QUADRILATERAL: A name given to four articles, adopted as a basis of Christian union by the General Convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church at Chicago in 1886 and by the Lambeth Conference in 1888. See FUNDAMENTAL DOCTRINES OF CHRISTIANITY, II., § 11; LAMBETH CONFERENCE.
QUAKERS. See FRIENDS.
QUARLES, cworlz: Name of writers of sacred poetry.
1. Francis Quarles was born at the manor-house of Stewards at Romford (12 m. n.e. of London) May 8, 1592; d. at London Sept. 8, 1644. He was educated at Christ Church, Cambridge (B.A., 1608), studied law at Lincoln's Inn; was cup-bearer to Princess Elizabeth on her marriage to the elector palatine in 1613; became secretary to James Ussher, archbishop of Armagh, Ireland, in 1629; lived in retirement at Roxwell, Essex, 1633-39 and was chronologer to the city of London, 1639-1644, with residence in that city. He was a stanch royalist and in the revolution his manuscripts were destroyed. His first attempts at verse were Biblical paraphrases such as A Feast of Wormes set forth in a Poeme of the History of Jonah, published with Hymne to God and Pentelogia (London, 1620), Hadassa: History of Queen Esther (1621), Job Militant (1624), Sion's Elegies wept by Jeremie the Prophet (1624), Sion's Sonnets sung by Solomon the King (1625), and Historie of Samson (1631); all of which were bound together with an Alphabet of Elegies (1625) in one volume entitled Divine Poems (London, 1633 and often). The work which won him immediate and phenomenal popularity was Emblemes (1635, 1634); it was issued in five books, the forty-five prints in the last three of which, as well as the verses either translated or
2. John Quarles, son of the above, was born in Essex in 1624; d. of the plague in London in 1665. He matriculated at Exeter College, Oxford, 1643; bore arms for the king at Oxford and was banished. Taking refuge in Flanders he wrote Pons Lachrymarum (London, 1648). Subsequently in London he published many poems, to one of which, Divine Meditations (1655), was appended Several Divine Ejaculations from which Thomas Darling adapted two hymns for his Hymns for the Church of England (1857), namely, "0 King of kings, before whose throne," and "0 thou who sitt'st in heaven and seest."
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The original source is the Short Relation of his Life and Death, in the ed. of Solomon's Recantation, by Ursula, widow of Francis, London, 1645. The introduction to Grosart's ed. of the Works (ut sup.) is to be consulted, also DNB, xlvii. 92-97, the latter reference covering both Francis and John.
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