PUL. See ASSYRIA, VI., 3, 1 9.
PULCHERIA: Eastern empress, daughter of Arcadius and elder sister of Theodosius II.; b. 399; d. Sept. 10, 453. Notwithstanding her youth, in 414 the senate made her Augusta and guardian of her weak-minded brother. As empress she lived like a nun and transformed the palace into a convent, but for a decade her rule was absolute. After the marriage of Theodosius with Athenais, daughter of Leontius, a philosopher of Athens (the bride embracing Christianity and receiving with baptism the name of Eudocia), jealous quarrels broke out between the two sisters-in-law, although Pulcheria had herself chosen her brother's wife. In the Nestorian controversy (see NESTORIUS) Eudocia sided with Nestorius, Pulcheria plotted with Cyril and by her influence over the emperor secured the patriarch's downfall; her course was doubtless embittered by a charge which Nestorius had made against her chastity. The schism which had split the Church of Constantinople for thirty years Pulcheria terminated by bringing the bones of Chrysostom to the capital and giving them solemn burial in the Church of the Apostles (Jan. 27, 438). The relics of the forty martyrs of Sebaste, of Zacharias, and of St. Stephen were treated in like manner. In 446 Pulcheria was banished from the court, but four years later she regained her influence, Eudocia having been banished in the mean time and taken up her residence in Jerusalem, where she died in 461. After the death of Theodosius (450), Pulcheria consented to a nominal marriage with the aged senator and general, Marcian, who was elevated to the imperial dignity. She attended the sixth session of the Council of Chalcedon (Oct. 25, 451) and contributed to the condemnation of both Eutychianism and Nestorianism. The Greek Church reverences Pulcheria as one of its greatest saints.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. Gregorovius, Athenais, Geschichte einer byzantinischen Kaiserin, pp. 60 sqq., Leipsic, 1881; A. Güldenpenning, Geschichte des öströmischen Reichs unter Arkadius ... , ii. 217 sqq., 243 sqq., 291 sqq., 317 sqq., 373 sqq., Halle, 1885 (the best modern presentation); Hefele, Conciliengeschichte, vol. ii., passim, Eng. transl..vol. iii. passim, Fr. transl., vol. ii. passim; ASB, Sept., iii. 503-540, iv. 778-782; DCB, iv. 520-521.
PULLEYN (PULLEIN), ROBERT: A noteworthy representative of the dogmaticians of the twelfth century who sought to collect the opinions of distinguished teachers on various points of doctrine (the so-called "sentence writers"); b. in England of good parentage perhaps c. 1080 or earlier; d. in Rome (?) c. 1150. His name appears as Polenius, Pullan, and Pully, as well as in the two forms given in the title. After studying in England he went to Paris, where William of Champeaux and Abelard were his teachers and where in due time he himself taught. About 1133 he appears in England, lecturing on the Scriptures at Oxford and also as archdeacon of Rochester. King Henry I. showed him favor and offered him a bishopric, which he declined. The disturbances after Henry's death (1135) .drove him again to Paris. A letter from Bernard of Clairvaux (Robert's warm friend) to the bishop of Rochester, written about 1140, shows that the bishop had appealed to Pope Innocent II. in an attempt to induce him to return to his benefice. Innocent, however, probably influenced by Bernard, decided in Robert's favor and called him to the papal court. He became cardinal under Celestine II., chancellor under Lucius II., and probably died during the reign of Eugenius III. (1145-53) as his signature is not found later.
Writings by Robert of varied character (commentaries, treatises, sermons, etc.) are extant in manuscript, but nothing has been published except the Sententiarum librii viii (ed. H. Mathoud, Paris, 1655, reproduced in MPL, clxxxvi.; excerpts are in Ceillier, Auteurs sacrés, xiv. 392 sqq.), which was strongly influenced by Abelard's Sic et non. Abelard, however, made no attempt to reconcile conflicting opinions. Robert goes farther and tries to unify contradictions by the dialectical method
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The earlier reports are collected in MPL, clxxxvi. 633 sqq. Consult further: L. E. Dupin, Nouvelle bibliothdque des auteurs ecclésiastiques, ix. 213 sqq., Paris, 1689-1711, abridged Eng. transl., 3 vols., Dublin, 1723-24; C. Oudin, Cormnentarius de acriptoribus ecclesiasticis, ii. 1118 sqq., Leipsic, 1732; B. Hauré:au, Hist. de la philosophie scolastique, i. 483 sqq., Paris, 1872; J. Bach, Die Dogmengeschichte des Mittelalters, ii. 216 sqq., Vienna, 1875; T. E. Holland, in The Historical Review, vi (1891), 238 sqq.; J. E. Erdmann, Geschichte der Philosophie, i.309 sqq., 4th ed., Berlin, 1896, Eng. transl. of earlier ed., 3 vols., London, 1893; DNB, xlvii. 19-20.
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