PATTON, CORNELIUS HOWARD: Congregationalist; b. at Chicago Dec. 25, 1860. He received his education at Howard University, Emerson Institute, Washington, D. C., Amherst College (B.A., 1883), and Yale Divinity School (B.D., 1887); was ordained in 1887, and served the churches at Westfield, N. J., 1887-95, Duluth, Minn., 1895-98, and the First Congregational Church at St. Louis, 1898-1904; since 1904 he has been corresponding secretary of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions.

PATTON, FRANCIS LANDEY: Presbyterian; b. at Warwick, Bermuda, Jan. 22, 1843. He was educated at Knox College, Toronto, the University of Toronto, and Princeton Theological Seminary (graduated, 1865). He was ordained in 1865 and held pastorates at the Eighty-fourth Street Presbyterian Church, New York City (1865-67), Nyack, N. Y. (1867-70), and South Presbyterian Church, Brooklyn, N. Y. (1871); he was Cyrus H. McCormick professor of theology in the Theological Seminary of the North-West (now McCormick Theological Seminary), Chicago (1871-72); pastor of the Jefferson Park Presbyterian Church in the same city (1874-81); Robert L. Stewart professor of the relations of philosophy and science to the Christian religion in Princeton Theological Seminary (1881-1888); also professor of ethics in Princeton College (1886-88). In 1888 he was elected president of Princeton College, and held this position until 1902, when he resigned and was elected to his present position of president of Princeton Theological Seminary. He still retains, however, the professorship of ethics in Princeton University, as well as a lectureship on theism in Princeton Theological S eminary. In theology he is extremely conservative. Besides editing The Interior ( 1873-76) and being for several years a member of the editorial board of The Presbyterian Review, he has written Inspiration of the Scriptures (Philadelphia, 1869); and Summary of Christian Doctrine (1874).

PAUL: The name of five popes.

Paul I.: Pope 757-767. He first appears as a Roman deacon and was frequently employed by his brother, Pope Stephen II., in negotiations with the Lombard kings. After Stephen's death (April 26, 757) Paul was chosen his successor by those who wished a continuation of the late pope's policy. The new pope's reign was dominated by his relations to the Frankish and Lombard kings and to the Eastern emperor. He adopted an independent tone in informing the exarch in Ravenna of his election, but wrote to Pepin that the Frankish alliance should be maintained unimpaired, being forced to this course by the attitude of the Lombard king, Desiderius. The latter held the cities of Imola, Osimo, Bologna, and Ancona, which were claimed by Rome, and in 758 seized upon the duchies of Spoleto and Benevento. The same year he visited Rome and compelled Paul to write to Pepin asking him to concede all the Lombard claims except that to Imola; another letter of exactly opposite tenor was sent by the same messenger. Pepin found it advisable to maintain good relations with Desiderius, and Paul accomplished nothing by his double-dealing. Later, however, Pepin gave the pope some support and acted as arbiter between the Roman and Lombard claims. In 765 the papal privileges were restored in Beneventine and Tuscan territory and partially in Spoleto. Meanwhile, the alienation from Byzantium grew greater. Several times, especially in 759, Paul feared that the Greek emperor would send an armament against Rome; and he lived in continual dread lest Byzantine machinations turn the Frankish influence in favor of the Lombards. This was actually attempted, but Pepin held to his original Italian policy. Paul died June 28, 767. See PAPAL STATES.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: Mann, Popes, i. 2, pp. 331-360; F. Papencordt, Geschichte der Stadt Rom, pp. 89 sqq., Paderborn, 1857 R. Baxmann, Die Politik der P4pste, i. 251 eqq., Elberfeld, 1868; J. Ficker, Forachungen zur Reich's--and RechtWeschichte Italiens ii, 329 sqq., Innsbruck, 1869; L. Oelsner, Jahrbacher des frankiachen Rekhs unter . . . Pippin, pp. 319 sqq, 343 sqq, 353 sqq., Leipsic, 1871; B. Niehues, Geschichte des Verhdunisses Misden Kap8er-

tum and Papatlum, r. 497 sqq., Munster, 1877; idem, in HfatonackerJahrb~her. ii. 221 sqq., ib. 1881; W. Martens, Die rnmiwAe Prape unter Pippin and Karl dm ~rossen,

pp. 86 sqq., 254-255, Stuttgart, 1881; E. D. Glssson, Les Rapport's du pouvoir apirwtuet et du pouvoir temporel au m0ym 49e, Paris, 1894; F. Gregorovins, Hist. of the City


of Rome, ii. 305 eqq., London, 1894; P. Hehr, Chronolopis der Brief, Paula 1. im Codes Carolinus, in Gaainper philolopiache Nachrichten, 1896, pp. 103-157; W. Gundlach, Die Entetehunp des Kirchenetaatea, Breslau. 1899; Bower, Popes, ii. 109-114; Milman, Latin Christianity, ii. 428; Platina, Popes, i. 172-174; Hefele, Coneiliengeachichte, iii. 420, 431 sqq.; Hauck, KD, ii. 18, note 3 (for supplementary bibliography'); literature under PAPAL STATES.


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