and goes forward, in the strength of that food, a journey of forty days to the mount of God, even to Horeb, where he takes refuge in a cave, and witnesses a remarkable vision of Jehovah. (1 Kings 19:9-18) He receives the divine communication, and sets forth in search of Elisha, whom he finds ploughing in the field, and anoints him prophet in his place. ch. 19. For a time little is heard of Elijah, and Ahab and Jezebel probably believed they had seen the last of him. But after the murder of Naboth, Elijah, who had received an intimation from Jehovah of what was taking place, again suddenly appears before the king, and then follow Elijah's fearful denunciation of Ahab and Jezebel, which may possibly be recovered by putting together the words recalled by Jehu, (2 Kings 9:26,36,37) and those given in (1 Kings 21:19-25) A space of three or four years now elapses (comp. (1 Kings 22:1,51; 2 Kings 1:17) before we again catch a glimpse of Elijah. Ahaziah is on his death-bed, (1 Kings 22:51; 2 Kings 1:1,2) and sends to an oracle or shrine of Baal to ascertain the issue of his illness; but Elijah suddenly appears on the path of the messengers, without preface or inquiry utters his message of death, and as rapidly disappears. The wrathful king sends two bands of soldiers to seize Elijah, and they are consumed with fire; but finally the prophet goes down and delivers to Ahaziah's face the message of death. No long after Elijah sent a message to Jehoram denouncing his evil doings, and predicting his death. (2 Chronicles 21:12-15) It was at Gilgal--probably on the western edge of the hills of Ephraim-- that the prophet received the divine intimation that his departure was at hand. He was at the time with Elisha, who seems now to have become his constant companion, and who would not consent to leave him. "And it came to pass as they still went on and talked, that, behold, a chariot of fire and horses of fire, and parted them both asunder; and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven." (B.C. 896.) Fifty men of the sons of the prophets ascended the abrupt heights behind the town, and witnessed the scene. How deep was the impression which he made on the mind of the nation may be judged of from the fixed belief which many centuries after prevailed that Elijah would again appear for the relief and restoration of his country, as Malachi prophesied. (Malachi 4:5) He spoke, but left no written words, save the letter to Jehoram king of Judah. (2 Chronicles 21:12-15)
(rejected of God), a Harodite, one of David's guard. (2 Samuel 23:25)
(strong trees), (Exodus 15:27; Numbers 33:9) the second station where the Israelites encamped after crossing the Red Sea. It is distinguished as having had "twelve wells (rather 'fountains') of waster, and three-score and ten palm trees." It is generally identified by the best authorities with Wady Garundel, about halfway down the shore of the Gulf of Suez. A few palm trees still remain, and the water is excellent.
(my God is king), a man of the tribe of Judah and of the family of the Hezronites, who dwelt in Bethlehem-Ephratah in the days of the Judges. (B.C. 1312.) In consequence of a great death in the land he went with his wife, Naomi, and his two sons, Mahlon and Chilion, to dwell in Moab, where he and his sons died without posterity. (Ruth 1:2,3) etc.
(my eyes are toward the Lord).
(whom God judges), son of Ur, one of David's guard. (1 Chronicles 11:35) [Eliphelet, 3]
(the god of deliverance), the last of the thirteen sons born to David after his establishment in Jerusalem. (2 Samuel 5:16; 1 Chronicles 14:7) [Eliphelet, 2]
(God is his strength).
(whom God makes distinguished), a Merarite Levite, one of the gate-keepers appointed by David to play on the harp "on the Sheminith" on the occasion of bringing up the ark to the city of David. (1 Chronicles 15:18,21)
(the God of deliverance).
(the oath of God), the wife of Zacharias and mother of John the Baptist. She was herself of the priestly family, and a relation, (Luke 1:36) of the mother of our Lord.
the Greek form of the name Elisha.
(God his salvation), son of Shaphat of Abel-meholah; the attendant and disciple of Elijan, and subsequently his successor as prophet of the kingdom of Israel. The earliest mention of his name is in the command to Elijah in the cave at Horeb. (1 Kings 19:16,17) (B.C. about 900.) Elijah sets forth to obey the command, and comes upon his successor engaged in ploughing. He crosses to him and throws over his shoulders the rough mantle--a token at once of investiture with the prophet's office and of adoption as a son. Elisha delayed merely to give the farewell kiss to his father and mother and preside at a parting feast with his people, and then followed the great prophet on his northward road. We hear nothing more of Elisha for eight years, until the translation of his master, when he reappears, to become the most prominent figure in the history of his country during the rest of his long life. In almost every respect Elisha presents the most complete contrast to Elijah. Elijah was a true Bedouin child of the desert. If he enters a city it is only to deliver his message of fire and be gone. Elisha, on the other hand, is a civilized man, an inhabitant of cities. His dress was the ordinary garment of an Israelite, the beged, probably similar in form to the long abbeyeh of the modern Syrians. (2 Kings 2:12) His hair was worn trimmed behind, in contrast to the disordered locks of Elijah, and he used a walking-staff, (2 Kings 4:29) of the kind ordinarily carried by grave or aged citizens. (Zechariah 8:4) After the departure of his master, Elisha returned to dwell at Jericho, (2 Kings 2:18) where he miraculously purified the springs. We next meet with Elisha at Bethel, in the heart of the country, on his way from Jericho to Mount Carmel. (2 Kings 2:23) The mocking children, Elisha's curse and the catastrophe which followed are familiar to all. Later he extricates Jehoram king of Israel, and the kings of Judah and Edom, from their difficulty in the campaign against Moab arising from want of water. (2 Kings 3:4-27) Then he multiplies the widow's oil. (2 Kings 4:5) The next occurrence is at Shunem, where he is hospitably entertained by a woman of substance, whose son dies, and is brought to life again by Elisha. (2 Kings 4:8-37) Then at Gilgal he purifies the deadly pottage, (2 Kings 4:38-41) and multiplies the loaves. (2 Kings 4:42-44) The simple records of these domestic incidents amongst the sons of the prophets are now interrupted by an occurrence of a more important character. (2 Kings 5:1-27) The chief captain of the army of Syria, Naaman, is attacked with leprosy, and is sent by an Israelite maid to the prophet Elisha, who directs him to dip seven times in the Jordan, which he does and is healed, (2 Kings 5:1-14) while Naaman's servant, Gehazi, he strikes with leprosy for his unfaithfulness. ch. (2 Kings 5:20-27) Again the scene changes. It is probably at Jericho that Elisha causes the iron axe to swim. (2 Kings 6:1-7) A band of Syrian marauders are sent to seize him, but are struck blind, and he misleads them to Samaria, where they find themselves int he presence of the Israelite king and his troops. (2 Kings 6:8-23) During the famine in Samaria, (2 Kings 6:24-33) he prophesied incredible plenty, ch. (2 Kings 7:1-2) which was soon fulfilled. ch. (2 Kings 7:3-20) We next find the prophet at Damascus. Benhadad the king is sick, and sends to Elisha by Hazael to know the result. Elisha prophesies the king's death, and announces to Hazael that he is to succeed to the throne. (2 Kings 8:7,15) Finally this prophet of God, after having filled the position for sixty years, is found on his death-bed in his own house. (2 Kings 13:14-19) The power of the prophet, however, does not terminate with his death. Even in the tomb he restores the dead to life. ch. (2 Kings 13:21)
(God is salvation), the eldest son of Javan. (Genesis 10:4) The residence of his descendants is described in (Ezekiel 27:7) as the isles of Elishah, whence the Phoenicians obtained their purple and blue dyes. Some connect the race of Elishah with the AEolians, others with Elishah, and in a more extended sense Peloponnesus, or even Hellas.
(whom God hears).
(whom God judges), son of Zichri; one of the captains of hundreds in the time of Jehoiada. (2 Chronicles 23:1) (B.C. 877.)
(God is her oath), the wife of Aaron. (Exodus 6:23) She was the daughter of Amminadab, and sister of Nahshon the captain of the host of Judah. (Numbers 2:3) (B.C. 1491.)
(God is my salvation), one of David's sons, born after his settlement in Jerusalem. (2 Samuel 5:15; 1 Chronicles 14:5) (B.C. 1044.)
(God his praise), son of Achim in the genealogy of Christ. (Matthew 1:15)
(whom God protects).
prince of the tribe and over the host of Reuben. (Numbers 1:5; 2:10; 7:30,35; 10:18)
(God my bow), the birthplace of the prophet Nahum, hence called "the Elkoshite." (Nahum 1:1) This place is located at the modern Alkush, a village on the east bank of the Tigris, about two miles north of Mosul. Some think a small village in Galilee is intended.
(oak), the city of Arioch, (Genesis 14:1) seems to be the Hebrew representative of the old Chaldean town called in the native dialect Larsa or Larancha . Larsa was a town of lower Babylonia or Chaldea, situated nearly halfway between Ur (Mugheir) and Erech (Warka), on the left bank of the Euphrates. It is now Senkereh.
(Hosea 4:13) [See Oak]
In the Revised Version, (Luke 3:28) Same as Elmodam.
(measure), son of Er, in the genealogy of Joseph. (Luke 3:28)
(God his delight), the father of Jeribai and Joshaviah, two of David's guard, according to (1 Chronicles 11:46)
(God hath given).
(oak of the house of grace) is named with two Danite towns as forming one of Solomon's commissariat districts. (1 Kings 4:9)
(Numbers 26:26) [Elon, 2]
(1 Kings 9:26) [Elath, Eloth]
(God his wages), a Benjamite, son of Hushim and brother of Abitub. (1 Chronicles 8:11) He was the founder of numerous family.
(God his deliverance), one of David's sons born in Jerusalem. (1 Chronicles 14:5)
(God his deliverance), literally "the terebinth of Paran." (Genesis 14:6) [Paran, Elparan]
(God its fear), one of the cities in the border of Dan, (Joshua 19:44) which with its suburbs was allotted to the Kohathite Levites. (Joshua 21:23)
(God its foundation), one of the towns of the tribe of Judah in the mountains. (Joshua 15:59) It has not yet been identified.
(God's kindred), one of the cities in the south of Judah, (Joshua 15:30) allotted to Simeon, (Joshua 19:4) and in possession of that tribe until the time of David. (1 Chronicles 4:29)
(vine; gleaning). (Nehemiah 6:15) 1Macc 14:27. [Month]
(God is my praise), one of the warriors of Benjamin who joined David at Ziklag. (1 Chronicles 12:5) (B.C. 1054.)
(a wise man), the Arabic name of the Jewish magus or sorcerer Bar-jesus. (Acts 13:6) ff. (A.D. 44.)
(whom God hath given).
(whom God protects), second son of Uzziel, who was the son of Kohath son of Levi. (Exodus 6:22)
the process by which dead bodies are preserved from putrefaction and decay. It was most general among the Egyptians, and it is in connection with this people that the two instances which we meet with in the Old Testament are mentioned. (Genesis 50:2,26) The embalmers first removed part of the brain through the nostrils, by means of a crooked iron, and destroyed the rest by injecting caustic drugs. An incision was then made along the flank with a sharp Ethiopian stone, and the whole of the intestines removed. The cavity was rinsed out with palm wine, and afterwards scoured with pounded perfumes. It was then filled with pure myrrh pounded, cassia and other aromatics, except frankincense. This done, the body was sewn up and steeped in natron (salf-petre) for seventy days. When the seventy days were accomplished, the embalmers washed the corpse and swathed it in bandages of linen, cut in strips and smeared with gum. They then gave it up to the relatives of the deceased, who provided for it a wooden case, made in the shape of a man, in which the dead was placed, and deposited in an erect position against the wall of the sepulchral chamber. Sometimes no incision was made in the body, nor were the intestines removed, but cedar-oil was injected into the stomach by the rectum. At others the oil was prevented from escaping until the end of the steeping process, when it was withdrawn, and carried off with it the stomach and intestines in a state of solution, while the flesh was consumed by the natron, and nothing was left but the skin and bones. The body in this state was returned to the relatives of the deceased. The third mode, which was adopted by the poorer classes, and cost but little, consisted in rinsing out the intestines with syrmaea, an infusion of senna and cassia, and steeping the body for several days in natron. It does not appear that embalming was practiced by the Hebrews. The cost of embalming was sometimes nearly, varying from this amount down to or .
Various explanations have been offered as to the distinction between "needle-work" and "cunning work." Probably neither term expresses just what is to-day understood by embroidery, though the latter may come nearest to it. The art of embroidery by the loom was extensively practiced among the nations of antiquity. In addition to the Egyptians, the Babylonians were celebrated for it.
a precious stone of a rich green color, upon which its value chiefly depends. This gem was the first in the second row on the breastplate of the high priest. (Exodus 28:18; 39:11) It was imported to Tyre from Syria, (Ezekiel 27:16) was used as a seal or signet, Ecclus. 32:6, as an ornament of clothing and bedding, (Ezekiel 28:13; Judges 10:21) and is spoken of as one of the foundations of Jerusalem. (Revelation 21:19) Tob. 13:16. The rainbow around the throne is compared to emerald in (Revelation 4:3)
(28:27; 1 Samuel 5:6,9,12; 6:4,5,11) Probably hemorrhiodal tumors, or bleeding piles, are intended. These are very common in Syria at present, Oriental habits of want of exercise and improper food, producing derangement of the liver, constipation, etc., being such as to cause them.
(terrors), a tribe or family of gigantic stature which originally inhabited the region along the eastern side of the Dead Sea. They were related to the Anakim.
(Matthew 1:23) [Immanuel]
(warm baths), the village to which the two disciples were going when our Lord appeared to them on the way, on the day of his resurrection. (Luke 24:13) Luke makes its distance from Jerusalem sixty stadia (Authorized Version "threescore furlongs"), or about 7 1/2 miles; and Josephus mentions "a village called Emmaus" at the same distance. The site of Emmaus remains yet to be identified.
(an ass), the father of Sychem. (Acts 7:16) [Hamor]
at the beginning of many Hebrew words, signifies a spring or fountain.
(double spring), one of the cities of Judah int he Shefelah or lowland. (Joshua 15:34)
(having eyes.). Ahira ben-Enan was "prince" of the tribe of Naphtali at the time of the numbering of Israel in the wilderness of Sinai. (Numbers 1:15) (B.C. 1491.)
primarily denoted the resting-place of an army or company of travellers at night, (Genesis 32:21; Exodus 16:13) and was hence applied to the army or caravan when on its march. (Genesis 32:7,8; Exodus 14:19; Joshua 10:5; 11:4) The description of the camp of the Israelites, on their march from Egypt, Numb 2,3, supplies the greatest amount of information on the subject. The tabernacle, corresponding to the chieftains tent of an ordinary encampment, was placed in the centre, and around and facing it, (Numbers 2:1) arranged in four grand divisions, corresponding to the four points of the compass, lay the host of Israel, according to their standards. (Numbers 1:52; 2:2) In the centre, round the tabernacle, and with no standard but the cloudy or fiery pillar which rested over it, were the tents of the priests and Levites. The former, with Moses and Aaron at their head, were encamped on the eastern side. The order of encampment was preserved on the march. (Numbers 2:17)
The words so translated have several signification: the practice of secret arts, (Exodus 7:11,22; 8:7); "muttered spells," (2 Kings 9:22; Micah 5:12) the charming of serpents, (Ecclesiastes 10:11) the enchantments sought by Balaam, (Numbers 24:1) the use of magic, (Isaiah 47:9,12) Any resort to these methods of imposture was strictly forbidden in Scripture, (Leviticus 19:26; Isaiah 47:9) etc.; but to eradicate the tendency is almost impossible, (2 Kings 17:17) and we find it still flourishing at the Christian era. (Acts 13:6,8)
(fountain of Dor), a place in the territory of Issachar, and yet possessed by Manasseh. (Joshua 17:11) Endor was the scene of the great victory over Sisera and Jabin. It was here that the witch dwelt whom Saul consulted. (1 Samuel 28:7) it was known to Eusebius, who describes it was a large village four miles south of Tabor. Here to the north of Jebel Duhy the name still lingers. The distance from the slopes of Gilboa to Endor is seven or eight miles, over difficult ground.
(fountain of the two calves), a place named only by Ezekiel, (Ezekiel 47:10) apparently as on the Dead Sea; but whether near to or far from Engedi, on the east or the west side of the sea, it is impossible to ascertain.
(fountain of the garden).
(fount of the kid), a town in the wilderness of Judah, (Joshua 15:62) on the western shore of the Dead Sea. (Ezekiel 47:10) Its original name was Hazezon-tamar, on account of the palm groves which surrounded it. (2 Chronicles 20:2) Its site is about the middle of the western shore of the lake, at the fountain of Ain Jidy, from which the place gets its name. It was immediately after an assault upon the "Amorites that dwelt in Hazezon-tamar," that the five Mesopotamian kings were attacked by the rulers of the plain of Sodom. (Genesis 14:7) comp. 2Chr 20:2 Saul was told that David was in the "wilderness of Engedi;" and he took "three thousand men, and went to seek David and his men upon the rocks of the wild goats. " (1 Samuel 24:1-4) The vineyards of Engedi were celebrated by Solomon. (Song of Solomon 1:14)
a term applied exclusively to military affairs in the Bible. The engines to which the term is applied in (2 Chronicles 26:15) were designed to propel various missiles from the walls of the besieged town. One, with which the Hebrews were acquainted, was the battering ram, described in (Ezekiel 26:9) and still more precisely in (Ezekiel 4:2; 21:22)
His chief business was cutting names or devices on rings and seals; the only notices of engraving are in connection with the high priest's dress--the two onyx stones, the twelve jewels and the mitre-plate having inscriptions on them. (Exodus 28:11,21,36)
(swift fountain), one of the cities on the border of Issachar named next to Engannim. (Joshua 19:21)
(fount of the caller), the spring which burst out in answer to the cry of Samson after his exploit with the jawbone. (Judges 15:19)
(fount of Hazor), one of the fenced cities in the inheritance of Naphtali, distinct from Hazor. (Joshua 19:37) It has not yet been identified.
(fount of judgment). (Genesis 14:7) [Kadesh, Kadeshbarnea]
The first trance of the existence of this work is found in the Epistle of (Jude 1:14,15) An apocryphal book called Enoch was known at a very early date, but was lost sight of until 1773, when Bruce brought with him on his return from Egypt three MSS. containing the complete Ethiopic translation. In its present shape the book consists of a series of revelations supposed to have been given to Enoch and Noah, which extend to the most varied aspects of nature and life. And are designed to offer a comprehensive vindication of the action of Providence. Notwithstanding the quotation in Jude, and the wide circulation of the book itself, the apocalypse of Enoch was uniformly and distinctly separated from the canonical Scriptures. Its authorship and date are unknown.
(springs), a place "near to Salim," at which John baptized. (John 3:23) It was evidently west of the Jordan, comp. (John 3:22) with John 3:26 and with John 1:28 And abounded in water. This is indicated by the name, which is merely a Greek version of a Chaldee word signifying "springs." AEnon is given in the Onomasticon as eight miles south of Scythopolis, "near Salem and the Jordan."
(mortal man), the son of Seth, (Genesis 4:26; 5:6,7,9,10,11; Luke 3:38) properly Enosh, as in (1 Chronicles 1:1)
Same as Enos. (1 Chronicles 1:1)
(fount of the pomegranate), one of the places which the men of Judah reinhabited after their return from the captivity. (Nehemiah 11:29) Perhaps the same as "Ain and Rimmon," (Joshua 15:32) and "Ain, Remmon," (Joshua 19:7) and see (1 Chronicles 4:32)
(fount of the fuller), a spring which formed one of the landmarks on the boundary line between Judah, (Joshua 15:7) and Benjamin. (Joshua 18:16) It may be identified with the present "Fountain of the Virgin," 'Ain Umm ed-Daraj, the perennial source from which the pool of Siloam is supplied.
(fountain of the sun), a spring which formed one of the landmarks on the north boundary of Judah, (Joshua 15:7) and the south boundary of Benjamin, (Joshua 18:17) perhaps Ain Haud or Ain-Chot--the "well of apostles"--about a mile below Bethany.
