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holds true for the days of Jerome. By the middle of the sixth century their number had declined in Italy.

The Sambaites were essentially the successors of the primitive ascetics, and long maintained their existence in the West despite the spread of anchoritism and monasticism from the East, especially from Egypt, thus explaining the intense hatred felt by hermits and monks for them. Their freer mode of life doubtless gave some ground for the charges alleged against them, probably with some exaggeration, by their opponents; and in the course of time they sank before the more rigid ascetic ideals of monasticism. See MONAt3TICICSM.

BiswooR"Hx: C. W. F. Walchq in Novi commentarii so- cietatia . . . eeientiarum GoUingemie, vi. 1-34, Gottingen, 1776; Neander, Christian Church, ii. 283-284.

SARAVIA, ADRIAN: Reformed (afterward Anglican) theologian; b. at Hesdin (35 m. n. of Amiens), France, in 1531; d. at Westminster, London, Jan. 15, 1612-13. His father was a Spaniard, his mother a Fleming, and both became Protestants; he was trained for the Reformed ministry, and became pastor at Antwerp, and later formed a Walloon church at Brussels; he removed after 1560 with his family to the Channel Islands, where he first acted as schoolmaster, and then in 1564 became assistant minister of St. Peter's, Guernsey; he next because schoolmaster at Southampton, and, in 1582, professor of divinity at the University of Leyden; because of complicity in a political plot he was forced in 1587 to flee to England, where he became rector of Tattenhill, Staffordshire; his De diversis gradibus ministrorum (see below) in 1590 brought him honor there, and in 1591 he was made prebendary of Gloucester, in 1595 of Canterbury and vicar of Lewisham, Kent, and in 1601 of Worcester and of Westminster; he was nominated in 1607 one of the translators for the new version of the Bible; and in 1609-10 exchanged Lewisham for Great Chart, which he retained till his death. He was buried in Canterbury Cathedral. His promotion in England was no doubt due in part to his vigorous assertion and defense of episcopal church government, in his De diversis gradibus (London, 1590; Eng. tranal., 1592, reissued 1640), in his Defensio traetatus de . . . gradibus (1594), and Examen Tractatus D. Bezw de triplici episcoporum genere (1594), againAt the arguments of Theodore Beza, who sought to secure its abolition in Scotland. He is best known as the earliest modern advocate of worldwide evangelization, which most of the Reformers thought either impracticable or unauthorized. In his first work he devotes a chapter (xvii.) to establishing the thesis "that the command to preach the Gospel to all peoples is obligatory upon the Church Since the Apostles were taken up into Heaven, and that for this purpose the apostolic office is needful." He maintains that the obligation to evangelize all peoples rests upon the Christians of every century to the end of the world on the ground that Christ in giving the commission promised to be with his disciples all the days to the end of the world, that the apostles left the work incomplete and provided for its extension, that after the apostolic age the

Gospel was successfully preached to many new peoples, etc. He insists that it is not fanaticism but simple duty to try to carry out Christ's great commission. Beza (1592) and Gerhard (1617) sought by elaborate argumentation in opposition to Saravia to prove that the commission of Christ expired with the close of the apostolic age. In the opinion of contemporaries they succeeded and Saravia's plea made little impression. His Treatise on the Christian. Priesthood was republished in Lon don, 1845; and a Latin manuscript was translated and published by Denison as Treatise on the Eucha rist (London, 1855). See MISSIONS TO THE HEATHEN, B, li., 1, j 2. A. H. NEwMAN.

BIHLI06HAYnr: DNB, 1. 299 301, where are given references to scattering notices.

SARCERIUS, stir-sfr't-us (SORCg), ERASMUS:

German Lutheran; b. at Annaberg (18 m. s. of Chemnitz) probably Apr. 19, 1501; d. at Magdeburg Nov. 28,1559. He was matriculated at Lespsic in 1522, but in 1524 seems to have migrated to Wittenberg, and in 1528 was a teacher at Lubeck and a firm supporter of Protestant tenets. He likewise taught in Graz, and apparently received his master's degree at Vienna, but was forced to leave because of his religious convictions and in 1530 was matriculated at Rostock. Finally completing his studies, he was recalled to Lubeck, where he remained until 1536, when Count William of Nassau called him to Siegen as rector of the Latin school. In the following year he was appointed superintendent and chaplain to the count, and henceforth all his energies were devoted to the cause of Lutheranism. He at once began a system of frequent visitations and regular pastoral synods according to the plan outlined in his Dialogus . . . reddens rationem veterum aynodorum . . . item visitationum (n.p., 1539), likewise promoting his cause not only by his Catechismus of 1537, but also by his commentaries on Matthew (Frankfort, 1538), Mark (Basel, 1539), Luke (1539), John (1540), Acts (1540), Romans (1541), Galatians and Ephesians (1542), Corinthians (154214), Philippians, Colossians, and Thessalonians (1542), and Ecclesiasticus (1543), as well as by his Methodus in preeeipuos Scriptures locos (2 parts, Basel, 1539-40), Nova methodus (1546), Ex Positiones in epistolas dominicales et festivales (1540), In evangelia dominicalia postilla (1540), and Con cione8 annum rhetorica dispositions eonacriptce (4 vols., 1541). In 1541 Sarcerius was called to Dillenburg as court chaplain and preacher at the city church, besides being superintendent of the county. In Mar., 1540, he had taken part in the Schmalkald conference, and in 1542-46 he promoted the cause of the Reformation in the archdiocese of Cologne. He also came into momentary contact with the English movement against the Roman Church, this being the occasion of his Loci aliquot communes et theologici (Frankfort [ 1538]; Eng. transl., under the title Comon places of scripture ordrely and after a cbpendious forme of teachyng set forth," by R. Taverner, London, 1538).

As a distinguished theologian Sarcerius could boast that he had framed church orders for twentyfour counties, and in 1541 he was obliged to decline