PIE (PYE), pai: The name given to the index table on which prior to the Reformation in England the directions for worship were written, and to the early ordinal or directory for priests, containing a table of daily services and a summary of the mass rubrics: The arrangement was complicated and obscure, and the investigation required to discover the proper order was sometimes extended. The result was great confusion in the services. The name is perhaps derived from pica, " magpie," and is the result of the "pied" appearance of the book caused by the printing of initials in red and the body in black type on white paper.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: W. Maskell, Monumnents ritualia ecclesiæ Anglicanæ, 3 vols., London 1848-47; M. E. C. Walcott, The English Ordinal; its Hist., Validity, and Catholicity, ib 1851; idem, Sacred Archæology, p. 445, ib. 1880; J. H. Blunt, The Annotated Book of Common Prayer, pp. 101 sqq., New York, 1908. A transl. of a pie is given in The Roman Breviary, transl. by John, Marquess of Bute, i. pp. xi. -l., Edinburgh, 1879.

PIEPER, pî'per, ANTON: German Roman Catholic; b.- at Lüdinghausen (16 m. S.W. of Münster), Westphalia, Mar. 20, 1854. He was educated at the universities of Münster, Innsbruck; and Rome from 1874 to 1883 (D.D., Freiburg, 1883), and in 1890 became privet-docent for church history and Christian archeology at the University of Münster, associate professor of church history in 1896, and full professor of church history and Christian archeology in 1899. He has written Papst Urban VIII. und die Mantuaner Erbfolgefrage (Freiburg, 1883); Die Propaganda-Congregation und die nordlichen Missionen in siebzehnten Jahrhundert (Cologne, 1886); Zur Entstehungsgeschichte der ständigen Nuntiaturen (Freiburg, 1894); Die päpslichen Legaten und Nuntien in Deutschland, Frankreich und Spanien seit der Mitte des sechzehnten Jahrhunderts (Münster, 1897); Die alte Universitat Münster 1778-1818 (1902); and Christentum, römisches Kaisertum, and heidnischer Staat (1907).

PIEPER, FRANZ AUGUST OTTO: Lutheran; b. at Carwita (85 m. w. of Danzig), Pomerania, June 27, 1852. After studying at the gymnasium of Colberg, Pomerania, he graduated in 1872 at Northwestern University, Watertown, Wis., and in 1875 from Concordia Theological Seminary, St. Louis, Mo. He was Lutheran pastor at Manitowoc, Wis. (1875-78), professor of theology in Concordia Seminary (1878 to 1887), since president of the same institution, and also president of the Lutheran Synod of Missouri, Ohio, and other states since 1899. In addition to his work as editor of Lehre and Wehre, he has written Das Grundbekenntnis der evangelischlutherischen Kirche (St. Louis, Mo., 1880); Lehre von der Rechtfertigung (1889); Gesetz und evangelium (1892); Distinctive Doctrines of the Lutheran Church (Philadelphia, 1892); Unsere Stellung in Lehre and Praxis (St. Louis, 1896); Lehrstellung der Missouri.-Synods (1897); Christ's Work (1898); and Das Wesen des Christentums (1903).


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