(nes ; in the Authorized Version generally "ensign," sometimes "standard;" degel, "standard," with the exception of (Song of Solomon 2:4) "banner;" oth, "ensign"). This distinction between these three Hebrew terms is sufficiently marked by their respective uses. Nes is a signal, and not a military standard. It is an occasional signal, which was exhibited on the top of a pole from a bare mountain-top, (Isaiah 13:2; 18:3) degel a military standard for a large division of an army; and oth the same for a small one. Neither of them, however, expresses the idea which "standard" conveys to our minds, viz. a flag. The standards in use among the Hebrews probably resembled those of the Egyptians and Assyrians--a figure or device of some kind elevated on a pole; usually a sacred emblem, such as an animal, a boat, or the king's name.
(Joshua 17:7) [See TAPPUAH]
(gloomy), the first, in order, of the sons of Midian, (Genesis 25:4; 1 Chronicles 1:33) afterwards mentioned by (Isaiah 60:6)
(lovely), a fellow laborer with the apostle Paul, mentioned (Colossians 1:7) as having taught the Colossian church the grace of God in truth, and designated a faithful minister of Christ on their behalf. He was at that time with St. Paul at Rome. (A.D. 57.) For Paul's estimate of him see (Colossians 1:7,8; 4:12)
(lovely), the full name of which Epaphras is a contraction. (Philemon 2:25; 4:18)
(praiseworthy), a Christian at Rome, greeted by St. Paul in (Romans 16:5) and designated as his beloved and the first-fruit of Asia unto Christ.
(praiseworthy), a Christian at Rome, greeted by St. Paul in (Romans 16:5) and designated as his beloved and the first-fruit of Asia unto Christ.
[Weights And Measures AND Measures]
(gloomy), a Netophathite, whose sons were among the "captains of the forces" left in Judah after the deportation to Babylon. (Jeremiah 40:8; 41:3) comp. Jere 40:13 (B.C. 588.)
(a calf), the second, in order, of the sons of Midian. (Genesis 25:4; 1 Chronicles 1:33) (B.C. 1820).
(cessation of blood-shed), a place between Socoh and Arekah, at which the Philistines were encamped before the affray in which Goliath was killed. (1 Samuel 17:1) Under the shorter form of PAS-DAMMIM it occurs once again in a similar connection. (1 Chronicles 11:13)
was written by the apostle St. Paul during his first captivity at Rome, (Acts 28:16) apparently immediately after he had written the Epistle to the Colossians [Colossians, The Epistle To The, EPISTLE TO], and during that period (perhaps the early part of A.D. 62) when his imprisonment had not assumed the severer character which seems to have marked its close. This epistle was addressed to the Christian church at Ephesus. [Ephesus] Its contents may be divided into two portions, the first mainly doctrinal, ch. 1-3, the second hortatory and practical .
(permitted), the capital of the Roman province of Asia, and an illustrious city in the district of Ionia, nearly opposite the island of Samos. Buildings.--Conspicuous at the head of the harbor of Ephesus was the great temple of Diana or Artemis, the tutelary divinity of the city. This building was raised on immense substructions, in consequence of the swampy nature of the ground. The earlier temple, which had been begun before the Persian war, was burnt down in the night when Alexander the Great was born; and another structure, raise by the enthusiastic co-operation of all the inhabitants of "Asia," had taken its place. The magnificence of this sanctuary was a proverb throughout the civilized world. In consequence of this devotion the city of Ephesus was called neo'koros, (Acts 19:35) or "warden" of Diana. Another consequence of the celebrity of Diana's worship at Ephesus was that a large manufactory grew up there of portable shrines, which strangers purchased, and devotees carried with them on journeys or set up in the houses. The theatre, into which the mob who had seized on Paul, (Acts 19:29) rushed, was capable of holding 25,000 or 30,000 persons, and was the largest ever built by the Greeks. The stadium or circus, 685 feet long by 200 wide, where the Ephesians held their shows, is probably referred to by Paul as the place where he "fought with beasts at Ephesus." (1 Corinthians 15:32) Connection with Christianity--The Jews were established at Ephesus in considerable numbers. (Acts 2:9; 6:9) It is here and here only that we find disciples of John the Baptist explicitly mentioned after the ascension of Christ. (Acts 18:25; 19:3) The first seeds of Christian truth were possibly sown here immediately after the great Pentecost. (Acts 2:1) ... St. Paul remained in the place more than two years, (Acts 19:8,10; 20:31) during which he wrote the First Epistle to the Corinthians. At a later period Timothy was set over the disciples, as we learn from the two epistles addressed to him. Among St. Paul's other companions, two, Trophimus and Tychicus, were natives of Asia, (Acts 20:4) and the latter was probably, (2 Timothy 4:12) the former certainly, (Acts 21:29) a native of Ephesus. Present condition--The whole place is now utterly desolate, with the exception of the small Turkish village at Ayasaluk . The ruins are of vast extent.
(judgment), a descendant of Judah, of the family of Hezron and of Jerahmeel. (1 Chronicles 2:37)
(a sacred vestment originally appropriate to the high priest. (Exodus 28:4)
(image), father of Hanniel of the tribe of Manesseh. (Numbers 34:23)
a city "in the district near the wilderness" to which our Lord retired with his disciples when threatened with violence by the priests. (John 11:54)
In "Baal-hazor which is by Ephraim" was Absalom's sheepfarm, at which took place the murder of Amnon, one of the earliest precursors of the great revolt. (2 Samuel 13:23) There is no clue to its situation.
that portion of Canaan named after Joseph's second son. (Genesis 41:50-52) The boundaries of the portion of Ephraim are given in (Joshua 16:1-10) The south boundary was coincident for part of its length with the north boundary of Benjamin. It extended from the Jordan on the east, at the reach opposite Jericho, to the Mediterranean on the west, probably about Joppa. On the north of Ephraim and Manasseh were the tribes of Asher, Zebulun and Issachar. The territory thus allotted to the "house of Joseph" may be roughly estimated at 55 miles from east to west by 70 from north to south. It was one at once of great richness and great security. Its fertile plains and well-watered valleys could only be reached by a laborious ascent through steep and narrow ravines, all but impassable for an army. Under Joshua the tribe must have taken a high position in the nation, to judge from the tone which the Ephraimites assumed on occasions shortly subsequent to the conquest. After the revolt of Jeroboam the history of Ephraim is the history of the kingdom of Israel, since not only did the tribe become a kingdom, but the kingdom embraced little besides the tribe.
(double fruitfulness), the second son of Joseph by his wife Asenath. (B.C. 1715-1708.) The first indication we have of that ascendancy over his elder brother Manasseh which at a later period the tribe of Ephraim so unmistakably possessed is in the blessing of the children by Jacob. (Genesis 48:1) ...
one of the gates of the city of Jerusalem, (2 Kings 14:13; 2 Chronicles 25:23; Nehemiah 8:16; 12:39) probably at or near the position of the present "Damascus gate."
is a district which seems to extend as far south as Ramah and Bethel, (1 Samuel 1:1; 7:17; 2 Chronicles 13:4,19) compared with 2Chr 15:8 Places but a few miles north of Jerusalem, and within the limits of Benjamin.
a wood, or rather a forest, on the east of Jordan, in which the fatal battle was fought between the armies of David and of Absalom. (2 Samuel 18:6)
Of the tribe of Ephraim; elsewhere called "Ephrathite." (Judges 12:5)
(hamlet), a city of Israel which Judah captured from Jeroboam. (2 Chronicles 13:19) It has been conjectured that this Ephrain or Ephron is identical with the Ephraim by which Absalom's sheep-farm of Baal-hazor was situated; with the city called Ephraim near the wilderness in which our Lord lived for some time; and with Ophrah, a city of Benjamin, apparently not far from Bethel. But nothing more than conjecture can be arrived at on these points.
(fawn-like), the son of Zochar, a Hittite, from whom Abraham bought the field and cave of Machpelah. (Genesis 23:8-17; 25:9; 49:29,30; 50:13) (B.C. 1860.)
The "cities of Mount Ephron" formed one of the landmarks on the northern boundary of the tribe of Judah. (Joshua 15:9)
derived their name from Epicurus (342-271 B.C.), a philosopher of Attic descent, whose "Garden" at Athens rivalled in popularity the "Porch" and the "Academy." The doctrines of Epicurus found wide acceptance in Asia Minor and Alexandria. (95-50 B.C.) The object of Epicurus was to find in philosophy a practical guide to happiness. True pleasure and not absolute truth was the end at which he aimed; experience and not reason the test on which he relied. It is obvious that a system thus formed would degenerate by a natural descent into mere materialism; and in this form Epicurism was the popular philosophy at the beginning of the Christian era. When St. Paul addressed "Epicureans and Soics," (Acts 17:18) at Athens, the philosophy of life was practically reduced to the teaching of these two antagonistic schools. Epistles, letters; personal correspondence by writing. The twenty-one epistles of the New Testament took the place of tracts among us. In their outward form they are such as might be expected from men who were brought into contact with Greek and Roman customs, themselves belonging to a different race, and so reproducing the imported style with only partial accuracy. They begin (the Epistle to the Hebrews and 1John excepted) with the names of the writer and of those to whom the epistle is addressed. Then follows the formula of salutation. Then the letter itself commences in the first person, the singular and plural being used indiscriminately. When the substance of the letter has been completed, come the individual messages. The conclusion in this case was probably modified by the fact that the letters were dictated to an amanuensis. When he had done his work, the apostle took up the pen or reed, and added in his own large characters, (Galatians 6:11) the authenticating autograph. In one instance, (Romans 16:22) the amanuensis in his own name adds his salutation. An allusion in (2 Corinthians 3:1) brings before us another class of letters which must have been in frequent use in the early ages of the Christian Church, by which travellers or teachers were commended by one church to the good offices of others.
(watchful), the eldest son of Ephraim. (Numbers 26:36)
(length), one of the cities of Nimrod's kingdom in the land of Shinar, (Genesis 10:10) doubtless the same as Orchoe, 82 miles south and 43 east of Babylon, the modern designations of the site--Warka, Irka and Irak--bearing a considerable affinity to the original name.
(watchful), son of Gad, (Genesis 46:16) and ancestor of the Erites. (Numbers 26:16)
the Greek form of Isaiah. [Isaiah]
(victor), one of the greatest of the kings of Assyria, was the son of Sennacherib, (2 Kings 19:37) and the grandson of Sargon, who succeeded Shalmaneser. He appears by his monuments to have been one of the most powerful, if not the most powerful, of all the Assyrian monarchs. He is the only one of them whom we find to have actually reigned at Babylon, where he built himself a palace, bricks from which have been recently recovered bearing his name. His Babylonian reign lasted thirteen years, from B.C. 680 to B.C. 667; and it was doubtless within this space of time that Manasseh king of Judah, having been seized by his captains at Jerusalem on a charge of rebellion, was brought before him at Babylon, (2 Chronicles 33:11) and detained for a time as prisoner there. As a builder of great works Esar-haddon is particularly distinguished. Besides his palace at Babylon, he built at least three others in different parts of his dominions, either for himself or his sons, and thirty temples.
(hairy), the eldest son of Isaac, and twin-brother of Jacob. The singular appearance of the child at his birth originated the name. (Genesis 25:25) Esau's robust frame and "rough" aspect were the types of a wild and daring nature. He was a thorough Bedouin, a "son of the desert." He was much loved by his father, and was of course his heir, but was induced to sell his birthright to Jacob. Mention of his unhappy marriages may be found in (Genesis 26:34) The next episode in the life of Esau is the loss of his father's covenant blessing, which Jacob secured through the craft of his mother, and the anger of Esau, who vows vengeance. (Genesis 27:1) ... Later he marries a daughter of Ishmael, (Genesis 28:8,9) and soon after establishes himself in Mount Seir, where he was living when Jacob returned from Padan-aram rich and powerful, and the two brothers were reconciled. (Genesis 33:4) Twenty years thereafter they united in burying Isaac's body in the cave of Machpelah. Of Esau's subsequent history nothing is known; for that of his descendants see Edom, Idumaea Or Idumea.
This name is merely the Greek form of the Hebrew word Jezreel. "The great plain of Esdraelon" extends across central Palestine from the Mediterranean to the Jordan, separating the mountain ranges of Carmel and Samaria from those of Galilee. The western section of it is properly the plain of Accho or 'Akka . The main body of the plain is a triangle. Its base on the east extends from Jenin (the ancient Engannim) to the foot of the hills below Nazareth, and is about 15 miles long; the north side, formed by the hills of Galilee, is about 12 miles long; and the south side, formed by the Samaria range, is about 18 miles. The apex on the west is a narrow pass opening into the plain of 'Akka . From the base of this triangular plain three branches stretch out eastward, like fingers from a hand, divided by two bleak, gray ridges--one bearing the familiar name of Mount Gilboa, the other called by Franks Little Hermon, but by natives Jebel ed-Duhy . The central branch is the richest as well as the most celebrated. This is the "valley of Jezreel" proper--the battle-field on which Gideon triumphed, and Saul and Jonathan were overthrown. (Judges 7:1) seq. ; (1 Samuel 29:1) ... and 1Sam 31:1 ... Two things are worthy of special notice in the plain of Esdraelon:
(Greek form of Ezra), The First Book of, the first in order of the apocryphal books in the English Bible. The first chapter is a transcript of the last two chapters of 2 Chron., for the most part verbatim, and only in one or two parts slightly abridged and paraphrased. Chapters 3,4, and 5 to the end of ver. 6, are the original portions of the book, and the rest is a transcript more or less exact of the book of Ezra, with the chapters transposed and quite otherwise arranged, and a portion of Nehemiah. Hence a twofold design in the compiler is discernible--one to introduce and give scriptural sanction to the legend about Zerubbabel; the other to explain the great obscurities of the book of Ezra, in which, however, he has signally failed. Its author is unknown, and it was probably written in Egypt. It has no historical value.
the form of the name of Ezra the scribe in 1 and 2 Esdras.
This exists in a Latin translation, the Greek being lost. Chapters 3-14 consist of a series of angelic revelations and visions in which Ezra is instructed in some of the great mysteries of the moral world, and assured of the final triumph of the righteous. The date of the book is uncertain. Like the first book, it was probably written in Egypt.
(contention), a well which the herdsmen of Isaac dug in the valley of Gerar. (Genesis 26:20)
(Baal's man), (1 Chronicles 8:33; 9:39) the same as Ish-bosheth.
(wise man), a Horite; one of the four sons of Dishon. (Genesis 36:26; 1 Chronicles 1:41)
(cluster of grapes), brother of Mamre the Amorite and of Aner, and one of Abraham's companions in his pursuit of the four kings who had carried off Lot. (Genesis 14:13,24) (B.C. 1912.).
or The brook of, a wady in the neighborhood of Hebron (Mamre), explored by the spies who were sent by Moses from Kadesh-barnea. (Numbers 13:23,24; 1:24) The name is still attached to a spring of fine water called 'Ain Eshkali, in a valley about two miles north of Hebron.
(slope), one of the cities of Judah. (Joshua 15:52)
(oppression), one of the late descendants of Saul. (1 Chronicles 8:39)
(Joshua 13:3) [Ashkelon, Askelon]
(a pass), a town in the low country--the Shefelah--of Judah, after wards allotted to Dan. (Joshua 15:33; 19:41) Here Samson spent his boyhood, and hither after his last exploit his body was brought. (Judges 13:25; 16:31; 18:2,8,11,12)
with the Zareathites, were among the families of Kirjath-jearim. (1 Chronicles 2:53)
and in shorter form Eshtemoh (obedience), a town of Judah in the mountains, (Joshua 15:50) allotted to the priest. (Joshua 21:14; 1 Chronicles 6:57) It was one of the places frequented by David and his followers during the long period of their wanderings. (1 Samuel 30:28) comp. 1Sam 30:31 Its site is at Semu'a, a village seven miles south of Hebron.
(effeminate), a name which occurs in the genealogies of Judah. (1 Chronicles 4:11,12)
son of Nagge or Naggai, in the genealogy of Christ. (Luke 3:25)
1 Esd. 9:34. [Azareel, Or Azareel, or Sharai]
(enclosed). (Matthew 1:3; Luke 3:33) [Hesron, Hezron, Hezron]
a Jewish sect, who, according to the description of Josephus, combined the ascetic virtues of the Pythagoreans and Stoics with a spiritual knowledge of the divine law. It seems probable that the name signifies seer, or the silent, the mysterious. As a sect the Essenes were distinguished by an aspiration after ideal purity rather than by any special code of doctrines. There were isolated communities of Essenes, which were regulated by strict rules, analogous to those of the monastic institutions of a later date. All things were held in common, without distinction of property; and special provision was made for the relief of the poor. Self-denial, temperance and labor--especially agriculture-- were the marks of the outward life of the Essenes; purity and divine communion the objects of their aspiration. Slavery, war and commmerce were alike forbidden. Their best-known settlements were on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea.
(a star), the Persian name of Hadassah (myrtle), daughter of Abihail, the son of Shimei, the son of Kish, a Benjamite. Esther was a beautiful Jewish maiden. She was an orphan, and had been brought up by her cousin Mordecai, who had an office in the household of Ahasuerus king of Persia--supposed to be the Xerxes of history-- and dwelt at "Shushan the palace." When Vashti was dismissed from being queen, the king chose Esther to the place on account of her beauty, not knowing her race or parentage; and on the representation of Haman the Agagite that the Jews scattered through his empire were pernicious race, he gave him full power and authority to kill them all. The means taken by Esther to avert this great calamity from her people and her kindred are fully related in the book of Esther. The Jews still commemorate this deliverance in the yearly festival Purim, on the 14th and 15th of Adar (February, March). History is wholly silent about both Vashti and Esther.
one of the latest of the canonical books of Scripture, having been written late in the reign of Xerxes, or early in that of his son Artaxerxes Longimanus (B.C. 444, 434). The author is not known. The book of Esther is placed among the hagiographa by the Jews, and in that first portion of them which they call "the five rolls." It is written on a single roll, sin a dramatic style, and is read through by the Jews in their synagogues at the feast of Purim, when it is said that the names of Haman's sons are read rapidly all in one breath, to signify that they were all hanged at the same time; while at every mention of Haman the audience stamp and shout and hiss, and the children spring rattles. It has often been remarked as a peculiarity of this book that the name of God does not once occur in it. Schaff gives as the reason for this that it was to permit the reading of the book at the hilarious and noisy festival of Purim, without irreverence. The style of writing is remarkably chaste and simple. It does not in the least savor of romance. The Hebrew is very like that of Ezra and parts of the Chronicles; generally pure, but mixed with some words of Persian origin and some of the Chaldaic affinity. In short it is just what one would expect to find in a work of the age to which the book of Esther professes to belong.
(lair of wild beasts).
a cliff or lofty rock, into a cleft or chasm of which Samson retired after his slaughter of the Philistines. (Judges 15:8,11) This natural stronghold was in the tribe of Judah; and near it, probably at its foot, were Lehi and Ramath-lehi and Enhakkore. (Judges 15:9,14,17,19) The name Etam was held by a city in the neighborhood of Bethlehem, (2 Chronicles 11:6) which is known to have been situated in the extremely uneven and broken country round the modern Urtas.
(bounded by the sea), one of the early resting-places of the Israelites when they quitted Egypt; described as "in the edge of the wilderness." (Exodus 13:20; Numbers 33:6,7) Etham may be placed where the cultivable land ceases, near the Seba Biar or Seven Wells, about three miles from the western side of the ancient head of the gulf.
(with Baal), king of Sidon and father of Jezebel. (1 Kings 16:31) Josephus represents him as a king of the Tyrians as well as of the Sidonians. We may thus identify him with Eithobalus, who, after having assassinated Pheles, usurped the throne of Tyre for thirty-two years. The date of Ethbaal's reign may be given as about B.C. 940-908.
