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PIETRO MARTIRE VERMIGLI. See VERMIGLI.


PIGHIUS, pi-gÓ' us, ALBERTUS (ALBERT PIGGHE): Dutch Roman Catholic controversialist; b. at Kampen (9 m. n.n.w. of Zwolle) c. 1490; d. at Utrecht Dec. 26, 1542. He studied philosophy and mathematics at the University of Louvain and completed his theological studies at the University of Cologne in 1517. He was canon (1524-35) and provost (1535-12) at the Church of St. John the Baptist, Utrecht. Pope Hadrian VI. called him to Rome in 1523 and he took part in the diets of Worms and Regensburg, the issue of which were his publications: Controversiarum pracipuarum (Cologne, 1541); Ratio componendorum dissidiorum (1542); and Apologia adversus M. Buceri (Mainz, 1543). Pighius was one of the most resolute defenders of

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the papacy, and in his comprehensive principal work, Hierarehim eecleaiasticw assertio (Cologne, 1538), he unfolded most conclusively the papal system from a substructure involving a critical survey of the sources of Christian truth. He was the first to make tradition a basis of knowledge alongside of Scripture, in order to cut off Protestant argument in advance. On the other hand, his zeal of argument almost betrayed him as an unconscious disciple of Protestantism. The freedom of the will he asserted to such an extent, in De libero hominis arbitrio (1542), that original sin seemed to him scarcely as actual corruption but rather the imputation of the sin of Adam. This view carried with it the consequence of regarding justification as the imputation of the righteousness of Christ.

(E. F. KARL M‹LLER.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Bayle, Dictionary, iv. 637-641; A. Schweizer, Die protestantischen Centraldogmen, i. 180 sqq., Zurich, 1854; Linsenmann, in TQ, 1866, pp. 571 sqq; K. Werner, Geechichte der apologetischen and polemischen Litteratur, iv. 241 sqq, 275 sqq., Schaffhausen, 1865; Hefele, Conciliengeschichte, ix. 936 sqq.


PIGOU, pi-gu', FRANCIS: Church of England; b. at Baden-Baden, Germany, of English parentage, Jan. 8, 1832. He was educated at Trinity College, Dublin (B.A., 1853), and was ordered deacon in 1855 and priested in the following year. He was curate of Stoke Talmage, Oxfordshire (1855-56), chaplain of Marboeuf Chapel, Paris (1856-58), curate of Vere Street Chapel, London (1858), and of St. Philip's, Regent Street, and St. Mary's, Kensington (1858-60), incumbent of St. Philip's (18601869), and served as vicar of Doncaster (18691875), being also rural dean of Doncaster after 1870; he was vicar of Halifax (1875-88), where he was likewise rural dean, and became dean of Chicester, a dignity which he held three years. Since 1891 he has been dean of Bristol, and was appointed a chaplain-in-ordinary to the queen in 1890. He is widely and favorably known as a missioner, and has held missions not only throughout England, but also in the United States, which he visited in 1885. His writings include Faith and Practice (sermons; London, 1865); Early Communion Addresses (1877); Addresses to District Visitors and Sunday School Teachers (1880); Addresses delivered on various Occasions (1883); Manual of Confirmation (1888); Phases of my Life (1898); Odds and Ends (1903); and The Acts of the Holy Ghost. Thirty-two Years of Experience of Conducting Parochial Missions (1908).


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