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tieularly E. Nason, Lives of the Eminent American Evangelists, D. L. Moody and Ira D. Sankey, Boston, 1877. Also see under REVIVAI6.

SANMINIATELLI, san-min-ya-tel'li, ZABARELLA, ALESSANDRO: Cardinal; b. at Radicondoli (14 m. s.w. of Sienna), Tuscany, Italy, Aug. 4, 1840. He was educated at the Collegio Romano and the Accademia dei nobili ecclesiastici, and was ordained to the priesthood in 1863. In 1868 he was appointed chamberlain to the pope, and in 1874 became grand almoner and titular archbishop of Tyana. In 1887 he was made auditor general of the Apostolic Chamber, and in 1899 was created cardinal priest of Santi Pietro a Marcellino.

SAMSON, sdn-ssn' (SAMSON), BERNHARDINO: Commissary of indulgences in Switzerland in 15181519. He is said to have come from Brescia. He was guardian of the Observantist Franciscans at San Angelo, Milan, when he was commissioned, in 1517, to preach indulgences in the Swiss cantons, among their confederates, and in the dioceses of Valais and Chur. His course through Lugano, Uri, Schwyz, Lucerne, Bugdorf, Bern, Solothurn, and Freiburg, June, 1518, to Jan., 1519, met with much success. In eastern Switzerland, however, he was less successful; Zwingli directed sermons against him and his practise, which in the more enlightened quarters was regarded as both ridiculous and outrageous. The bishop of Constance and his vicar, Johannes Faber (q.v.), resisted Sanson, who was forbidden to enter the churches in Aargau, Feb., 1519. In Baden he succeeded, but was refused admission at Staufberg and Brengarten. He then went to Zurich, where the diet of the federation had convened. Here he met the united hostility of Zwingli, Faber, and the bishop of Constance. The diet took recognition of the complaint, which Sanson met with his credentials and the request to ascertain his authority at Rome at his expense. The diet did not interpose any impediment and Sanson appeared at Sofingen, Apr. 18. But the diet asked the knight Felix Grebel of Zurich, who was about to journey to Rome, to lay certain grievances before the pope and make a thorough investigation. Before Grebel's arrival, the pope had appointed Sanson commissary of indulgences to the end of October, but upon taking knowledge of the missive of the diet, he revoked the commission, and the diet was privileged, if Sanson was objectionable, to request his peaceable return to Italy, to be examined and punished, if he exceeded his powers and committed errors in the announcing of indulgences. The matter of indulgences, although a factor in the rise of the Reformation in Switzerland, played a less important part than in Germany.

BIBLIoaHAPHY: L. R. sehmidlin, Bernhardin Saneon, der Ablasaprediger in der Schweiz, 1618-19, Solothurn, 1898; Schaff, Christian Church, vii. 31, 42-43.

SAPHIR, sd'fir, ADOLPH: Presbyterian; b. at Budapest, Hungary, Sept. 26, 1831; d. at London Apr. 3, 1891. Son of a Jewish merchant he, with the rest of his father's family, was converted to Christianity by the Jewish mission of the Church of Scotland; he studied at the Gymnasium of the Graue Kloster, Berlin, 1844--48; at

Glasgow University, 1848-49 (M.A., 1854), at Marischal College, Aberdeen, 1849-51, and was a student of theology at the Free Church College, Edinburgh, 1851-54. He was licensed in 1854, and sent as missionary to the Jews at Hamburg, Germany; was German preacher at Glasgow, 1855; minister of the English Presbyterian Church, South Shields, 1856-61; at Greenwich, London, 1861-72; at Notting Hill, London, 1872-80; and of Belgrave Presbyterian Church, London, 1881-88. In later life Saphir took much interest in the efforts for the conversion of the Jews in Hungary and southern Russia, being president of the auxiliary in London, the Rabinowich Council. In theology he was Evangelical. He was the author of From Death to Life (Edinburgh, 1861; revised and published under the title Conve-sion, London, 1865); Christ and the Scriptures (1864); Lectures on the Lord's Prayer (1870); Christ Crucified (Lectures on I Cor. ii., 1873) ; Expository Lectures on the Epistle to the Hebrews (1874-76); and The Divine Unity of Scripture (1892); and of numerous tracts employed in the mission to the Jews.

BIBLIoaHAPHY: G. Carlyle, Mighty in the Scriptures. A Memoir of A. Saphir, London, 1893; DNB, 1. 299.

SARABAITES, sdr'a-baits (SARABITES): A class of Egyptian hermits, mentioned by Jerome (Epist., xxiii. 34) under the name of Remoboth. The appellation Sarabaites is of unknown connotation, although Cassian (Collationes patrum, XVIII., iv. 7-8) declares it to be Egyptian, and names three classes of monks, cenobites, anchorites, and Sarabaites. After Cassian, who thoroughly disapproved of the Sarabaites, the only independent sources for a knowledge of these hermits are Benedict of Nursia (Regina, i.), who states that they were to be found in Italy, and possibly the Dialogus Zachaei Christiani et Apollonii philosophi of the late fifth century. In the Middle Ages the epithet Sarabaites (translated Renuitte by Isidore of Seville, De ofciis ecclesiastieis, ii. 15) was frequently applied to disobedient or turbulent monks, since their prototypes lived without teacher and without discipline; and they were likewise often confused with the Gyrovagi (q.v.).

The earliest sources concerning the Sarabaites are invariably prejudiced against them and desired to replace them by those following the cenobitic life. Nevertheless, the distinctive characteristics which separated them from hermits and cenobites are clear. They were generally considered monks, like whom they were celibate, fasted, sang in choir, and wore habits. On the other hand, they did not live in monasteries or deserts, but in towns or fortified places, sometimes in their own houses. Neither did they form communities like the cenobites, but lived alone or in groups of two or three without any superior; nor were they rigidly separated from the world like hermits and cenobites. Like other monks, they earned their livelihood by manual labor, but sold the products independently. In the time of Cassian the Sarabaites of Egypt equalled the cenobites in number, but in other lands were far more numerous, so that they were almost the only class of monks, a statement which also