(abundance), one of the cities of Judah in the low country, the Shefelah, (Joshua 15:42) allotted to Simeon. (Joshua 19:7)
(burnt faces). The country which the Greeks and Romans described as "AEthiopia" and the Hebrews as "Cush" lay to the south of Egypt, and embraced, in its most extended sense, the modern Nubia, Sennaar, Kordofan and northern Abyssinia, and in its more definite sense the kingdom of Meroe. (Ezekiel 29:10) The Hebrews do not appear to have had much practical acquaintance with Ethiopia itself, though the Ethiopians were well known to them through their intercourse with Egypt. The inhabitants of Ethiopia were a Hamitic race. (Genesis 10:6) They were divided into various tribes, of which the Sabeans were the most powerful. The history of Ethiopia is closely interwoven with that of Egypt. The two countries were not unfrequently united under the rule of the same sovereign. Shortly before our Saviour's birth a native dynasty of females, holding the official title of Candace (Plin. vi. 35), held sway in Ethiopia, and even resisted the advance of the Roman arms. One of these is the queen noticed in (Acts 8:27)
properly "Cushite," (Jeremiah 13:23) used of Zerah, (2 Chronicles 14:9) (8), and Ebed-melech. (Jeremiah 38:7,10,12; 39:16)
a Jewish proselyte, (Acts 8:26) etc., who was treasurer of Candace queen of Ethiopia, but who was converted to Christianity on a visit to Jerusalem, through philip the evangelist. Nothing is known of him after his return to Ethiopia.
The wife of Moses is to described in (Numbers 12:1) She is elsewhere said to have been the daughter of a Midianite, and in consequence of this some have supposed that the allusion is to another wife whom Moses married after the death of Zipporah.
(hire), one of the sons of Helah the wife of Ashur. (1 Chronicles 4:7)
(munificent), a Gershonite Levite. (1 Chronicles 6:41)
(prudent), a Christian at Rome mentioned by St. Paul. (2 Timothy 4:21) (A.D. 64.)
(good victory), mother of Timotheus. (2 Timothy 1:5) (A.D. before 47.)
"The English form of the Greek word which means bed-keeper . In the strict and proper sense they were the persons who had charge of the bed-chambers in palaces and larger houses. But as the jealous and dissolute temperament of the East required this charge to be in the hands of persons who had been deprived of their virility, the word eunuch came naturally to denote persons in that condition. But as some of these rose to be confidential advisers of their royal master or mistresses, the word was occasionally employed to denote persons in such a position, without indicating anything of their proper manhood." -Abbott.
(fragrant), a Christian woman at Philippi. (Philemon 4:2) (A.D. 57.) The name is correctly Euodia, as given in the Revised Version.
is probably a word of Aryan origin, signifying "the good and abounding river. " It is most frequently denoted in the Bible by the term "the river." The Euphrates is the largest, the longest and by far the most important of the rivers of western Asia. It rises from two chief sources in the Armenian mountains, and flows into the Persian Gulf. The entire course is 1780 miles, and of this distance more than two-thirds (1200 miles) is navigable for boats. The width of the river is greatest at the distance of 700 or 800 miles from its mouth--that is to say, from it junction with the Khabour to the village of Werai . It there averages 400 yards. The annual inundation of the Euphrates is caused by the melting of the snows in the Armenian highlands. It occurs in the month of May. The great hydraulic works ascribed to Nebuchadnezzar had for their chief object to control the inundation. The Euphrates is first mentioned in Scripture as one of the four rivers of Eden. (Genesis 2:14) We next hear of it in the covenant made with Abraham. (Genesis 15:18) During the reigns of David and Solomon it formed the boundary of the promised land to the northeast. (11:24; Joshua 1:4) Prophetical reference to the Euphrates is found in (Jeremiah 13:4-7; 46:2-10; 51:63; Revelation 9:14; 16:12) "The Euphrates is linked with the most important events in ancient history. On its banks stood the city of Babylon; the army of Necho was defeated on its banks by Nebuchadnezzar; Cyrus the Younger and Crassus perished after crossing it; Alexander crossed it, and Trajan and Severus descended it."--Appleton's Cyc.
the word used in the Revised Version instead of euroclydon in (Acts 27:14) It is compounded of two words meaning east and north, and means a northeast gale.
(a violent agitation), a tempestuous wind or hurricane, cyclone, on the Mediterranean, and very dangerous; now called a "levanter." This wind seized the ship in which St. Paul was ultimately wrecked on the coast of Malta. It came down from the island and therefore must have blown more or less from the northward. (Acts 27:14)
(fortunate), a youth at Troas, (Acts 20:9) who sitting in a window, and having fallen asleep while St. Paul was discoursing, fell from the third story, and being taken up dead, was miraculously restored to life by the apostle.
(publisher of glad tidings). In the New Testament the "evangelists" appear on the one hand after the "apostles" and "prophets;" on the other before the "pastors" and "teachers." They probably stood between the two. (Acts 21:8; Ephesians 4:11) The work of the evangelist is the proclamation of the glad tidings to those who have not known them, rather than the instruction and pastoral care of those who have believed and been baptized. It follows also that the name denotes a work rather than an order . Its use is nearly like our word missionary. The evangelist might or might not be a bishop-elder or a deacon. The apostles, so far as they evangelized, (Acts 8:25; 14:7; 1 Corinthians 1:17) might claim the title, though there were many evangelists who were not apostles. If the gospel were a written book, and the office of the evangelists was to read or distribute it, then the writers of such books were pre-eminently THE evangelists. In later liturgical language the word was applied to the reader of the gospel for the day.
(life), the name given in Scripture to the first woman. The account of Eve's creation is found at (Genesis 2:21,22) Perhaps that which we are chiefly intended to learn from the narrative is the foundation upon which the union between man and wife is built, viz., identity of nature and oneness of origin. Through the subtlety of the serpent Eve was beguiled into a violation of the one commandment which had been imposed upon her and Adam. The Scripture account of Eve closes with the birth of Seth.
(desire), one of the five kings or princes of Midian slain by the Israelites. (Numbers 31:8; Joshua 13:21)
(the fool of Merodach), (2 Kings 25:27) the son and successor of Nebuchadnezzar. He reigned but a short time, having ascended the throne on the death of Nebuchadnezzar in B.C. 561, and being himself succeeded by Neriglissar in B.C. 559. He was murdered by Neriglissar.
(expulsion from communion).
The post of executioner was one of high dignity. Potiphar was "captain of the executioners." (Genesis 37:36) see margin. That the "captain of the guard" himself occasionally performed the duty of an executioner appears from (1 Kings 2:25,34)
(that is, going out [of Egypt]), the second book of the law or Pentateuch. Its author was Moses. It was written probably during the forty-years wanderings int he wilderness, between B.C. 1491 and 1451. It may be divided into two principal parts:
of the Israelites from Egypt. the common chronology places the date of this event at B.C. 1491, deriving it in this way:--In (1 Kings 6:1) it is stated that the building of the temple, in the forth year of Solomon, was in the 480th year after the exodus. The fourth year of Solomon was bout B.C. 1012. Add the 480 years (leaving off one years because neither the fourth nor the 480th was a full year), and we have B.C. 1491 as the date of the exodus. This is probably very nearly correct; but many Egyptologists place it at 215 years later,--about B.C. 1300. Which date is right depends chiefly on the interpretation of the Scripture period of 430 years, as denoting the duration of the bondage of the Israelites. The period of bondage given in (Genesis 15:13,14; Exodus 12:40,41) and Gala 3:17 As 430 years has been interpreted to cover different periods. The common chronology makes it extend from the call of Abraham to the exodus, one-half of it, or 215 years, being spend in Egypt. Others make it to cover only the period of bondage spend in Egypt. St. Paul says in (Galatians 3:17) that from the covenant with (or call of) Abraham the giving of the law (less than a year after the exodus) was 430 years. But in (Genesis 15:13,14) it is said that they should be strangers in a strange land, and be afflicted 400 years, and nearly the same is said in (Exodus 12:40) But, in very truth, the children of Israel were strangers in a strange land from the time that Abraham left his home for the promised land, and during that whole period of 430 years to the exodus they were nowhere rulers in the land. So in (Exodus 12:40) it is said that the sojourning of the children of Israel who dwelt in Egypt was 430 years. But it does not say that the sojourning was all in Egypt, but this people who lived in Egypt had been sojourners for 430 years. (a) This is the simplest way of making the various statements harmonize. (b) The chief difficulty is the great increase of the children of Israel from 70 to 2,000,000 in so short a period as 215 years, while it is very easy in 430 years. But under the circumstances it is perfectly possible in the shorter period. See on ver. 7 (C) If we make the 430 years to include only the bondage in Egypt, we must place the whole chronology of Abraham and the immigration of Jacob into Egypt some 200 years earlier, or else the exodus 200 years later, or B.C. 1300. in either case special difficulty is brought into the reckoning. (d) Therefore, on the whole, it is well to retain the common chronology, though the later dates may yet prove to be correct. The history of the exodus itself commences with the close of that of the ten plagues. [Plagues, The Ten, THE Ten Commandments] In the night in which, at midnight, the firstborn were slain, (Exodus 12:29) Pharaoh urged the departure of the Israelites. vs. (Exodus 12:31,32) They at once set forth from Rameses, vs. (Exodus 12:37,39) apparently during the night v. (Exodus 12:42) but towards morning on the 15th day of the first month. (Numbers 33:3) They made three journeys, and encamped by the Red Sea. Here Pharaoh overtook them, and the great miracle occurred by which they were saved, while the pursuer and his army were destroyed. [Red Sea SEA, Passage OF]
one who pretends to expel evil spirits by conjuration, prayers and ceremonies. Exorcism was frequently practiced among the Jews. (Matthew 12:27; Acts 19:13) David, by playing skillfully on a harp, procured the temporary departure of the evil spirit which troubled Saul. (1 Samuel 16:23) The power of casting out devils was bestowed by Christ while on earth upon the apostles, (Matthew 10:8) and the seventy disciples (Luke 10:17-19) and was, according to his promise, (Mark 16:17) exercised by believers after his ascension. (Acts 16:18)
(The practice of painting the eyelids to make the eyes look large, lustrous and languishing is often alluded to in the Old Testament, and still extensively prevails among the women of the East, and especially among the Mohammedans. Jezebel, in (2 Kings 9:30) is said to have prepared for her meeting with Jehu by painting her face, or, as it reads in the margin, "put her eyes in paint." See also (Ezekiel 23:40) A small probe of wood, ivory or silver is wet with rose-water and dipped in an impalpable black powder, and is then drawn between the lids of the eye nearly closed, and leaves a narrow black border, which is though a great ornament.--ED.)
(shining), father of Naarai, who was one of David's thirty mighty men. (1 Chronicles 11:37) (B.C. 1046.)
(Matthew 1:9,10) [Hezekiah]
(the strength of God), one of the four greater prophets, was the son of a priest named Buzi, and was taken captive in the captivity of Jehoiachin, eleven years before the destruction of Jerusalem. He was a member of a community of Jewish exiles who settled on the banks of the Chebar, a "river' or stream of Babylonia. He began prophesying B.C. 595, and continued until B.C. 573, a period of more than twenty-two years. We learn from an incidental allusion, (Ezekiel 24:18) that he was married, and had a house, (Ezekiel 8:1) in his place of exile, and lost his wife by a sudden and unforeseen stroke. He lived in the highest consideration among his companions in exile, and their elders consulted him on all occasions. He is said to have been buried on the banks of the Euphrates. The tomb, said to have been built by Jehoiachin, is shown, a few days journey from Bagdad. Ezekiel was distinguished by his stern and inflexible energy of will and character and his devoted adherence to the rites and ceremonies of his national religion. The depth of his matter and the marvellous nature of his visions make him occasionally obscure. Prophecy of Ezekiel .--The book is divided into two great parts, of which the destruction of Jerusalem is the turning-point. Chapters 1-24 contain predictions delivered before that event, and chs. 25-48 after it, as we see from ch. (Ezekiel 26:2) Again, chs. 1-32 are mainly occupied with correction, denunciation and reproof, while the remainder deal chiefly in consolation and promise. A parenthetical section in the middle of the book, chs. 25-32, contains a group of prophecies against seven foreign nations, the septenary arrangement being apparently intentional. There are no direct quotations from Ezekiel in the New Testament, but in the Apocalypse there are many parallels and obvious allusions to the later chapters 40-48.
(departure), The stone, a well-known stone in the neighborhood of Saul's residence, the scene of the parting of David and Jonathan. (1 Samuel 20:19)
(bone), one of the towns of Simeon. (1 Chronicles 4:29)
(giant's backbone), (Numbers 33:35; 2:8; 1 Kings 9:26; 22:48; 2 Chronicles 8:17) the last station named for the encampment of the Israelites before they came to the wilderness of Zin. It probably stood at Ain el-Ghudyan, about ten miles up what is now the dry bed of the Arabah, but which was probably then the northern end of the gulf.
According to the statement of (2 Samuel 23:8) Adino the Eznite was another name for Jashobeam, a Tachmonite. (1 Chronicles 11:11) (Probably the words are a corruption for the Hebrew "he lifted up his spear."--Fausset.)
(help), called Esdras in the Apocrypha, the famous scribe and priest. He was a learned and pious priest residing at Babylon in the time of Artaxerxes Longimanus. The origin of his influence with the king does not appear, but in the seventh year of his reign he obtained leave to go to Jerusalem, and to take with him a company of Israelites. (B.C. 457.) The journey from Babylon to Jerusalem took just four months; and the company brought with them a large freewill offering of gold and silver, and silver vessels. It appears that Ezra's great design was to effect a religious reformation among the Palestine Jews. His first step was to enforce separation upon all who had married foreign wives. (Ezra 10:1) ... This was effected in little more than six months after his arrival at Jerusalem. With the detailed account of this important transaction Ezra's autobiography ends abruptly, and we hear nothing more of him till, thirteen years afterwards, in the twentieth of Artaxerxes, we find him again at Jerusalem with Nehemiah. It seems probable that after effecting the above reformations he returned to the king of Persia. The functions he executed under Nehemiah's government were purely of a priestly and ecclesiastical character. The date of his death is uncertain. There was a Jewish tradition that he was buried in Persia. The principal works ascribed to him by the Jews are--
is a continuation of the books of Chronicles. The period covered by the book is eighty years, from the first of Cyrus, B.C. 536, to the beginning of the eighth of Artaxerxes, B.C. 456. It consist of the contemporary historical journals kept from time to time, containing, chs. 1-12, and account of the return of the captives under Zerubbabel, and the rebuilding of the temple in the reign of Cyrus and Cambyses. Most of the book is written in Hebrew, but from chs. 4:8 to 6:19 it is written in Chaldee. The last four chapters, beginning with ch. 7, continue the history after a gap of fifty-eight years--from the sixth of Darius to the seventh of Artaxerxes-- narrating his visit to Jerusalem, and giving an account of the reforms there accomplished, referred to under Ezra. Much of the book was written by Ezra himself, though the first chapter was probably written by Daniel; and other hands are evident.
(son of Zerah), a title attached to two persons--Ethan, (1 Kings 4:31; Psalms 89:1) title, and Heman, Psal 88:1 title.
(help of Jehovah), son of Chelub, superintendent of King David's farm-laborers. (1 Chronicles 27:26) (B.C. 1014.).
A fable is a narrative in which being irrational, and sometimes inanimate, are, for the purpose of moral instruction, feigned to act and speak with human interests and passions.--Encyc. Brit. The fable differs from the parable in that--
a harbor in the island of Crete, (Acts 27:8) though not mentioned in any other ancient writing, is still known by its own Greek name, and appears to have been the harbor of Lasaea.
a word which occurs only in (Ezekiel 27:1) ... and there no less than seven times, vs. (Ezekiel 27:12,14,16,19,22,27,33) in the last of these verses it is rendered "wares," and this we believe to be the true meaning of the word throughout.
(called fallow from its reddish-brown color) (Heb. yachmur). The Hebrew word, which is mentioned only in (14:5) and 1Kin 4:23 Probably denotes the Alcelaphus bubalis (the bubale or wild cow) of Barbary and North Africa. It is about the size of a stag, and lives in herds. It is almost exactly like the European roebuck, and is valued for its venison.
In the whole of Syria and Arabia, the fruits of the earth must ever be dependent on rain; the watersheds having few large springs, and the small rivers not being sufficient for the irrigation of even the level lands. If therefore the heavy rains of November and December fail, the sustenance of the people is cut off in the parching drought of harvest-time, when the country is almost devoid of moisture. Egypt, again, owes all its fertility to its mighty river, whose annual rise inundates nearly the whole land. The causes of dearth and famine in Egypt are defective inundation, preceded, accompanied and followed by prevalent easterly and southerly winds. Famine is likewise a natural result in the East when caterpillars, locusts or other insects destroy the products of the earth. The first famine recorded in the Bible is that of Abraham after he had pitched his tent on the east of Bethel, (Genesis 12:10) the second in the days of Isaac, (Genesis 26:1) seq. We hear no more of times of scarcity until the great famine of Egypt, which "was over all the face of the earth." (Genesis 41:53-57) The modern history of Egypt throws some curious light on these ancient records of famines; and instances of their recurrence may be cited to assist us in understanding their course and extent. The most remarkable famine was that of the reign of the Fatimee Khaleefeh, El-Mustansir billah, which is the only instance on record of one of seven years duration in Egypt since the time of Joseph (A.H. 457-464, A.D. 1064-1071). Vehement drought and pestilence continued for seven consecutive years, so that the people ate corpses, and animals that died of themselves. The famine of Samaria resembled it in many particulars; and that very briefly recorded in (2 Kings 8:1,2) affords another instance of one of seven years. In Arabia famines are of frequent occurrence.
a winnowing-shovel, with which grain was thrown up against the wind to be cleansed from the chaff and straw. (Isaiah 30:24; Matthew 3:12) A large wooden fork is used at the present day.
Two names of coins in the New Testament are rendered in the Authorized Version by this word:
i.e. VAT, the word employed in the Authorized Version to translate the Hebrew term yekeb, in (Joel 2:24; 3:13) The word commonly used for yekeb is "winepress" or "winefat," and once "pressfat." (Haggai 2:16) The "vats" appear to have been excavated out of the native rock of the hills on which the vineyards lay.
The Hebrews distinguished between the suet or pure fat of an animal and the fat which was intermixed with the lean. (Nehemiah 8:10) Certain restrictions were imposed upon them in reference to the former; some parts of the suet, viz., about the stomach, the entrails, the kidneys, and the tail of a sheep, which grows to an excessive size in many eastern countries, and produces a large quantity of rich fat, were forbidden to be eaten in the case of animals offered to Jehovah in sacrifice. (Leviticus 3:3,9,17; 7:3,23) The ground of the prohibition was that the fat was the richest part of the animal, and therefore belonged to him. (Leviticus 3:16) The burning of the fat of sacrifices was particularly specified in each kind of offering.
The position and authority of the father as the head of the family are expressly assumed and sanctioned in Scripture, as a likeness of that of the Almighty over his creatures. It lies of course at the root of that so-called patriarchal government, (Genesis 3:16; 1 Corinthians 11:3) which was introductory to the more definite systems which followed, and which in part, but not wholly, superseded it. The father's blessing was regarded as conferring special benefit, but his malediction special injury, on those on whom it fell, (Genesis 9:25,27; 27:27-40; 48:15,20; 49:1) ... and so also the sin of a parent was held to affect, in certain cases, the welfare of his descendants. (2 Kings 5:27) The command to honor parents is noticed by St. Paul as the only one of the Decalogue which bore a distinct promise, (Exodus 20:12; Ephesians 6:2) and disrespect towards them was condemned by the law as one of the worst crimes. (Exodus 21:15,17; 1 Timothy 1:9) It is to this well-recognized theory of parental authority and supremacy that the very various uses of the term "father" in Scripture are due. "Fathers" is used in the sense of seniors, (Acts 7:2; 22:1) and of parents in general, or ancestors. (Daniel 5:2; Jeremiah 27:7; Matthew 23:30,32)
[Weights And Measures AND Measures]
(happy), a Roman procurator of Judea appointed by the emperor Claudius in A.D. 53. He ruled the province in a mean, cruel and profligate manner. His period of office was full of troubles and seditions. St. Paul was brought before Felix in Caesarea. He was remanded to prison, and kept there two years in hopes of extorting money from him. (Acts 24:26,27) At the end of that time Porcius Festus [Festus, Porcius] was appointed to supersede Felix, who, on his return to Rome, was accused by the Jews in Caesarea, and would have suffered the penalty due to his atrocities had not his brother Pallas prevailed with the emperor Nero to spare him. This was probably about A.D. 60. The wife of Felix was Drusilla, daughter of Herod Agrippa I., who was his third wife and whom he persuaded to leave her husband and marry him.
i.e. cities fortified or defended. The fortifications of the cities of Palestine, thus regularly "fenced," consisted of one or more walls (sometimes of thick stones, sometimes of combustible material), crowned with battlemented parapets, having towers at regular intervals, (2 Chronicles 32:5; Jeremiah 31:38) on which in later times engines of war were placed, and watch was kept by day and night in time of war. (Judges 9:45; 2 Kings 9:17; 2 Chronicles 26:9,15)
one of the unclean creeping things mentioned in (Leviticus 11:30) The animal referred to was probably a reptile of the lizard tribe (the gecko). The rabbinical writers seen to have identified this animal with the hedgehog.
I. The religious times ordained int he law fall under three heads:
(Festus means festival), successor of Felix as procurator of Judea, (Acts 24:27) sent by Nero probably in the autumn of A.D. 60. A few weeks after Festus reached his province he heard the cause of St. Paul, who had been left a prisoner by Felix, in the presence of Herod Agrippa II and Bernice his sister, (Acts 25:11,12) Judea was in the same disturbed state during the procuratorship of Festus which had prevailed through that of his predecessor. He died probably in the summer of A.D. 60, having ruled the province less than two years.
Fetters were for the feet only, while chains were for any part of the body. They were usually made of brass, and also in pairs, the word being in the dual number. Iron was occasionally employed for the purpose. (Psalms 105:18; 149:8)
The Hebrew sadeh is applied to any cultivated ground, and in some instances in marked opposition to the neighboring wilderness. On the other hand the sadeh is frequently contrasted with what is enclosed, whether a vineyard, a garden or a walled town. In many passages the term implies what is remote from a house, (Genesis 4:8; 24:63; 22:25) or settled habitation, as in the case of Esau. (Genesis 25:27) The separate plots of ground were marked off by stones, which might easily be removed, (19:14; 27:17) cf. Job 24:2; Prov 22:28; 23:10 The absence of fences rendered the fields liable to damage from straying cattle, (Exodus 22:5) or fire, (Exodus 22:6; 2 Samuel 14:30) hence the necessity of constantly watching flocks and herds. From the absence of enclosures, cultivated land of any size might be termed a field.
The fig tree (Ficus carica) is very common in Palestine. (8:8) Mount Olivet was famous for its fig trees in ancient times, and they are still found there. To "sit under one's own vine and one's own fig tree" became a proverbial expression among the Jews to denote peace and prosperity. (1 Kings 4:25; Micah 4:4; Zechariah 3:10) The fig is a pear-shaped fruit, and is much used by the Orientals for food. The young figs are especially prized for their sweetness and flavor. The fruit always appears before the leaves; so that when Christ saw leaves on the fig tree by the wayside, (Mark 11:13) he had a right to expect fruit. The usual summer crop of fruits is not gathered till May or June; but in the sunny ravines of Olivet fig trees could have ripe fruit some weeks earlier (Dr. Thomson), and it was not strange so early as Easter Christ might find the young eatable figs, although it was not the usual season for gathering the fruit.
(Isaiah 14:8; Ezekiel 27:5) etc. As the term "cedar" is in all probability applicable to more than one tree, so also "fir" in the Authorized Version represents probably one or other of the following trees:
is represented as the symbol of Jehovah's presence and the instrument of his power, in the way either of approval or of destruction. (Exodus 3:2; 14:19) etc. There could not be a better symbol for Jehovah than this of fire, it being immaterial, mysterious, but visible, warming, cheering, comforting, but also terrible and consuming. Parallel with this application of fire and with its symbolical meaning are to be noted the similar use for sacrificial purposes and the respect paid to it, or to the heavenly bodies as symbols of deity, which prevailed among so many nations of antiquity, and of which the traces are not even now extinct; e.g. the Sabean and Magian systems of worship. (Isaiah 27:9) Fire for sacred purposes obtained elsewhere than from the altar was called "strange fire," and for the use of such Nadab and Abihu were punished with death by fire from God. (Leviticus 10:1,2; Numbers 3:4; 26:61)
one of the vessels of the temple service. (Exodus 27:3; 38:3; 2 Kings 25:15; Jeremiah 52:19) The same word is elsewhere rendered "snuff-dish," (Exodus 25:38; 37:23; Numbers 4:9) and "censer." (Leviticus 10:1; 16:12; Numbers 16:6) ff. There appear, therefore, to have been two articles so called: one, like a chafing-dish, to carry live coals for the purpose of burning incense; another, like a snuffer-dish, to be used in trimming the lamps, in order to carry the snuffers and convey away the snuff.
[Weights And Measures AND Measures]
In Scripture the word denotes an expanse, a wide extent; for such is the signification of the Hebrew word. The original, therefore, does not convey the sense of solidity, but of stretching, extension; the great arch of expanse over our heads, in which are placed the atmosphere and the clouds, and in which the stars appear to be placed, and are really seen.--Webster.
Under the law, in memory of the exodus (when the first-born of the Egyptians were slain), the eldest son was regarded as devoted to God, and was in very case to be redeemed by an offering not exceeding five shekels, within one month from birth. If he died before the expiration of thirty days, the Jewish doctors held the father excused, but liable to the payment if he outlived that time. (Exodus 13:12-15,16; Leviticus 27:6) The eldest son received a double portion of the father's inheritance, (21:17) but not of the mother's. Under the monarchy the eldest son usually, but no always, as appears in the case of Solomon, succeeded his father in the kingdom. (1 Kings 1:30; 2:22) The male first-born of animals was also devoted to God. (Exodus 13:2,12,13; 22:29; 34:19,20) Unclean animals were to be redeemed with the addition of one-fifth of the value, or else put to death; or, if not redeemed, to be sold, and the price given to the priests. (Leviticus 27:13,27,28)
The Hebrews recognized fish as one of the great divisions of the animal kingdom, and as such gave them a place in the account of the creation, (Genesis 1:21,28) as well as in other passages where an exhaustive description of living creatures is intended. (Genesis 9:2; Exodus 20:4; 4:18; 1 Kings 4:33) The Mosaic law, (Leviticus 11:9,10) pronounced unclean such fish as were devoid of fins and scales; these were and are regarded as unwholesome in Egypt. Among the Philistines Dagon was represented by a figure half man and half fish. (1 Samuel 5:4) On this account the worship of fish is expressly prohibited. (4:18) In Palestine, the Sea of Galilee was and still is remarkable well stored with fish. (Tristram speaks of fourteen species found there, and thinks the number inhabiting it at least three times as great.) Jerusalem derived its supply chiefly from the Mediterranean. Comp. (Ezekiel 47:10) The existence of a regular fish-market is implied in the notice of the fish-gate, which was probably contiguous to it. (2 Chronicles 33:14; Nehemiah 3:3; 12:39; Zephaniah 1:10) The Orientals are exceedingly fond of fish as an article of diet. Numerous allusions to the art of fishing occur in the Bible. The most usual method of catching fish was by the use of the net, either the casting net, (Ezekiel 26:5,14; 47:10); Habb 1:15 Probably resembling the one used in Egypt, as shown in Wilkinson (iii. 55), or the draw or drag net, (Isaiah 19:8); Habb 1:15 Which was larger, and required the use of a boat. The latter was probably most used on the Sea of Galilee, as the number of boats kept on it was very considerable.
(i.e. VETCHES), without doubt the Nigella sativa, an herbaceous annual plant belonging to the natural order Ranunculaceoe (the buttercup family), which grows in the south of Europe and in the north of Africa. Its black seeds are used like pepper, and have almost as pungent a taste. The Syrians sprinkle these seeds over their flat cakes before they are baked. [SEE Rye]
There are two Hebrew words rendered "flag" in our Bible:
a word employed in the Authorized Version to render two distinct Hebrew terms:
a well-known plant with yellowish stem and bright-blue flowers. Its fibres are employed in the manufacture of linen. The root contains an oil, and after the oil is expressed is sued as a food for cattle. Egypt was celebrated for the culture of flax and the manufacture of linen. The spinning was anciently done by women of noble birth. It seems probable that the cultivation of flax for the purpose of the manufacture of linen was by no means confined to Egypt, but that, originating in India, it spread over Asia at a very early period of antiquity. That it was grown in Palestine even before the conquest of that country by the Israelites appears from (Joshua 2:6) The various processes employed in preparing the flax for manufacture into cloth are indicated:
an insect but twice mentioned in Scripture, viz., in (1 Samuel 24:14; 26:20) Fleas are abundant in the East, and afford the subject of many proverbial expressions.
a well-known stone, a variety of quartz. It is extremely hard, and strikes fire. It was very abundant in and about Palestine.
(1 Kings 1:40) (marg., Pipe), A musical instrument mentioned amongst others, (Daniel 3:5,7,10,15) as used at the worship of the golden image which Nebuchadnezzar had set up. It bore a close resemblance to the modern flute, and was made of reeds, of copper, and other material. It was the principal wind-instrument.
(Acts 28:8) the same as our dysentery, which in the East is, though sometimes sporadic, generally epidemic and infectious, and then assumes its worst form.
The two following Hebrew terms denote flies of some kind:
The diet of eastern nations has been in all ages light and simple. Vegetable food was more used than animal. The Hebrews used a great variety of articles, (John 21:5) to give a relish to bread. Milk and its preparations hold a conspicuous place in eastern diet, as affording substantial nourishment; generally int he form of the modern leben, i.e. sour milk. Authorized Version "butter;" (Genesis 18:8; Judges 5:25; 2 Samuel 17:29) Fruit was another source of subsistence: figs stood first in point of importance; they were generally dried and pressed into cakes. Grapes were generally eaten in a dried state as raisins. Of vegetables we have most frequent notice of lentils, beans, leeks, onions and garlic, which were and still are of a superior quality in Egypt. (Numbers 11:5) Honey is extensively used, as is also olive oil. The Orientals have been at all times sparing in the use of animal food; not only does the extensive head of the climate render it both unwholesome to eat much meat and expensive from the necessity of immediately consuming a whole animal, but beyond this the ritual regulations of the Mosaic law in ancient, as of the Koran in modern, times have tended to the same result. The prohibition expressed against consuming the blood of any animal, (Genesis 9:4) was more fully developed in the Levitical law, and enforced by the penalty of death. (Leviticus 3:17; 7:26; 19:26; 12:16) Certain portions of the fat of sacrifices were also forbidden, (Leviticus 3:9,10) as being set apart for the altar, (Leviticus 3:16; 7:25) In addition to the above, Christians were forbidden to eat the flesh of animals portions of which had been offered to idols. All beasts and birds classed as unclean, (Leviticus 11:1) ff.; Deuteronomy 14:4 ff., were also prohibited. Under these restrictions the Hebrews were permitted the free use of animal food: generally speaking they only availed themselves of it in the exercise of hospitality or at festivals of a religious, public or private character. It was only in royal households that there was a daily consumption of meat. The animals killed for meat were--calves, lambs, oxen not above three years of age, harts, roebucks and fallow deer; birds of various kinds; fish, with the exception of such as were without scales and fins. Locusts, of which certain species only were esteemed clean, were occasionally eaten, (Matthew 3:4) but were regarded as poor fare.
a word employed in the English Bible in two senses:
The practice of veiling the face (forehead) in public for women of the high classes, especially married women, in the East, sufficiently stigmatizes with reproach the unveiled face of women of bad character. (Genesis 24:64; Jeremiah 3:3) The custom among many Oriental nations both of coloring the face and forehead and of impressing on the body marks indicative of devotion to some special deity or religious sect is mentioned elsewhere. The "jewels for the forehead," mentioned by Ezekiel, (Ezekiel 16:12) and in margin of Authorized Version, (Genesis 24:22) were in all probability nose-rings. (Isaiah 3:21)
Although Palestine has never been in historical times a woodland country, yet there can be no doubt that there was much more wood formerly than there is a t present, and that the destruction of the forests was one of the chief causes of the present desolation.
[Fenced Cities CITIES]
(fortunate) (1 Corinthians 16:17) one of the three Corinthians the others being Stephanas and Achaicus, who were at Ephesus when St. Paul wrote his first epistle. There is a Fortunatus mentioned in the end of Clement's first epistle to the Corinthians, who was possibly the same person.
(a spring in distinction from a well). The springs of Palestine, though short-lived, are remarkable for their abundance and beauty, especially those which fall into the Jordan and into its lakes, of which there are hundreds throughout its whole course. The spring or fountain of living water, the "eye" of the landscape, is distinguished in all Oriental languages from the artificially-sunk and enclosed well. Jerusalem appears to have possessed either more than one perennial spring or one issuing by more than one outlet. In Oriental cities generally public fountains are frequent. Traces of such fountains at Jerusalem may perhaps be found in the names of Enrogel, (2 Samuel 17:17) the "Dragon well" or fountain, and the "gate of the fountain." (Nehemiah 2:13,14)
Several distinct Hebrew and Greek words are thus rendered in the English Bible. Of these the most common is 'oph, which is usually a collective term for all kinds of birds. In (1 Kings 4:23) among the daily provisions for Solomon's table "fatted fowl" are included. In the New Testament the word translated "fowls" is most frequently that which comprehends all kinds of birds (including ravens, (Luke 12:24) [Sparrow]
(Heb. shu'al). Probably the jackal is the animal signified in almost all the passages in the Old Testament where the Hebrew term occurs. Though both foxes and jackals abound in Palestine, the shu'alim (foxes) of (Judges 15:4) are evidently jackals and not foxes, for the former animal is gregarious, whereas the latter is solitary in its habits; and Samson could not, for that reason, have easily caught three hundred foxes, but it was easy to catch that number of jackals, which are concealed by hundreds in caves and ruins of Syria. It is not probable, however, that Samson sent out the whole three hundred at once. With respect to the jackals and foxes of Palestine, there is no doubt that the common jackal of the country is the Canis aureus, which may be heard every night in the villages. It is like a medium-sized dog, with a head like a wolf, and is of a bright-yellow color. These beasts devour the bodies of the dead, and even dig them up from their graves.
a vegetable resin, brittle, glittering, and of a bitter taste, used for the purpose of sacrificial fumigation. (Exodus 30:34-36) It was called frank because of the freeness with which, when burned, it gives forth its odor. It burns for a long time, with a steady flame. It is obtained by successive incisions in the bark of a tree called Arbor thuris . The first incision yields the purest and whitest resin, while the product of the after incisions is spotted with yellow, and loses its whiteness altogether as it becomes old. The Hebrews imported their frankincense from Arabia, (Isaiah 60:6; Jeremiah 6:20) and more particularly from Saba; but it is remarkable that at present the Arabian libanum or olibanum is a very inferior kind, and that the finest frankincense imported into Turkey comes through Arabia from the islands of the Indian Archipelago. There can be little doubt that the tree which produces the Indian frankincense is the Boswellia serrata of Roxburgh, or Boswellia thurifera of Colebrooke, and bears some resemblance when young to the mountain ash. It grows to be forty feet high.
a well-known amphibious animal of the genus Rana . The mention of this reptile in the Old Testament is confined to the passage in (Exodus 8:2-7) etc., in which the plague of frogs is described, and to (Psalms 78:45; 105:30) In the New Testament the word occurs once only, in (Revelation 16:13) There is no question as to the animal meant. The only known species of frog which occurs at present in Egypt is the Rana esculenta, the edible frog of the continent.
(Exodus 13:16; 6:8; 11:18; Matthew 23:5) These "frontlets" or "phylacteries" were strips of parchment, on which were written four passages of Scripture, (Exodus 13:2-10,11-17; 6:4-9,13-23) in an ink prepared for the purpose. They were then rolled up in a case of black calfskin, which was attached to a stiffer piece of leather, having a thong one finger broad and one and a half cubits long. They were placed at the bend of the left arm. Those worn on the forehead were written on four strips of parchment, and put into four little cells within a square case on which the letter was written. The square had two thongs, on which Hebrew letters were inscribed. That phylacteries were used as amulets is certain, and was very natural. The expression "they make broad their phylacteries," (Matthew 23:5) refers not so much to the phylactery itself, which seems to have been of a prescribed breadth, as to the case in which the parchment was kept, which the Pharisees, among their other pretentious customs, (Mark 7:3,4; Luke 5:33) etc., made as conspicuous as they could. It is said that the Pharisees wore them always, whereas the common people only used them at prayers.
The trade of the fullers, so far as it is mentioned in Scripture, appears to have consisted chiefly in cleansing garments and whitening them. The process of fulling or cleansing clothes consisted in treading or stamping on the garments with the feet or with bats in tubs of water, in which some alkaline substance answering the purpose of soap had been dissolved. The substances used for this purpose which are mentioned in Scripture are natron, (Proverbs 25:20; Jeremiah 2:22) and soap. (Malachi 3:2) Other substances also are mentioned as being employed in cleansing, which, together with alkali, seem to identify the Jewish with the Roman process, as urine and chalk. The process of whitening garments was performed by rubbing into them calk or earth of some kind. Creta cimolia (cimolite) was probably the earth most frequently used. The trade of the fullers, as causing offensive smells, and also as requiring space for drying clothes, appears to have been carried on at Jerusalem outside the city.
a spot near Jerusalem, (2 Kings 8:17; Isaiah 7:3; 36:2) so close to the walls that a person speaking from there could be heard on them. (2 Kings 18:17,26) One resort of the fullers of Jerusalem would seem to have been below the city on the southeast side. But Rabshakeh and his "great host" must have come from the north; and the fuller's field was therefore, to judge from this circumstance, on the table-land on the northern side of the city.
[Weights And Measures AND Measures]
Various kinds of furnaces are noticed in the Bible, such as a smelting or calcining furnace, (Genesis 19:28; Exodus 9:8,10; 19:18) especially a lime-kiln, (Isaiah 33:12; Amos 2:1) a refining furnace, (Proverbs 17:3) Nebuchadnezzar's furnace, a large furnace built like a brick-kiln, (Daniel 3:22,23) with two openings one at the top for putting in the materials, and another below for removing them; the potter's furnace, Ecclus. 27:5; The blacksmith's furnace. Ecclus. 38:28. The Persians were in the habit of using the furnace as a means of inflicting punishment. (Daniel 3:22,23; Jeremiah 29:22)
(contempt), son of Ebed, aided the Shechemites in their rebellion against Abimelech. (Judges 9:1) ... (B.C. 1206.)
(earthquake), a hill of Ephraim, where Joshua was buried. The brooks or valley of Gaash, (2 Samuel 23:30; 1 Chronicles 11:32) were probably at the foot of the hill.
The same name as Geba, which see.
(Esther 12:1) [Bigthan, Or Bigthana]
(tax gatherer), apparently the head of an important family of Benjamin resident at Jerusalem. (Nehemiah 11:8) (B.C. before 536.)
(elevated; a platform) the Hebrew or Chaldee appellation of a place, also called "Pavement," where the judgment-seat or bema was planted, from his place on which Pilate delivered our Lord to death. (John 19:13) It was a tessellated platform outside the praetorium, on the western hill of Jerusalem, for Pilate brought Jesus forth from thence to it.
(man of God), an angel sent by God to announce to Zacharias the birth of John the Baptist, and to Mary the birth of Christ. He was also sent to Daniel to explain his visions. (Daniel 8:16; 9:21)
The country allotted to the tribe of Gad appears, speaking roughly, to have lain chiefly about the centre of the land east of Jordan. The sought of that district--from the Arnon (Wady Mojeb), about halfway down the Dead Sea, to Heshbon, nearly due east of Jerusalem--was occupied by Reuben, and at or about Heshbon the possessions of Gad commenced. They embraced half Gilead, (3:12) or half the land of the children of Ammon, (Joshua 13:25) probably the mountainous district which is intersected by the torrent Jabbok, including, as its most northern town, the ancient sanctuary of Mahanaim. On the east the furthest landmark given is "Aroer that is before Rabbah," the present Amman . (Joshua 13:25) West was the Jordan. ver. (Joshua 13:27) The character of the tribe is throughout strongly marked--fierce and warlike.
a strong city situated near the river Hieromax, six miles southeast of the Sea of Galilee, over against Scythopolis and Tiberias, and 16 Roman miles distant from each of those places. Josephus calls it the capital of Peraea. The ruins of this city, now called Um Keis, are about two miles in circumference. The most interesting remains of Gadara are its tombs, which dot the cliffs for a considerable distance around the city. Godet says there is still a population of 200 souls in these tombs. Gadara was captured by Vespasian on the first outbreak of the war with the Jews, all its inhabitants were massacred, and the town itself, with the surrounding villages, was reduced to ashes.
(These three names are used indiscriminately to designate the place where Jesus healed two demoniacs. The first two are in the Authorized Version. (Matthew 8:28; Mark 5:1; Luke 8:26) In Gerasenes in place of Gadarenes. The miracle referred to took place, without doubt, near the town of Gergesa, the modern Kersa, close by the eastern shore of the Sea of Galilee, and hence in the country of Gergesenes. But as Gergesa was a small village, and little known, the evangelists, who wrote for more distant readers, spoke of the event as taking place in the country of the Gadarenes, so named from its largest city, Gadara; and this country included the country of the Gergesenes as a state includes a county. The Gerasenes were the people of the district of which Gerasa was the capital. This city was better known than Gadara or Gergesa; indeed in the Roman age no city of Palestine was better known. "It became one of the proudest cities of Syria." It was situated some 30 miles southeast of Gadara, on the borders of Peraea and a little north of the river Jabbok. It is now called Jerash and is a deserted ruin. The district of the Gerasenes probably included that of the Gadarenes; so that the demoniac of Gergesa belonged to the country of the Gadarenes and also to that of the Gerasenes, as the same person may, with equal truth, be said to live in the city or the state, or in the United States. For those near by the local name would be used; but in writing to a distant people, as the Greeks and Romans, the more comprehensive and general name would be given.--ED.)
(fortunate), son of Susi; the Manassite spy sent by Moses to explore Canaan. (Numbers 13:11) (B.C. 1490.)
(fortune of God) a Zebulunite, one of the twelve spies. (Numbers 13:10) (B.C. 1490.)
A Gadite, father of Menahem a king of Israel. (2 Kings 15:14,17)
the descendants of Gad, and members of his tribe.
(sunburnt), son of Nahor Abraham's brother, by his concubine Reumah. (Genesis 22:24) (B.C. about 1900.)
(hiding-place) The Bene-Gahar were among the families of Nethinim who returned from the captivity with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:47; Nehemiah 7:49) (B.C. before 536.)
or Cai'us (lord)--
the Greek form of the word Gilead.
(land of the Galli, Gauls). The Roman province of Galatia may be roughly described as the central region of the peninsula of Asia Minor, bounded on the north by Bithynia and Paphlagonia; on the east by Pontus; on the south by Cappadocia and Lycaonia; on the west by Phrygia.--Encyc. Brit. It derived its name from the Gallic or Celtic tribes who, about 280 B.C., made an irruption into Macedonia and Thrace. It finally became a Roman province. The Galatia of the New Testament has really the "Gaul" of the East. The people have always been described as "susceptible of quick impressions and sudden changes, with a fickleness equal to their courage and enthusiasm, and a constant liability to that disunion which is the fruit of excessive vanity.--The Galatian churches were founded by Paul at his first visit, when he was detained among, them by sickness, (Galatians 4:13) during his second missionary journey, about A.D 51. He visited them again on his third missionary tour.
was written by the apostle St. Paul not long after his journey through Galatia and Phrygia, (Acts 18:23) and probably in the early portion of his two-and-a-half-years stay at Ephesus, which terminated with the Pentecost of A.D. 57 or 58. The epistle appears to have been called forth by the machinations of Judaizing teachers, who, shortly before the date of its composition, had endeavored to seduce the churches of this province into a recognition of circumcision, (Galatians 5:2,11,12; 6:12) seq., and had openly sought to depreciate the apostolic claims of St. Paul. Comp. (Galatians 1:1,11) "Since the days of Luther the Epistle to the Galatians has always been held in high esteem as the gospel's banner of freedom. To it and the Epistle to the Romans we owe most directly the springing up and development of the ideas and energies of the Reformation."--Meyer.
one of the perfumes employed in the preparation of the sacred incense. (Exodus 10:34) The galbanum of commerce is brought chiefly from India and the Levant. It is a resinous gum of a brownish-yellow color and strong disagreeable smell, usually met with in masses, but sometimes found in yellowish tear-like drops. But, though galbanum itself is well known, the plant which yields it has not been exactly determined.
(the heap of witness), the name given by Jacob to the heap which he and Laban made on Mount Gilead in witness of the covenant then entered into between them. (Genesis 31:47,48) comp. Genesis31:23,25
(the heap of witness), the name given by Jacob to the heap which he and Laban made on Mount Gilead in witness of the masses, but sometimes found in yellowish tear-like drops. But, though galbanum itself is well known, the plant which yields it has not been exactly determined.
the inhabitants of Galilee, the northern province of Palestine. The apostles were all Galileans by either birth or residence. (Acts 1:11) It appears also that the pronunciation of those Jews who resided in Galilee had become peculiar, probably from their contact with their Gentile neighbors. (Matthew 26:73)
(circuit). This name, which in the Roman age was applied to a large province, seems to have been originally confined to a little "circuit" of country round Kedesh-Naphtali, in which were situated the twenty towns given by Solomon to Hiram king of Tyre as payment for his work in conveying timber from Lebanon to Jerusalem. (Joshua 20:7; 1 Kings 9:11) In the time of our Lord all Palestine was divided into three provinces, Judea, Samaria and Galilee. (Luke 17:11; Acts 9:31) Joseph. B.J. iii. 3. The latter included the whole northern section of the country, including the ancient territories of Issachar, Zebulun, Asher and Naphtali. On the west it was bounded by the territory of Ptolemais, which probably included the whole plain of Akka to the foot of Carmel. The southern border ran along the base of Carmel and of the hills of Samaria to Mount Gilboa, and then descended the valley of Jezreel by Scythopolis to the Jordan. The river Jordan, the Sea of Galilee, and the upper Jordan to the fountain at Dan, formed the eastern border; and the northern ran from Dan westward across the mountain ridge till it touched the territory of the Phoenicians. Galilee was divided into two sections, "Lower" and "Upper." Lower Galilee included the great plain of Esdraelon with its offshoots, which ran down to the Jordan and the Lake of Tiberias, and the whole of the hill country adjoining it on the north to the foot of the mountain range. It was thus one of the richest and most beautiful sections of Pales-tine. Upper Galilee embraced the whole mountain range lying between the upper Jordan and Phoenicia. To this region the name "Galilee of the Gentiles" is given in the Old and New Testaments. (Isaiah 9:1; Matthew 4:16) Galilee was the scene of the greater part of our Lord's private life and public acts. It is a remarkable fact that the first three Gospels are chiefly taken up with our Lord's ministrations in this province, while the Gospel of John dwells more upon those in Judea. (Galilee in the time of Christ .--From Rev. Selah Merrill's late book (1881) with this title, we glean the following facts: Size .--It is estimated that of the 1000 square miles in Palestine west of the Jordan, nearly one-third, almost 2000 square miles, belongs to Galilee. Population--The population is between 2,000,000 and 3,000,000. Dr. Merrill argues for the general correctness of Josephus' estimates, who says there were 204 cities and villages in Galilee, the smallest of which numbered 15,000 inhabitants. Character of the country . Galilee was a region of great natural fertility. Such is the fertility of the soil that it rejects no plant, for the air is so genial that it suits every variety. The walnut, which delights above other trees in a wintry climate, grows here luxuriantly together with the palm tree, which is flourished by heat. It not only possesses the extraordinary virtue of nourishing fruits of opposite climes, but also maintains a continual supply of them. Here were found all the productions which made Italy rich and beautiful. Forests covered its mountains and hills, while its uplands, gentle slopes and broader valleys were rich in pasture, meadows, cultivated fields, vineyards, olive groves and fruit trees of every kind. Character of the Galileans .--They were thoroughly a Jewish people. With few exceptions they were wealthy and in general an influential class. If one should say the Jews were bigoted in religion, he should remember at the same time that in regard to social, commercial and political relations none were more cosmopolitan in either sentiment or practice than they. The Galileans had many manufactures, fisheries, some commerce, but were chiefly an agricultural people. They were eminent for patriotism and courage, as were their ancestors, with great respect for law and order.--ED.)
So called from the province of Galilee, which bordered on the western side. (Matthew 4:18) It was also called the "Sea of Tiberias," from the celebrated city of that name. (John 6:1) At its northwestern angle was a beautiful and fertile plain called "Gennesaret," and from that it derived the name of "Lake of Gennesaret." (Luke 5:1) It was called in the Old Testament "the Sea of Chinnereth" or "Cinneroth," (Numbers 34:11; Joshua 12:3) from a town of that name which stood on or near its shore. (Joshua 19:35) Its modern name is Bahr Tubariyeh . Most of our Lord's public life was spent in the environs of this sea. The surrounding region was then the most densely peopled in all Palestine. no less than nine very populous cities stood on the very shores of the lake. The Sea of Galilee is of an oval long and six broad. It is 60 miles northeast of Jerusalem and 27 east of the Mediterranean Sea. The river Jordan enters it at its northern end and passes out at its southern end. In fact the bed of the lake is just a lower section of the Great Jordan valley. Its more remarkable feature is its deep depression, being no less than 700 feet below the level of the ocean. The scenery is bleak and monotonous, being surrounded by a high and almost unbroken wall of hills, on account of which it is exposed to frequent sudden and violent storms. The great depression makes the climate of the shores almost tropical. This is very sensibly felt by the traveller in going down from the plains of Galilee. In summer the heat is intense, and even in early spring the air has something of an Egyptian balminess. The water of the lake is sweet, cool and transparent; and as the beach is everywhere pebbly is has a beautiful sparkling look. It abounds in fish now as in ancient times. There were large fisheries on the lake, and much commerce was carried on upon it.
an architectural term describing the porticos or verandas which are not uncommon in eastern houses. It is doubtful, however, whether the Hebrew words so translated have any reference to such an object. (According to the latest researches, the colonnade or else wainscoting is meant. (Song of Solomon 1:17; Ezekiel 41:15)--Schaff.)
(fountains). This is given as the native place of the man to whom Michal, David's wife, was given. (1 Samuel 25:44) There is no clue to the situation of the place. The name occurs again in the catalogue of places terrified at the approach of Sennacherib. (Isaiah 10:30)
(one who lives on milk), Junius Annaeus Gallio, the Roman proconsul of Achaia when St. Paul was at Corinth, A.D. 53, under the emperor Claudius. (Acts 18:12) He was brother to Lucius Annaeus Seneca, the philosopher. Jerome in the Chronicle of Eusebius says that he committed suicide in 65 A.D. Winer thinks he was put to death by Nero.
(recompense of God).
Among the Greeks the rage for theatrical exhibitions was such that every city of any size possessed its theatre and stadium. At Ephesus an annual contest was held in honor of Diana. It is probable that St. Paul was present when these games were proceeding. A direct reference to the exhibitions that I took place on such occasions is made in (1 Corinthians 15:32) St. Paul's epistles abound with allusions to the Greek contests, borrowed probably from the Isthmian games, at which he may well have been present during his first visit to Corinth. These contests, (1 Timothy 6:12; 2 Timothy 4:7) were divided into two classes, the pancratium, consisting of boxing and wrestling, and the pentathlon, consisting of leaping, running, quoiting, hurling the spear and wrestling. The competitors, (1 Corinthians 9:25; 2 Timothy 2:5) required a long and severe course of previous training, (1 Timothy 4:8) during which a particular diet was enforced. (1 Corinthians 9:25,27) In the Olympic contests these preparatory exercises extended over a period of ten months, during the last of which they were conducted under the supervision of appointed officers. The contests took place in the presence of a vast multitude of spectators, (Hebrews 12:1) the competitors being the spectacle. (1 Corinthians 4:9; Hebrews 10:33) The games were opened by the proclamation of a herald, (1 Corinthians 9:27) whose office it was to give out the name and country of each candidate, and especially to announce the name of the victor before the assembled multitude. The judge was selected for his spotless integrity; (2 Timothy 4:8) his office was to decide any disputes, (Colossians 3:15) and to give the prize, (1 Corinthians 9:24; Philemon 3:14) consisting of a crown, (2 Timothy 2:6; 4:8) of leaves of wild olive at the Olympic games, and of pine, or at one period ivy, at the Isthmian games. St. Paul alludes to two only out of the five contests, boxing and running, more frequently to the latter. The Jews had no public games, the great feasts of religion supplying them with anniversary occasions of national gatherings.
This word occurs only in (Ezekiel 27:11) A variety of explanations of the term have been offered.
(weaned), a priest, the leader of the twenty-second course in the service at the sanctuary. (1 Chronicles 24:17) (B.C. 535.)
Gardens in the East, as the Hebrew word indicates, are enclosures on the outskirts of towns, planted with various trees and shrubs. From the allusions in the Bible we learn that they were surrounded by hedges of thorn, (Isaiah 5:5) or walls of stone. (Proverbs 24:31) For further protection lodges, (Isaiah 1:8; Lamentations 2:6) or watchtowers, (Mark 12:1) were built in them, in which sat the keeper, (Job 27:18) to drive away the wild beasts and robbers, as is the case to this day. The gardens of the Hebrews were planted with flowers and aromatic shrubs, (Song of Solomon 6:2; 4:16) besides olives, fig trees, nuts or walnuts, (Song of Solomon 6:12) pomegranates, and others for domestic use. (Exodus 23:11; Jeremiah 29:5; Amos 9:14) Gardens of herbs, or kitchen gardens, are mentioned in (11:10) and 1Kin 21:2 The rose garden in Jerusalem, said to have been situated westward of the temple mount, it is remarkable as having been one of the few gardens which, from the time of the prophets, existed within the city walls. The retirement of gardens rendered them favorite places for devotion.
(scabby), one of the heroes of David's army. (2 Samuel 23:38)
in the neighborhood of Jerusalem, named only in (Jeremiah 31:39)
(Numbers 11:5) is the Allium sativum of Linnaeus, which abounds in Egypt.
Keilah the Garmite, i.e. the descendant of Gerem, is mentioned in the obscure genealogical lists of the families of Judah. (1 Chronicles 4:19)
The Hebrew words so rendered in the Authorized Version are derivatives from the root natsab, to "place, erect," which may be applied to a variety of objects.
a variation of the name Geshem. (Nehemiah 6:6) (B.C. 446.)
(a burnt valley), the fourth son of Eliphaz the son of Esau, (Genesis 36:11; 1 Chronicles 1:36) and one of the "dukes" of Eliphaz. (Genesis 36:16) (B.C. after 1760.)
The gate and gateways of eastern cities anciently held and still hold an important part, not only in the defence but in the public economy of the place. They are thus sometimes taken as representing the city itself. (Genesis 22:17; 24:60; 12:12; Judges 5:8; Ruth 4:10; Psalms 87:2; 122:2) Among the special purposes for which they were used may be mentioned.
(a wine press), one of the five royal cities of the Philistines; (Joshua 13:3; 1 Samuel 6:17) and the native place of the giant Goliath. (1 Samuel 17:4,23) It probably stood upon the conspicuous hill now called Tell-es-Safieh, upon the side of the plain of Philistia, at the foot of the mountains of Judah; 10 miles east of Ashdod, and about the same distance south by east of Ekron. It is irregular in form, and about 200 feet high. Gath occupied a strong position, (2 Chronicles 11:8) on the border of Judah and Philistia, (1 Samuel 21:10; 1 Chronicles 18:1) and from its strength and resources forming the key of both countries, it was the scene of frequent struggles, and was often captured and recaptured. (2 Kings 12:17; 2 Chronicles 11:8; 26:6; Amos 6:2) The ravages of war to which Gath was exposed appear to have destroyed it at a comparatively early period, as it is not mentioned among the other royal cities by the later prophets. (Zephaniah 2:4; Zechariah 9:5,6) It is familiar to the Bible student as the scene of one of the most romantic incidents in the life of King David. (1 Samuel 21:10-15)
(wine-press on the hill), a town on the border of the territory of Zebulun, not far from Japhia, now 'Yafa, (Joshua 19:12,13) celebrated as the native place of the prophet Jonah. (2 Kings 14:25) El-Meshhad, a village two-miles east of Sefurieh, is the ancient Gath-hepher.
(press of the pomegranate)
(the fortified; the strong) (properly Azzah), one of the five chief cities of the Philistines. It is remarkable for its continuous existence and importance from the very earliest times. The secret of this unbroken history is to be found in the situation of Gaza. It is the last town in the southwest of Palestine, on the frontier towards Egypt. The same peculiarity of situation has made Gaza important in a military sense. Its name means "the strong;" and this was well elucidated in its siege by Alexander the Great, which lasted five months. In the conquest of Joshua the territory of Gaza is mentioned as one which he was not able to subdue. (Joshua 10:41; 11:22; 13:3) It was assigned to the tribe of Judah, (Joshua 15:47) and that tribe did obtain possession of it, (Judges 1:18) but did not hold it long, (Judges 3:3; 13:1) and apparently it continued through the time of Samuel, Saul and David to be a Philistine city. 1Sam 6:17; 14:52; 31:1; 2Sam 21:15 Solomon became master of "Azzah," (1 Kings 4:24) but in after times the same trouble with the Philistines recurred. (2 Chronicles 21:16; 26:6; 28:18) The passage where Gaza is mentioned in the New Testament (Acts 8:26) is full of interest. It is the account of the baptism of the Ethiopian eunuch on his return from Jerusalem to Egypt. Gaza is the modern Ghuzzeh, a Mohammedan town of about 16,000 inhabitants, situated partly on an oblong hill of moderate height and partly on the lower ground. The climate of the place is almost tropical, but it has deep wells of excellent water. There are a few palm trees in the town, and its fruit orchards are very productive; but the chief feature of the neighborhood is the wide-spread olive grove to the north and northeast
(Joshua 13:3) the inhabitants of Gaza.
(2 Samuel 5:25; 1 Chronicles 14:16) [Gezer]
(shearer), a name which occurs twice in (1 Chronicles 2:46)--first as son of Caleb by Ephah his concubine, and second as son of Haran, the son of the same woman. The second is possibly only a repetition of the first (B.C. after 1688.)
Inhabitants of Gaza. (Judges 16:2)
(devouring). The Bene-Gazzam were among the familiar of the Nethinim who returned from the captivity with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:48; Nehemiah 7:51) (B.C. 536.)
(a hill), a city of Benjamin, with "suburbs," allotted to the priests. (Joshua 21:17; 1 Chronicles 6:60) It is named amongst the first group of the Benjamite towns--apparently those lying near to and along the north boundary. (Joshua 18:24) Here the name is given as Gaba. During the wars of the earlier part of the reign of Saul, Geba was held as a garrison by the Philistines, (1 Samuel 13:3) but they were ejected by Jonathan. It is now the modern village of Jeba, which stands picturesquely on the top of its steep terraced hill, six miles north of Jerusalem, on the very edge of the great Wady Suweinit, looking northward to the opposite village of ancient Michmash, which also retains its old name of Mukhmas .
(mountain), a maritime town of Phoenicia, near Tyre, (Ezekiel 27:9) known by the Greeks as Byblus. It is called Jebail by the Arabs, thus reviving the old biblical name.
(grasshoppers), a village north of Jerusalem, (Isaiah 10:31) apparently between Anathoth (the modern Anata) and the ridge on which Nob was situated.
(God is my greatness), son of Ahikam (Jeremiah's protector, (Jeremiah 26:24) and grandson of Shaphan the secretary of King Josiah. After the destruction of the temple, B.C. 588, Nebuchadnezzar departed from Judea, leaving Gedaliah with a Chaldean guard, (Jeremiah 40:5) at Mizpah to govern the vinedressers and husbandmen, (Jeremiah 52:16) who were exempted from captivity. Jeremiah jointed Gedaliah; and Mizpah became the resort of Jews from various quarters. (Jeremiah 40:6,11) He was murdered by Ishmael two months after his appointment.
The Greek form of the Hebrew name Gideon. (Hebrews 11:32)
(a wall). The king of Geder was one of the thirty-one kings who were overcome by Joshua on the west of the Jordan. (Joshua 12:13) (B.C. 1445.) It is possible that it may be the same place as the Geder named in (1 Chronicles 4:39)
(a sheepfold), a town of Judah in the lowland country, (Joshua 15:36) apparently in its eastern part. No town bearing this name has, however, been yet discovered in this hitherto little-explored district.
the native of a place called Gederah, apparently in Benjamin. (1 Chronicles 12:4)
the native of some place named Geder or Gederah. (1 Chronicles 27:28)
(sheepfolds), a town in the low country of Judah. (Joshua 15:41; 2 Chronicles 28:18)
(two sheepfolds), a town in the low country of Judah, (Joshua 15:36) named next in order to Gederah.
(a wall), a town int he mountainous part of Judah, (Joshua 15:58) a few miles north of Hebron. Robinson discovered a Jedur halfway between Bethlehem and Hebron, about two miles west of the road.
(valley of vision), the servant or boy of Elisha. He was sent as the prophet's messenger on two occasions to the good Shunammite, (2 Kings 4:1) ... (B.C. 889-887); obtained fraudulently money and garments from Naaman, was miraculously smitten with incurable leprosy, and was dismissed from the prophet's service. (2 Kings 5:1) ... Later in the history he is mentioned as being engaged in relating to King Joram all the great things which Elisha had done. (2 Kings 8:4,5)
(circuit), a place named among the marks of the south boundary line of the tribe of Benjamin. (Joshua 18:17) The name Geliloth never occurs again in this locality, and it therefore seems probable that Gilgal is the right reading.
(camel-driver), the father of Ammiel, the Danite spy. (Numbers 13:12) (B.C. 1490.)
(perfected by Jehovah).
[Stones, Precious, PRECIOUS]
In Hebrew the term for genealogy or pedigree is "the book of the generations;" and because the oldest histories were usually drawn up on a genealogical basis, the expression often extended to the whole history, as is the case with the Gospel of St. Matthew, where "the book of the generation of Jesus Christ" includes the whole history contained in that Gospel. The promise of the land of Canaan to the seed of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob successively, and the separation of the Israelites from the Gentile world; the expectation of Messiah as to spring from the tribe of Judah; the exclusively hereditary priesthood of Aaron with its dignity and emoluments; the long succession of kings in the line of David; and the whole division and occupations of the land upon genealogical principles by the tribes, occupation of the land upon genealogical principles by the tribes, families and houses of fathers, gave a deeper importance to the science of genealogy among the Jews than perhaps any other nation. When Zerubbabel brought back the captivity from Babylon, one of his first cares seems to have been to take a census of those that returned, and to settle them according to their genealogies. Passing on to the time of the birth of Christ, we have a striking incidental proof of the continuance of the Jewish genealogical economy in the fact that when Augustus ordered the census of the empire to be taken, the Jews in the province of Syria immediately went each one to his own city. The Jewish genealogical records continued to be kept till near the destruction of Jerusalem. But there can be little doubt that the registers of the Jewish tribes and families perished at the destruction of Jerusalem, and not before. It remains to be said that just notions of the nature of the Jewish genealogical records are of great importance with a view to the right interpretation of Scripture. Let it only be remembered that these records have respect to political and territorial divisions as much as to strictly genealogical descent, and it will at once be seen how erroneous a conclusion it may be that all who are called "sons" of such or such a patriarch or chief father must necessarily be his very children. Of any one family or house became extinct, some other would succeed to its place, called after its own chief father. Hence of course a census of any tribe drawn up at a later period would exhibit different divisions from one drawn up at an earlier. The same principle must be borne in mind in interpreting any particular genealogy Again, when a pedigree was abbreviated, it would naturally specify such generations as would indicates from what chief houses the person descended. Females are named in genealogies when there is anything remarkable about them, or when any right or property is transmitted through them. See (Genesis 11:29; 22:23; 25:1-4; 35:22-26; Exodus 6:23; Numbers 26:33)
The New Testament gives us the genealogy of but one person, that of our Saviour. This is given because it was important to prove that Jesus fulfilled the prophecies spoken of him. Only as the son and heir of David should he be the Messiah. The following propositions will explain the true construction of these genealogies:--
In the long-lived patriarchal age a generation seems to have been computed at 100 years, (Genesis 15:16) comp. Genesis15:13 and Eccl 12:40 But subsequently the reckoning was the same which has been adopted by modern civilized nations, viz. from thirty to forty years (Job 42:16) (Generation is also used to signify the men of an age or time, as contemporaries, (Genesis 6:9; Isaiah 53:8) posterity, especially in legal formulae, (Leviticus 3:17) etc.; fathers, or ancestors. (Psalms 49:19)
(origin), the first book of the law or Pentateuch, so called from its title ia the Septuagint, that is, Creation . Its author was Moses. The date of writing was probably during the forty-years wanderings in the wilderness, B.C. 1491-1451. Time .--The book of Genesis covered 2369 years,--from the creation of Adam, A.M 1, to the death of Joseph, A.M. 2369, or B.C. 1635. Character and purpose .--The book of Genesis (with the first chapters of Exodus) describes the steps which led to the establishment of the theocracy. It is a part of the writer's plan to tell us what the divine preparation of the world was in order to show, first, the significance of the call of Abraham, and next, the true nature of the Jewish theocracy. He begins with the creation of the world, because the God who created the world and the God who revealed himself to the fathers is the same God. The book of Genesis has thus a character at once special and universal. Construction .--It is clear that Moses must have derived his knowledge of the events which he records in Genesis either from immediate divine revelation or from oral tradition or written documents. The nature of many of the facts related, and the minuteness of the narration, render it extremely improbable that immediate revelation was the source from whence they were drawn. That his knowledge should have been derived from oral tradition appears morally impossible when we consider the great number of names, ages, dates and minute events which are recorded. The conclusion then, seems fair that he must have obtained his information from written documents coeval, or nearly so, with the events which they recorded, and composed by persons intimately acquainted with the subjects to which they relate. He may have collected these, with additions from authentic tradition or existing monuments under the guidance of the Holy Spirit, into a single book. Certain it is that several of the first chapters of Genesis have the air of being made up of selections from very ancient documents, written by different authors at different periods. The variety which is observable in the names and titles of the Supreme Being is appealed to among the most striking proofs of this fact. This is obvious in the English translation, but still more so in the Hebrew original. In Gen 1 to 2:3, which is really one piece of composition, as the title, v. 4, "These are the generations," shows, the name of the Most High is uniformly Elohim, God. In ch. (Genesis 2:4) to ch. 3, which may be considered the second document, the title is uniformly Yehovah Elohim, Lord God ; and in the third, including ch. 4, it is Yehovah, Lord, only; while in ch. 5 it is Elohim, God only, except in v. 29, where a quotation is made, and Yehovah used. It is hardly conceivable that all this should be the result of mere accident. The changes of the name correspond exactly to the changes in the narratives and the titles of the several pieces." Now, do all these accurate quotations," says Professor Stowe, "impair the credit of the Mosaic books, or increase it? Is Marshall's Life of Washington to be regarded as unworthy of credit because it contains copious extracts from Washington's correspondence and literal quotations from important public documents? Is not its value greatly enhanced by this circumstance? The objection is altogether futile. In the common editions of the Bible the Pentateuch occupies about one hundred and fifty pages, of which perhaps ten may be taken up with quotations. This surely is no very large proportion for an historical work extending through so long a period."--Bush. On the supposition that writing was known to Adam, Gen. 1-4, containing the first two of these documents, formed the Bible of Adam's descendants, or the antediluvians. Gen 1 to 11:9, being the sum of these two and the following three, constitutes the Bible of the descendants of Noah. The whole of Genesis may be called the Bible of the posterity of Jacob; and the five Books of the Law were the first Bible of Israel as a nation.--Canon Cook.
(garden of the prince), Land of. It is generally believed that this term was applied to the fertile crescent-shaped plain on the western shore of the lake, extending from Khan Minyeh (two or three miles south of Capernaum (Tel-Hum) on the north to the steep hill behind Mejdel (Magdala) on the south, and called by the Arabs el-Ghuweir, "the little Ghor." Mr. Porter gives the length as three miles, and the greatest breadth as about one mile. Additional interest is given to the land of Gennesaret, or el-Ghuweir, by the probability that its scenery suggested the parable of the sower. It is mentioned only twice in Scripture - (Matthew 14:34; Mark 6:53) Compare Luke 5:1
[See Galilee, Sea Of, SEA OF]
Inaccurately written for [Gennesaret]
(nations). All the people who were not Jews were so called by them, being aliens from the worship, rites and privileges of Israel. The word was used contemptuously by them. In the New Testament it is used as equivalent to Greek. This use of the word seems to have arisen from the almost universal adaption of the Greek language.
the son of Hadad, an Edomite of the royal family, by an Egyptian princess, the sister of Tahpenes, the queen of the Pharaoh who governed Egypt in the latter part of the reign of David. (1 Kings 11:20) comp. 1Kin 11:16 (B.C. 1015.)
(a grain), one of the "sons," i.e. descendants, of Benjamin. (Genesis 46:21) Gera, who is named, (Judges 3:15) as the ancestor of Ehud, and in (2 Samuel 16:5) as the ancestor of Shimei who cursed David, is probably also the same person (though some consider them different persons).
[Weights And Measures AND Measures]
(a lodging-place), a very ancient city south of Gaza. It occurs chiefly in Genesis, (Genesis 10:19; 20:1; 26:17) also incidentally in (2 Chronicles 14:13,14) It must have trenched on the "south" or "south country" of later Palestine. From a comparison of (Genesis 21:32) with Genesis26:23,26 Beersheba would seem to be just on the verge of this territory, and perhaps to be its limit towards the northeast.
(Luke 8:26) Revised Version; [See Gadarenes, Girgesenes, Gerasenes]
[See Gadarenes, Girgesenes, Gerasenes]
(cutters), a limestone mountain, 2855 feet high (800 feet above the valley at its foot), in Ephraim, near Shechem (Sychar), from which the blessings were read to the Israelites on entering Canaan. [See Ebal, Mount] According to the traditions of the Samaritans it was here that Abraham sacrificed Isaac, that Melchizedek met the patriarch, that Jacob built an altar, and at its base dug a well, the ruins of which are still seen. Some scholars think there is ground for the first belief (so Smith); but careful observers of the locality discredit it and believe Moriah to be the spot. [See Moriah] Gerizim was the site of the Samaritan temple, which was built there after the captivity, in rivalry with the temple at Jerusalem. [See Samaritans] Gerizim is still to the Samaritans what Jerusalem is to the Jews and Mecca to the Mohammedans.
(1 Samuel 27:8) [Gerzites]
(a stranger or exile).
(exile). The eldest of the three sons of Levi, born before the descent of Jacob's family into Egypt. (Genesis 46:11; Exodus 6:16) (B.C. before 1706.) But, though the eldest born, the families of Gershon were outstripped in fame by their younger brethren of Kohath, from whom sprang Moses and the priestly line of Aaron.
the family descended from Gershon or Gershom, the son of Levi. "THE GERSH0NITE," as applied to individuals, occurs in (1 Chronicles 26:21) The sons of Gershon (the Gershonites) had charge of the fabrics of the tabernacle--the coverings, curtains, hangings and cords. (Numbers 3:25,26; 4:25,26)
(dwellers in the desert), The, a tribe who with the Geshurites and the Amalekites occupied the land between the south of Palestine and Egypt in the time of Saul. (1 Samuel 27:8) In the name of Mount Gerizim we have the only remaining trace of the presence of this old tribe of Bedouins in central Palestine.
(filthy) (sometimes written GESHAN), one of the sons of Judah, in the genealogy of Judah and family of Caleb. (1 Chronicles 2:47)
and Gash'mu (rain), an Arabian, mentioned in (Nehemiah 2:19) and Nehe 6:1,2,6 (B.C. 446.) We may conclude that he was an inhabitant of Arabia Petraea or of the Arabian desert, and probably the chief of a tribe." Gashum said it" made him a type of those who create a common report.
(a bridge), a little principality of Syria, northeast of Bashan. (3:14; 2 Samuel 15:8) It ia highly probable that Geshur was a section of the wild and rugged region now called el-Lejah, still a refuge for criminals and outlaws. [Argob]
(fear), the third in order of the sons of Aram. (Genesis 10:23) No satisfactory trace of the people sprung from this stock has been found.
(an oil-press), a small "farm," (Matthew 26:36; Mark 14:32) situated across the brook Kedron (John 18:1) probably at the foot of Mount Olivet, (Luke 22:39) to the northwest and about one-half or three quarters of a mile English from the walls of Jerusalem, and 100 yards east of the bridge over the Kedron. There was a "garden," or rather orchard, attached to it, to which the olive, fig and pomegranate doubtless invited resort by their hospitable shade. And we know from the evangelists (Luke 22:39) And (John 18:2) that our Lord ofttimes resorted thither with his disciples. But Gethsemane has not come down to us as a scene of mirth; its inexhaustible associations are the offspring of a single event--the agony of the Son of God on the evening preceding his passion. A garden, with eight venerable olive trees, and a grotto to the north detached from it, and in closer connection with the church of the sepulchre of the Virgin, are pointed out as the Gethsemane. Against the contemporary antiquity of the olive trees it has been urged that Titus cut down all the trees about Jerusalem. The probability would seem to be that they were planted by Christian hands to mark the spot unless, like the sacred olive of the Acropolis, they may have reproduced themselves.
(majesty of God), son of Machi the Gadite spy. (Numbers 13:15) (B.C 1490.)
(a precipice), an ancient city of Canaan, whose king, Hiram or Elam, coming to the assistance of Lachish, was killed with all his people by Joshua. (Joshua 10:33; 12:12) It formed one of the landmarks on the north boundary of Ephraim, between the lower Beth-horon and the Mediterranean, (Joshua 16:3) the western limit of the tribe (1 Chronicles 7:28) It was allotted with its suburbs to the Kohathite Levites, (Joshua 21:21; 1 Chronicles 6:67) but the original inhabitants were not dispossessed, (Judges 1:29) and even down to the reign of Solomon the Canaanites were still dwelling there, and paying tribute to Israel (1 Kings 9:16) It was burned by Pharaoh in Solomon's time, (1 Kings 9:15-17) and given to Solomon's Egyptian wife, and rebuilt by him.
The word which the Jewish critics have substituted in the margin of the Bible for the ancient reading, "the Gerizite." (1 Samuel 27:8) [Gerizites, THE]
(a waterfall), a place named only in (2 Samuel 2:24) to designate the position of the hill Ammah.
men of extraordinary size or height.
(gigantic), the father of some who returned with Zerubbabel from Babylon. (Ezra 2:20)
(a hill), a town allotted to the tribe of Dan, (Joshua 19:44) and afterwards given with its "suburbs" to the Kohathite Levites. ch. (Joshua 21:23)
(a hill). Sheva "the father of Macbenah" and "father of Gibea" is mentioned with other names, unmistakably those of places and not persons, among the descendants of Judah. (1 Chronicles 2:49) comp. 1Chr 2:42 This would seem to point out Gibea.
a word employed in the Bible to denote a hill. Like most words of this kind it gave its name to several towns and places in Palestine, which would doubtless be generally on or near a hill. They are--
probably the same as, Gibeah OF Benjamin, The Land Of. (Joshua 18:28)
(hill city), one of the four, cities of the Hivites, the inhabitants of which made a league with Joshua, (Joshua 9:3-15) and thus escaped the fate of Jericho and Ai. Comp. ch. (Joshua 11:19) Gibeon lay within the territory of Benjamin, ch. (Joshua 18:25) and with its "suburbs" was allotted to the priests, ch. (Joshua 21:17) of whom it became afterwards a principal station. It retains its ancient name almost intact, el-Jib . Its distance from Jerusalem by the main road is about 6 1/2 miles; but there is a more direct road reducing it to five miles.
the people of Gibeon, and perhaps also of the three cities associated with Gibeon, (Joshua 9:17)--Hivites; and who, on the discover of the stratagem by which they had obtained the protection of the Israelites, were condemned to be perpetual bondmen, hewers of wood and drawers of water for the congregation and for the house of God and altar of Jehovah. (Joshua 9:23,27) Saul appears to have broken this covenant, and in a fit of enthusiasm or patriotism to have killed some and devised a general massacre of the rest. (2 Samuel 21:1,2,5) This was expiated many years after by giving up seven men of Saul's descendants to the Gibeonites, who hung them or crucified them "before Jehovah"--as a kind of sacrifice-- in Gibeah, Saul's own town. ch. (2 Samuel 21:4,6,9)
(I have trained up), one of the sons of Heman, the king's seer. (1 Chronicles 25:4)
(he that cuts down), youngest son of Joash of the Abiezrites, an undistinguished family who lived at Ophrah, a town probably on the west of Jordan, (Judges 6:15) in the territory of Manasseh, near Shechem. He was the fifth recorded judge of Israel, and for many reasons the greatest of them all. When we first hear of him he was grown up and had sons, (Judges 6:11; 8:20) and from the apostrophe of the angel, ch. (Judges 6:12) we may conclude that he had already distinguished himself in war against the roving bands of nomadic robbers who had oppressed Israel for seven years. When the angel appeared, Gideon was threshing wheat with a flail in the wine-press, to conceal it from the predatory tyrants. His call to be a deliverer, and his destruction of Baal's altar, are related in Judges 6. After this begins the second act of Gideon's life. Clothed by the Spirit of God, (Judges 6:34) comp. 1Chr 12:18; Luke 24:49 He blew a trumpet, and was joined by Zebulun, Naphtali and even the reluctant Asher. Strengthened by a double sign from God, he reduced his army of 32,000 by the usual proclamation. (20:8) comp. 1 Macc. 3:56. By a second test at "the spring of trembling the further reduced the number of his followers to 300. (Judges 7:5) seq. The midnight attack upon the Midianites, their panic, and the rout and slaughter that followed are told in (Judges 7:1) ... The memory of this splendid deliverance took deep root in the national traditions. (1 Samuel 12:11; Psalms 83:11; Isaiah 9:4; 10:26; Hebrews 11:32) After this there was a peace of forty years, and we see Gideon in peaceful possession of his well-earned honors, and surrounded by the dignity of a numerous household. (Judges 8:29-31) It is not improbable that, like Saul, he owed a part of his popularity to his princely appearance. (Judges 8:18) In this third stage of his life occur alike his most noble and his most questionable acts viz., the refusal of the monarchy on theocratic grounds, and the irregular consecration of a jewelled ephod formed out of the rich spoils of Midian, which proved to the Israelites a temptation to idolatry although it was doubtless intended for use in the worship of Jehovah.
(a cutting down), a Benjamite, father of Abidan. (Numbers 1:11; 7:60,65; 10:24)
(desolation), a place named only in (Judges 20:45) It would appear to have been situated between Gibeah (Tuliel-el-Ful) and the cliff Rimmon.
an unclean bird mentioned in (Leviticus 11:18) and Deuteronomy 14:17 Identical in reality as in name with the racham, of the Arabs, viz., the Egyptian vulture.
The giving and receiving of presents has in all ages been not only a more frequent but also a more formal and significant proceeding in the East than among ourselves. We cannot adduce a more remarkable proof of the important part which presents play in the social life of the East than the fact that the Hebrew language possesses no less than fifteen different expressions for the one idea. The mode of presentation was with as much parade as possible. The refusal of a present was regarded us a high indignity. No less an insult was it not to bring a present when the position of the parties demanded it. (1 Samuel 10:27)
(weighty), one of the priests' sons at the consecration of the wall of Jerusalem. (Nehemiah 12:36) (B.C. 446.)
(a bubbling spring) a mountain range on the eastern side of the plain of Esdraelon, rising over the city of Jezreel. Comp. (1 Samuel 28:4) with 1Sam 29:1 It is mentioned in Scripture only in connection with one event in Israelitish history, the defeat and death of Saul and Jonathan by the Philistines. (1 Samuel 31:11; 2 Samuel 1:6; 21:12; 1 Chronicles 10:1,8) Of the identity of Gilboa with the ridge which stretches eastward from the ruins of Jezreel no doubt can be entertained. The village is now called Jelbou .
(Numbers 26:29; Judges 10:3; 12:4,5), a branch of the tribe of Manasseh, descended from Gilead.
(a wheel; rolling).
(exile), a town in the mountainous part of Judah, named in the first group with Debir and Eshtemoh, (Joshua 16:51) it was the native place of the famous Ahithophel. (2 Samuel 15:12)
native of Giloh. (2 Samuel 15:12; 23:34)
(fertile in sycamores), a town which with its dependent villages was taken possession of by the Philistines in the reign of Ahaz. (2 Chronicles 28:18) The name (Jimzu) still remains attached to a large village between two and three miles southwest of Lydda, south of the road between Jerusalem and Jaffa.
a trap for birds or beasts; it consisted of a net, (Isaiah 8:14) and a stick to act as a spring. (Amos 3:5)
(protection), father of Tibni. (1 Kings 16:21,22)
(gardner), one of the chief of the priests and Levites who returned to Judea with Zerubbabel. (Nehemiah 12:4) He is doubtless the same person as
(gardener), a priest who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah (Nehemiah 10:6) (B.C. 410.)
an essential article of dress in the East, and worn by both men and women. The common girdle was made of leather, (2 Kings 1:8; Matthew 3:4) like that worn by the Bedouins of the present day. A finer girdle was made of linen, (Jeremiah 13:1; Ezekiel 16:10) embroidered with silk, and sometimes with gold and silver thread, (Daniel 10:5; Revelation 1:13; 15:6) and frequently studded with gold and precious stones or pearls. The military girdle was worn about the waist; the sword or dagger was suspended from it. (Judges 3:16; 2 Samuel 20:8; Psalms 45:3) Hence girding up the loins denotes preparation for battle or for active exertion. Girdles were used as pockets, as they still are among the Arabs, and as purses, one end of the girdle being folded back for the purpose. (Matthew 10:9; Mark 6:8)
(dwelling on a clayey soil), The, one of the nations who were in possession of Canaan east of the Sea of Galilee before the entrance thither of the children of Israel. (Genesis 10:16; 15:21; 7:1)
(Genesis 10:16) or NEXT ENTRY ...
(caress), one of the overseers of the Nethinim, in "the Ophel," after the return from captivity. (Nehemiah 11:21)
(Joshua 19:13) [GATH-HEPHER]
(belonging to Gath), the 600 men who followed David from Gath, under Ittai the Gittite, (2 Samuel 15:18,19) and who probably acted as a kind of body-guard. Obed-edom "the Gittite" may have been so named from the town of Gittaim in Benjamin, (2 Samuel 4:3; Nehemiah 11:33) or from Gath-rimmon.
a musical instrument, by some supposed to have been used by the people of Gath, and by others to have been employed at the festivities of the vintage. Psal 8,81,84.
(inhabitant of Gizoh). "The sons of Hashem the Gizonite "are named amongst the warriors of David's guard. (1 Chronicles 11:34) Kennicott concludes that the name should be Gouni.
The Hebrew word occurs only in (Job 28:17) where in the Authorized Version it is rendered "crystal." In spite of the absence of specific allusion to glass in the sacred writings, the Hebrews must have been aware of the invention from paintings representing the process of glass-blowing, which have been discovered at Beni-hassan, and in tombs at other places, we know that the invention vas known at least 3500 years ago. Fragments too of wine-vases as old as the exodus have been discovered in Egypt. The art was also known to the ancient Assyrians. In the New Testament glass is alluded to as an emblem of brightness. (Revelation 4:6; 15:2; 21:18)
The gleaning of fruit trees, as well as of corn-fields, was reserved for the poor. [Corner]
the old name for the common kite (Milvus ater), occurs only in (14:13) among the unclean birds of prey.
a species of mosquito mentioned only in the proverbial expression used by our Saviour in (Matthew 23:21)
(Judges 3:31; 1 Samuel 13:21) The Hebrew word in the latter passage probably means the point of the plough-share . The former word does probably refer to the goad, the long handle of which might be used as a formidable weapon. The instrument, as still used in countries of southern Europe and western Asia, consists of a rod about eight feet long, brought to a sharp point and sometimes cased with iron at the head.
There appear to be two or three varieties of the common goat, Hircus agagrus, at present bred in Palestine and Syria, but whether they are identical with those which were reared by the ancient Hebrews it is not possible to say. The most marked varieties are the Syrian goat(Capra mammorica, Linn.) and the Angora goat (Capra angorensis, Linn.), with fine long hair. As to the "wild goats," (1 Samuel 24:2; Job 39:1; Psalms 104:18) it is not at all improbable that some species of ibex is denoted.
[Atonement, The Day Of, Day OF]
(lowing), a place apparently in the neighborhood of Jerusalem, and named, in connection with the hill Gareb, only in (Jeremiah 31:39)
(cistern), a place mentioned only in (2 Samuel 21:18,19) as the scene of two encounters between David's warriors and the Philistines. In the parallel account in (1 Chronicles 20:4) the name is given as Gezer.
a circular vessel for wine or other liquid.
(good). Throughout the Hebrew Scriptures two chief names are used for the one true divine Being--ELOHIM, commonly translated God in our version, and Jehovah, translated Lord . Elohim is the plural of Eloah (in Arabic Allah); it is often used in the short form EL (a word signifying strength, as in EL-SHADDAI, God Almighty, the name by which God was specially known to the patriarchs. (Genesis 17:1; 28:3; Exodus 6:3) The etymology is uncertain, but it is generally agreed that the primary idea is that of strength, power of effect, and that it properly describes God in that character in which he is exhibited to all men in his works, as the creator, sustainer and supreme governor of the world. The plural form of Elohim has given rise to much discussion. The fanciful idea that it referred to the trinity of persons in the Godhead hardly finds now a supporter among scholars. It is either what grammarians call the plural of majesty, or it denotes the fullness of divine strength, the sum of the powers displayed by God. Jehovah denotes specifically the one true God, whose people the Jews were, and who made them the guardians of his truth. The name is never applied to a false god, nor to any other being except one, the ANGEL-JEHOVAH who is thereby marked as one with God, and who appears again in the New Covenant as "God manifested in the flesh." Thus much is clear; but all else is beset with difficulties. At a time too early to be traced, the Jews abstained from pronouncing the name, for fear of its irreverent use. The custom is said to have been founded on a strained interpretation of (Leviticus 24:16) and the phrase there used, "THE NAME" (Shema), is substituted by the rabbis for the unutterable word. In reading the Scriptures they substituted for it the word ADONAI (Lord), from the translation of which by Kurios in the LXX., followed by the Vulgate, which uses Dominus, we have the Lord of our version. The substitution of the word Lord is most unhappy, for it in no way represents the meaning of the sacred name. The key to the meaning of the name is unquestionably given in God's revelation of himself to Moses by the phrase "I AM THAT I AM," (Exodus 3:14; 6:3) We must connect the name Jehovah with the Hebrew substantive verb to be, with the inference that it expresses the essential, eternal, unchangeable being of Jehovah. But more, it is not the expression only, or chiefly, of an absolute truth: it is a practical revelation of God, in his essential, unchangeable relation to this chosen people, the basis of his covenant.
(circle), a city of Bashan, (4:43) allotted out of the half tribe of Manasseh to the Levites, (Joshua 21:27) and one of the three cities of refuge east of the Jordan. ch (Joshua 20:8) Its very site is now unknown. It gave its name to the province of Gaulanitis. It lay east of Galilee and north of Gadaritis [Gadara], and corresponds to the modern province of Jaulan .
Gold was known from the very earliest times. (Genesis 2:11) It was at first used chiefly for ornaments, etc. (Genesis 24:22) Coined money was not known to the ancients till a comparatively late period; and on the Egyptian tombs gold is represented as being weighed in rings for commercial purposes. Comp. (Genesis 43:21) Gold was extremely abundant in ancient times, (1 Chronicles 22:14; 2 Chronicles 1:15; 9:9; Daniel 3:1; Nahum 2:9) but this did not depreciate its value, because of the enormous quantities consumed by the wealthy in furniture, etc. (1 Kings 6:22) 10 passim ; (Esther 1:6; Song of Solomon 3:9,10; Jeremiah 10:9) The chief countries mentioned as producing gold are Arabia, Sheba and Ophir. (1 Kings 9:28; 10:1; Job 28:16)
(skull), the Hebrew name of the spot at which our Lord was crucified. (Matthew 27:33; Mark 15:22; John 19:17) By these three evangelists it is interpreted to mean the "place of a skull." Two explanations of the name are given: (1) that it was a spot where executions ordinarily took place, and therefore abounded in skulls; or(2) it may come from the look or form of the spot itself, bald, round and skull-like, and therefore a mound or hillock, in accordance with the common phrase--for which there is no direct authority-- "Mount Calvary." Whichever of these is the correct explanation, Golgotha seems to have been a known spot.
(splendor), a famous giant of Gath, who "morning and evening for forty days" defied the armies of Israel. (1 Samuel 17:1) ... (B.C. 1063.) He was possibly descended from the old Rephaim [Giants], of whom a scattered remnant took refuge with the Philistines after their dispersion by the Ammonites. (2:20,21; 2 Samuel 21:22) His height was "six cubits and a span," which taking the cubit at 21 inches, would make him 10 1/2 feet high. The scene of his combat with David, by whom he was slain, was the "valley of the terebinth," between Shochoh and Arekah, probably among the western passes of Benjamin. In (2 Samuel 21:19) we find that another Goliath of Gath was slain by Elhanan, also a Bethlehemite.
(submersion), one of the five "cities of the plain" or "vale of Siddim" that under the irrespective kings joined battle there with Chedorlaomer (Genesis 14:2-8) and his allies by whom they were discomfited till Abraham came to the rescue. Four out of the five were afterwards destroyed by the Lord with fire from heaven. (Genesis 19:23-29) One of them only, Zoar (or Bela; which was its original name), was spared at the request of Lot, in order that he might take refuge there. The geographical position of these cities is discussed under Sodom.
(pitch) wood. Only once mentioned-- (Genesis 6:14) Two principal conjectures have been proposed--
The name Gospel (from god and spell, Ang. Sax. good message or news, which is a translation of the Greek euaggelion) is applied to the four inspired histories of the life and teaching of Christ contained in the New Testament, of which separate accounts are given in their place. They were all composed during the latter half of the first century: those of St. Matthew and St. Mark some years before the destruction of Jerusalem; that of St. Luke probably about A.D. 64; and that of St. John towards the close of the century. Before the end of the second century, there is abundant evidence that the four Gospels, as one collection, were generally used and accepted. As a matter of literary history, nothing can be better established than the genuineness of the Gospels. On comparing these four books one with another, a peculiar difficulty claims attention, which has had much to do with the controversy as to their genuineness. In the fourth Gospel the narrative coincided with that of the other three in a few passages only. The received explanation is the only satisfactory one namely, that John, writing last, at the close of the first century had seen the other Gospels, and purposely abstained from writing anew what they had sufficiently recorded. In the other three Gospels there is a great amount of agreement. If we suppose the history that they contain to be divided into 89 sections, in 42 of these all the three narratives coincide, 12 more are given by Matthew and Mark only, 5 by Mark and Luke only, and 14 by Matthew and Luke. To these must be added 5 peculiar to Matthew, 2 to Mark and 9 to Luke, and the enumeration is complete. But this applies only to general coincidence as to the facts narrated: the amount of verbal coincidence, that is, the passages either verbally the same or coinciding in the use of many of the same words, is much smaller. It has been ascertained by Stroud that "if the total contents of the several Gospels be represented by 100, the following table is obtained: Matthew has 42 peculiarities and 58 coincidences. Mark has 7 peculiarities and 93 coincidences. Luke has 59 peculiarities and 41 coincidences. John has 92 peculiarities and 8 coincidences. Why four Gospels.--
In the Authorized Version this one English word is the representative of no less than ten Hebrew and four Greek words.
seems in the Authorized Version of (1 Chronicles 5:26) to be the name of a river, but in (2 Kings 17:6) and 2Kin 18:11 It is evidently applied not to a river but a country. Gozan was the tract to which the Israelites were carried away captive by Pul, Tiglathpileser and Shalmaneser, or possibly Sargon. It is probably identical with the Gauzanitis of Ptolemy, and I may be regarded as represented by the Mygdonia of other writers. It was the tract watered by the Habor, the modern Khabour, the great Mesopotamian affluent of the Euphrates.
a piece of defensive armor which reached from the foot to the knee and thus protected the shin of the wearer. It was made of leather or brass.
The term Grecian, or Hellenist, denotes a Jew by birth or religion who spoke Greek. It is used chiefly of foreign Jews and proselytes in contrast with the Hebrews speaking the vernacular Hebrew or Aramaean.--Bible Dictionary of Tract Society .
The histories of Greece and Palestine are little connected with each other. In (Genesis 10:2-5) Moses mentions the descendants of Javan as peopling the isles of the Gentiles; and when the Hebrews came into contact with the Ionians of Asia Minor, and recognized them as the long-lost islanders of the western migration, it was natural that they should mark the similarity of sound between Javan and Iones. Accordingly the Old Testament word which is Grecia, in Authorized Versions Greece, Greeks, etc., is in Javan (Daniel 8:21; Joel 3:6) the Hebrew, however, is sometimes regained. (Isaiah 66:19; Ezekiel 27:13) The Greeks and Hebrews met for the first time in the slave-market. The medium of communication seems to have been the Tyrian slave-merchants. About B.C. 800 Joel speaks of the Tyrians as, selling the children of Judah tot he Grecians, (Joel 3:6) and in Ezek 27:13 The Greeks are mentioned as bartering their brazen vessels for slaves. Prophetical notice of Greece occurs in (Daniel 8:21) etc., where the history of Alexander and his successors is rapidly sketched. Zechariah, (Zechariah 9:13) foretells the triumphs of the Maccabees against the Greco-Syrian empire, while Isaiah looks forward to the conversion of the Greeks, amongst other Gentiles, through the instrumentality of Jewish missionaries. (Isaiah 66:19) The name of the country, Greece occurs once in the New Testament, (Acts 20:2) as opposed to Macedonia. [Gentiles]
the translation in the text of the Authorized Version, (Proverbs 30:31) of the Hebrew word zarzir mothnayin ; i.e. "one girt about the loins." Various are the opinions as to what animal "comely in going" is here intended Some think "a leopard," others "an eagle," or "a man girt with armor," or "a zebra," or "a war-horse girt with trappings." But perhaps the word means "a wrestler," when girt about the loins for a contest.
(10:7) [See Horhagidgad]
the descendants of Guni, son of Naphtali. (Numbers 26:48)
(abode), The going up to, an ascent or rising ground, at which Ahaziah received his death-blow while flying from jehu after the slaughter of Joram. (2 Kings 9:27)
(abode of Baal), a place or district in which dwelt Arabians, as recorded in (2 Chronicles 26:7) It appears from the context to have been in the country lying between Palestine and the Arabian peninsula; but this, although probable, cannot be proved.
(the courier), a man or a family immediately descended from Ashur. "father of Tekoa," by his second wife Naarah. (1 Chronicles 4:6) (B.C. after 1450.)
(whom Jehovah hides). Bene-Habaiah were among the sons of the priests who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:61; Nehemiah 7:63) (B.C. before 459).
(embrace), the eighth in order of the minor prophets. Of the facts of the prophet's life we have no certain information. He probably lived about the twelfth or thirteenth year of Josiah, B.C. 630 or 629.
consists of three chapters, in the first of which he foreshadows the invasion of Judea by the Chaldeans, and in the second he foretells the doom of the Chaldeans. The whole concludes with the magnificent psalm in ch. 3, a composition unrivalled for boldness of conception, sublimity of thought and majesty of diction.
(light of Jehovah), apparently the head of one of the families of the Rechabites. (Jeremiah 35:3) (B.C. before 589.)
a coat of mail covering the neck and breast. [Arms, Armor]
(beautiful banks), the "river of Gozan," (2 Kings 17:6) and 2Kin 18:11 Is identified beyond all reasonable doubt with the famous affluent of the Euphrates, which is called Aborrhas and Chaboras by ancient writers, and now Khabour.
(whom Jehovah enlightens), the father of Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 1:1; 10:1)
a hill apparently situated in a wood in the wilderness or waste land in the neighborhood of Ziph, in Judah, in the fastnesses or passes of which David and his six hundred followers were lurking when the Ziphites informed Saul of his whereabouts. (1 Samuel 23:19) comp. 1Sam 23:14,15,18
(wise) Son of, and The Hach'monite. (1 Chronicles 11:11; 27:32) Hachmon or Hachmoni was no doubt the founder of a family to which these men belonged: the actual father of Jashobeam was Zabdiel, (1 Chronicles 27:2) and he is also said to have belonged to the Korhites. (1 Chronicles 12:6) (B.C. before 1046.)
(mighty), originally the indigenous appellation of the sun among the Syrians, and thence transferred to the king as the highest of earthly authorities. The title appears to have been an official one, like Pharaoh. It is found occasionally in the altered form Hadar. (Genesis 25:15; 36:39) compared with 1Chr 1:30,50
(2 Samuel 8:3-12; 1 Kings 11:23). [Hadarezer]
is, according to the ordinary interpretation of (12:11) a place in the valley of Megiddo (a part of the plain of Esdraelon, six miles from Mount Carmel and eleven from Nazareth), where a national lamentation was held for the death of King Josiah. It was named after two Syrian idols.
(Hadad's help), son of Rehob, (2 Samuel 8:3) the king of the Aramite state of Zobah, who was pursued by David and defeated with great loss. (1 Chronicles 18:3,4) (B.C. 1035.) After the first repulse of the Ammonites and their Syrian allies by Joab, Hadarezer sent his army to the assistance of his kindred the people of Maachah, Rehob and Ishtob. (1 Chronicles 19:16; 2 Samuel 10:15) comp. 2Sam 10:8 Under the command of Shophach or Shobach, the captain of the host, they crossed the Euphrates, joined the other Syrians, and encamped at a place called Helam. David himself came from Jerusalem to take the command of the Israelite army. As on the former occasion, the route was complete.
(new), one of the towns of Judah, in the maritime low country, (Joshua 16:37) only, probably the Adasa of the Maccabean history.
(myrtle), probably the earlier name of Esther. (Esther 2:7)
(new). According to the Authorized Version, one of the towns of Judah in the extreme south. (Joshua 15:25)
in Revised Version. [See Hell]
(sharp), a place named, with Lod (Lydda) and Ono, only in the later books of the history. (Ezra 2:33; Nehemiah 7:37; 11:34) In the time of Eusebius a town called Aditha or Adatha existed to the east of Diospolis (Lydda). This was probably Hadid.
(rest of God), a man of Ephraim. (2 Chronicles 28:12)
(dwelling), a country of Syria, mentioned once only, by the prophet Zechariah. (Zechariah 9:1) The addition of the district, with its borders, is here generally stated; but the name itself seems to have wholly disappeared. It still remains unknown.
under which it is found in the parallel list of (Ezra 2:45)
(locust). Bene-Hagab were among the Nethinim who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:46) (B.C. before 536.)
(locust). Bene Hagaba were among the Nethinim who came back from captivity with Zerubbabel. (Nehemiah 7:48) The name is slightly different in form from
(flight), an Egyptian woman, the handmaid or slave of Sarah, (Genesis 16:1) whom the latter gave as a concubine to Abraham, after he had dwelt ten years in the land of Canaan and had no children by Sarah. ch (Genesis 16:2,3) (B.C. 1912.) When Hagar saw that she had conceived, "her mistress was despised in her eyes," v. 4, and Sarah, with the anger, we may suppose, of a free woman rather than of a wife, reproached Abraham for the results of her own act. Hagar fled, turning her steps toward her native land through the great wilderness traversed by the Egyptian road. By the fountain in the way to Shur the angel of the Lord found her, charged her to return and submit herself under the hands of her mistress, and delivered the remarkable prophecy respecting her unborn child recorded in vs. 10-12. On her return she gave birth to Ishmael, and Abraham was then eighty-six years old. When Ishmael was about sixteen years old, he was caught by Sarah making sport of her young son Isaac at the festival of his weaning, and Sarah demanded the expulsion of Hagar and her son. She again fled toward Egypt, and when in despair at the want of water, an angel again appeared to her, pointed out a fountain close by, and renewed the former promises to her. (Genesis 21:9-21) St. Paul, (Galatians 4:25) refers to her as the type of the old covenant of the law.
(named after Hagar), a people dwelling to the east of Palestine, with whom the tribes of Reuben made war in the time of Saul. (1 Chronicles 5:10,18-20) The same people, as confederate against Israel, are mentioned in (Psalms 83:6) It is generally believed that they were named after Hagar, and that the important town and district of Hejer, on the borders of the Persian Gulf, represent them.
Jaziz the Hagerite, i.e. the descendant of Hagar, had the charge of David's sheep. (1 Chronicles 27:31)
(festive), the tenth in order of the minor prophets, and first of those who prophesied after the captivity. With regard to his tribe and parentage history and tradition are alike silent.
The style of Haggai is generally tame and prosaic, though at times it rises to the dignity of severe invective when the prophet rebukes his countrymen for their selfish indolence and neglect of God's house. But the brevity of the prophecies is so great, and the poverty of expression which characterizes them so striking, as to give rise to a conjecture, not without reason, that in their present form they are but the outline or summary of the original discourses. They were delivered in the second year of Darius Hystaspes (B.C. 620), at intervals from the 1st day of the 6th month to the 24th day of the 9th month in the same year.
(wanderer) was one of the mighty men of David's guard, according to (1 Chronicles 11:38) The parallel passage-- (2 Samuel 23:36)--has "Bani the Gadite," which is probably the correct reading. (B.C. 1046.)
(festive), second son of Gad. (Genesis 46:16; Numbers 26:15)
(festival of Jehovah), a Merarite Levite. (1 Chronicles 6:30)
a Gadite family sprung from Haggi. (Numbers 26:15)
(festive; a dancer), one of David's wives, the mother of Adonijah. (2 Samuel 3:4; 1 Kings 1:6) (B.C. 1053.)
Same as Ai.
The Hebrews were fully alive to the importance of the hair as an element of personal beauty. Long hair was admired in the case of young men. (2 Samuel 14:26) In times of affliction the hair was altogether cut off. (Isaiah 3:17,24; 15:2; Jeremiah 7:29) Tearing the hair (Ezra 9:3) and letting it go dishevelled were similar tokens of grief. The usual and favorite color of the hair was black, (Song of Solomon 5:11) as is indicated in the comparisons in (Song of Solomon 1:5; 4:1) a similar hue is probably intended by the purple of (Song of Solomon 7:6) Pure white hair was deemed characteristic of the divine Majesty. (Daniel 7:9; Revelation 1:14) The chief beauty of the hair consisted in curls, whether of a natural or an artificial character. With regard to the mode of dressing the hair, we have no very precise information; the terms used are of a general character, as of Jezebel, (2 Kings 9:30) and of Judith, ch. 10:3, and in the New Testament, (1 Timothy 2:9; 1 Peter 3:3) The arrangement of Samson's hair into seven locks, or more properly braids, (Judges 16:13,19) involves the practice of plaiting, which was also familiar to the Egyptians and Greeks. The locks were probably kept in their place by a fillet, as in Egypt. The Hebrews like other nations of antiquity, anointed the hair profusely with ointments, which were generally compounded of various aromatic ingredients, (Ruth 3:3; 2 Samuel 14:2; Psalms 23:6; 92:10; Ecclesiastes 9:8) more especially on occasions of festivity or hospitality. (Luke 7:46) It appears to have been the custom of the Jews in our Saviour's time to swear by the hair, (Matthew 5:36) much as the Egyptian women still swear by the side-locks, and the men by their beards.
(young). Johanan son of Hakkatan, was the chief of the Bene-Azgad who returned from Babylon with Ezra. (Ezra 8:12)
(thorn), a priest, the chief of the seventh course in the service of the sanctuary, as appointed by David. (1 Chronicles 24:10) In (Ezra 2:61) and Nehe 3:4,21 The name occurs again as Koz in the Authorized Version.
(bent). Bene-Hakupha were among the Nethinim who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:61; Nehemiah 7:63)
is probably a different place from the Calah of (Genesis 10:11) It may be identified with the Chalcitis of Ptolemy.
(smooth), The mount, a mountain twice, and twice only, named, was the southern limit of Joshua's conquests, (Joshua 11:17; 12:7) but which has not yet been identified.
(trembling), a town of Judah in the mountain district. (Joshua 16:68) The name still remains unaltered attached to a conspicuous hill a mile to the left of the road from Jerusalem to Hebron, between three and four miles from the latter.
(necklace), a town on the boundary of Asher, named between Helkath and Beten. (Joshua 19:25)
used of the court of the high priest's house. (Luke 22:55) In (Matthew 27:27) and Mark 15:16 "Hall" is synonymous with "praetorium," which in (John 18:28) is in Authorized Version "judgment hall."
(praise ye the Lord). [Alleluia]
(enchanter), one of the chief of the people who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:24) (B.C. 410.)
Shallum, son of Halohesh was "ruler of the half part of Jerusalem" at the time of the repair of the wall by Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 3:12) (B.C. 446.)
(doubtful). Bene-Hattil were among the children of Solomon's slaves "who came back from captivity with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:57; Nehemiah 7:59) (B.C. 536.)
(magnificent), the chief minister or vizier of King Ahasuerus. (Esther 3:1) (B.C. 473.) After the failure of his attempt to cut off all the Jews in the Persian empire, he was hanged on the gallows which he had erected for Mordecai. The Targum and Josephus interpret the inscription of him--the Agagite--as signifying that he was of Amalekitish descent. The Jews hiss whenever his name is mentioned on the day of Purim.
(fortress), the principal city of upper Syria, was situated in the valley of the Orontes, which it commanded from the low screen of hills which forms the water-shed between the source of the Orontes and Antioch. The Hamathites were a Hamitic race, and are included among the descendants of Canaan. (Genesis 10:18) Nothing appears of the power of Hamath until the time of David. (2 Samuel 8:9) Hamath seems clearly to have been included in the dominions of Solomon. (1 Kings 4:21-24) The "store-cities" which Solomon "built in Hamath," (2 Chronicles 8:4) were perhaps staples for trade. In the Assyrian inscriptions of the time of Ahab (B.C. 900) Hamath appears as a separate power, in alliance with the Syrians of Damascus, the Hittites and the Phoenicians. About three-quarters of a century later Jeroboam the Second "recovered Hamath." (2 Kings 14:28) Soon afterwards the Assyrians took it, (2 Kings 18:34; 19:13) etc., and from this time it ceased to be a place of much importance. Antiochus Epiphanes changed its name to Epiphaneia. The natives, however, called it Hamath even in St. Jerome's time, and its present name, Hamah, is but slightly altered from the ancient form.
one of the families descended from Canaan, named last in the list. (Genesis 10:18; 1 Chronicles 1:16)
(fortress of Zobah), (2 Chronicles 8:3) has been conjectured to be the same as Hamath. But the name Hamath-Zobah would seem rather suited to another Hamath which was distinguished from the "Great Hamath" by the suffix "Zobah."
(warm springs), one of the fortified cities in the territory allotted to Naphtali. (Joshua 19:35) It was near Tiberias, one mile distant, and had its name Chammath, "hot baths," because it contained those of Tiberias. In the list of Levitical cities given out of Naphtali, (Joshua 21:32) the name of this place seems to be given as HAMMOTH-DOR.
(double), father of the infamous Haman. (Esther 3:1,10; 8:5; 9:24)
lit. "the king, " unnecessarily rendered in the Authorized Version as a proper name. (Jeremiah 36:26; 38:6)
(the queen), a daughter of Machir and sister of Gilead. (1 Chronicles 7:17,18) (B.C. between 1706 and 1491.)
(dwelling of the warm springs). [Hammath]
(multitude), the name of a city mentioned in Ezekiel. (Ezekiel 39:16)
(the multitude of God), The valley of, the name to be bestowed on the ravine or glen, previously known as "the ravine of the passengers on the east of the sea," after the burial there of "God and all his multitude." (Ezekiel 39:11,15)
(an ass), a Hivite who at the time of the entrance of Jacob on Palestine was prince of the land and city of Shechem. (Genesis 33:19; 34:2,4,6,8,13,18,20,24,26) (B.C. 1737.) [Dinah]
(heat, i.e. wrath, of God), a man of Simeon, of the family of Shaul. (1 Chronicles 4:26)
(pitied), the younger son of Pharez, Judah's son by Tamar. (Genesis 46:12; 1 Chronicles 2:5) (B.C. between 1706-1688.)
the family of the preceding. (Numbers 26:21)
(akin to the dew), daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah; one of the wives of King Josiah. (2 Kings 23:31; 24:18; Jeremiah 52:1) (B.C. 632-619.)
(whom God graciously gave), son of Shallum and cousin of Jeremiah. (Jeremiah 32:7,8,9,12) and comp. Jere 32:44 (B.C. 589.)
(whom God graciously gave), The tower of, a tower which formed part of the wall of Jerusalem (Nehemiah 3:1; 12:39) From these two passages, particularly from the former, it might almost be inferred that Hananeel was but another name for the tower of Meah; at any rate they were close together, and stood between the sheep-gate and the fish-gate. This tower is further mentioned in (Jeremiah 31:38) The remaining passage in which it is named, (Zechariah 14:10) also connects this tower with the "corner-gate," which lay on the other side of the sheep-gate.
(gift of God).
(the favor of God), son of Ephod and prince of Manasseh. (Numbers 34:23)
(Acts 18:3; 19:25; Revelation 18:22) A trade was taught to ail the Jewish boys as a necessary part of their education. Even the greatest rabbis maintained themselves by trades (Delitzsch). Says Rabbi Jehuda, "He who does not teach his son a trade is much the same as if he taught him to be a thief". In the present article brief notice only can be given of such handicraft trades as are mentioned in Scripture.
(Luke 19:20; John 11:44; 20:7; Acts 19:12) These terms were used in much the same manner and having much the same significance as at the present.
a place in Egypt mentioned only in (Isaiah 30:4) We think that the Chald Paraphr. is right in identifying it with Tahpanhes, a fortified town on the eastern frontier.
(grace of God), one of the sons of Ulla of the tribe of Asher. (1 Chronicles 7:39)
(grace), one of the wives of Elkanah, and mother of Samuel. 1Sam 1,2 (B.C. 1141.) A hymn of thanks giving for the birth of her son is in the highest order of prophetic poetry, its resemblance to that of the Virgin Mary comp. (1 Samuel 2:1-10) with Luke 1:46-55 See also (Psalms 113:1) ... has been noticed.
(gracious), one of the cities of Zebulun. (Joshua 19:14)
(two pits), a city of Issachar, mentioned next to Shunem. (Joshua 19:19) About 6 miles northeast of Lejjun, and two miles west of Solam (the ancient Shunem), stands the village of el' Afuleh, which may possibly be the representative of Haphraim.
(mountain land), (1 Chronicles 5:26) only, is either a place utterly unknown or it must be regarded as identical with Haran or Charran.
(fear), a desert station of the Israelites, (Numbers 33:24,25) its position is uncertain.
(the mountaineer), The. The destination of three of David's guard.
(ass-driver), the third of the seven chamberlains or eunuchs who served King Ahasuerus. (Esther 1:10) (B.C. 483-475.)
(Esther 7:9) the same as the preceding.
(Heb. arnebeth) occurs only in (Leviticus 11:6) and Deuteronomy 14:7 Amongst the animals disallowed as food by the Mosaic law. The hare is at this day called arnel by the Arabs in Palestine and Syria. It was erroneously thought by the ancient Jews to have chewed the cud. They were no doubt misled as in the case of the shaphfan (hyrax), by the habit these animals have of moving the jaw about.
(a plucking off), a name occurring in the genealogies of Judah as a son of Caleb and as "father of Bethgader." (1 Chronicles 2:51) only.
(thicket), The forest of, in which David took refuge, after at the instigation of the prophet Gad, he had quitted the "hold" or fastness of the cave of Adullam. (1 Samuel 22:6)
(the Lord is angry), father of Uzziel. (Nehemiah 3:8) (B.C. before 446.)
(inflammation). The sons of Harhur were among the Nethinim who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:51; Nehemiah 7:53) (B.C. 623.)
(a plucking-off). A hundred and twelve of the Bene-Hariph returned from the captivity with Zerubbabel. (Nehemiah 7:24) The name occurs again among the "heads of the people" who sealed the covenant. ch. (Nehemiah 10:19)
That this class of persons existed in the earliest states of society is clear from (Genesis 38:15) Rahab, (Joshua 2:1) is said by the Chald. Paraphr. to have been an innkeeper; but if there were such persons, considering what we know of Canaanitish morals, (Leviticus 18:27) we may conclude that they would, if women, have been of this class. The "harlots" are classed with "publicans," as those who lay under the ban of society, in the New Testament. (Matthew 21:32)
(hill of Megiddo), (Revelation 16:16) in the Revised Version for Armageddon. The change is chiefly Har, hill, in place of Ar, city.
(panting), one of the sons of Zophah, of the tribe of Asher. (1 Chronicles 7:36)
(fear), The well of, a spring by which Gideon and his great army encamped on the morning of the day which ended in the rout of the Midianites. (Judges 7:1) and where the trial of the people by their mode of drinking apparently took place. The Ain Jalud is very suitable to the circumstances, as being at present the largest spring in the neighborhood.
the designation of two of the thirty-seven warriors of David's guard, Shammah and Elika, (2 Samuel 23:25) doubtless denied from a place named Harod.
a name occurring in the genealogical lists of Judah. (1 Chronicles 2:52)
(the same as Harodite) The, the title given to Shammoth, one of the warriors of David's guard. (1 Chronicles 11:27)
(workmanship) "of the Gentiles" so called from the mixed races that inhabited it--a city in the north of the land of Canaan, supposed to have stood on the west coast of the lake Merom from which the Jordan issues forth in one unbroken stream. It was the residence of Sisera captain of Jabin king of Canaan, (Judges 4:2) and it was the point to which the victorious Israelites under Barak pursued the discomfited host and chariots of the second potentate of that name. (Judges 4:16)
The harp was the national instrument of the Hebrews, and was well known throughout Asia. Moses assigns its invention to Jubal during the antediluvian period. (Genesis 4:21) Josephus records that the harp had ten strings, and that it was played on with the plectrum. Sometimes it was smaller having only eight strings, and was usually played with the fingers.
(native of Hariph), The, the designation of Shephatiah, one of the Korhites who repaired to David at Ziklag. (1 Chronicles 12:5) (B.C. 1064.)
The word so rendered, (2 Samuel 12:31; 1 Chronicles 20:3) is probably a threshing-machine. The verb rendered "to harrow," (Job 39:10; Isaiah 28:24; Hosea 10:11) expresses apparently the breaking of the clods, and is so far analogous to our harrowing--but whether done by any such machine as we call a "harrow" is very doubtful.
(deaf). Bene-Harsha were among the families of Nethinim who came back from Babylon with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:52; Nehemiah 7:54)
the male stag. The word denotes some member of the deer tribe either the fallow deer or the Barbary deer. The hart is reckoned among the clean animals, (12:15; 14:5; 15:22) and seems from the passages quoted, as well as from (1 Kings 4:23) to have been commonly killed for food.
(lofty), father of Aharhel, in one of the most obscure genealogies of Judah. (1 Chronicles 4:8)
(slit-nosed) father or ancestor of Jedaiah. (Nehemiah 3:10)
(zealous), a man of Jotbah, father of Meshullemeth queen of Manasseh. (2 Kings 21:9) (B.C. before 644.)
(loved by Jehovah) one of a group of five persons among the descendants of the royal line of Judah, (1 Chronicles 3:20) apparently sons of Zerubbabel. (B.C. about 536.)
(the hated), a Benjamite, of one of the chief families in the tribe. (1 Chronicles 9:7)
(whom God regards).
(whom Jehovah regards), one of the chief of the "people" who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:25) (B.C. 410.)
(whom Jehovah regards).
(considerate judge), one of the men (probably Levites) who stood on Ezra's left hand while he read the law to the people in Jerusalem. (Nehemiah 8:4) (B.C.410.)
(fat). The sons of Hashem the Gizonite are named amongst the members of David's guard in (1 Chronicles 11:34) (B.C. before 1014.)
(fatness), a station of the Israelites, mentioned (Numbers 33:29) as next before Moseroth.
(intelligent), the first of a group of five men, apparently the latter half of the family of Zerubbabel. (1 Chronicles 3:20)
(stripped), one of the families of Nethinim who returned from captivity in the first caravan (Nehemiah 7:46) Called Hasupha in (Ezra 2:43) (B.C. 536.)
(very poor), the form in which the name Harhas is given in (2 Chronicles 34:22) comp. 2Kin 22:14
The Bene-Hassenaah rebuilt the fish-gate in the repair of the wall of Jerusalem. (Nehemiah 3:3) (B.C. 446.)
(verily), one of the eunuchs in the court of Ahasuerus. (Esther 4:5,6,9,10) (B.C. 474.)
(fearful), one of the sons of Othniel the Kenazite. (1 Chronicles 4:13)
(captive). Bene-Hatipha (i.e. sons of Hatipha) were among the Nethinim who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:54; Nehemiah 7:56) (B.C. 536.)
(exploring). Bene-Hatita (i.e. sons of Hatita) were among the "porters" (i.e. the gate-keepers) who returned from the captivity with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:42; Nehemiah 7:45) (B.C. 536.)
(caverns), a province of Palestine twice mentioned by Ezekiel. (Ezekiel 47:16,17) There can be little doubt that it is identical with the well-known Greek province of Auranitis and the modern Hauran east of the Sea of Galilee, on the borders of the desert, in the tetrarchy of Philip.
(villages of Jair), certain villages on the east of Jordan, in Gilead or Bashan, which were taken by Jair the son of Manasseh, and called after his name. (Numbers 32:41; 3:14) In the records of Manasseh in (Joshua 13:30) and 1Chr 2:23 The Havoth-jair are reckoned with other districts as making up sixty "cities." Comp. (1 Kings 4:13) There is apparently some confusion in these different statements as to what the sixty cities really consisted of. No less doubtful is the number of the Havoth-Jair. In (1 Chronicles 2:22) they are specified as twenty-three, but in (Judges 10:4) as thirty.
(Leviticus 11:16; 14:15; Job 39:26) The hawk includes various species of the Falconidae . With respect to the passage in Job (l.c.) which appears to allude to the migratory habits of hawks, it is curious to observe that of the ten or twelve lesser raptors (hawk tribe) of Palestine, nearly all are summer migrants. The kestrel remains all the year, but the others are all migrants from the south.
(Heb. chatsir), the rendering of the Authorized Version in (Proverbs 27:25) and Isai 15:6 Of the Hebrew term, which occurs frequently in the Old Testament, and denotes "grass" of any kind. It is quite probable that the modern Orientals do not make hay in our sense of the term; but it is certain that the ancients did mow their grass, and probably made use of the dry material. See (Psalms 37:2) We may remark that there is an express Hebrew term for "dry grass" or "hay," viz. chashash, which, in the only two places where the word occurs, (Isaiah 5:24; 33:11) is rendered "chaff" in the Authorized Version.
(whom God sees), a king of Damascus who reigned from about B.C. 886 to B.C. 840. He appears to have been previously a person in a high position at the court of Ben-hadad, and was sent by his master to Elisha to inquire if he would recover from the malady under which he was suffering. Elisha's answer led to the murder of Ben-hadad by his ambitious servant, who forthwith mounted the throne. (2 Kings 8:7-15) He was soon engaged in war with the kings of Judah and Israel for the possession of the city of Ramoth-gilead. Ibid. (2 Kings 8:28) Towards the close of the reign of Jehu, Hazael led the Syrians against the Israelites (about B.C. 860), whom he "smote in all their coasts," (2 Kings 10:32) thus accomplishing the prophecy of Elisha. Ibid . (2 Kings 8:12) At the close of his life, having taken Gath, ibid. (2 Kings 12:17) comp. Amos 6:2 He proceeded to attack Jerusalem, (2 Chronicles 24:24) and was about to assault the city when Joash bribed him to retire. (2 Kings 12:18) Hazael appears to have died about the year B.C. 840, (2 Kings 13:24) having reigned forty-six years.
(whom Jehovah sees), a man of Judah of the family of the Shilonites, or descendants of Shelah. (Nehemiah 11:5)
(court of death), the third in order of the sons of Joktan (Genesis 10:26) The name is preserved in the Arabic Hadramawt and Hadrumawl, the appellation of a province and an ancient people of southern Arabia. The capital is Satham, a very ancient city, and its chief ports are Mirbat, Zafari and Kisheem, from whence a great trade was carried on in ancient times with India and Africa.
The Hebrew term luz occurs only in (Genesis 30:37) Authorities are divided between the hazel and the almond tree as representing the luz . The latter is most probably correct.
(shade coming upon me), the sister of the sons of Etam in the genealogies of Judah. (1 Chronicles 4:3)
topographically, seems generally employed for the villages of people. As a proper name it appears in the Authorized Version--