NOWACK, n8"vdc', WILHELM GUSTAV HERMANN: German Lutheran; b. at Berlin Mar. 3, 1850. He was educated at the University of Berlin (Ph.D., Halle, 1872; Th. Lie., Berlin, 1873), and became privat-docent there in 1875, and extraordinary professor in 1880. He was also supply at St. Gertrud's, Berlin (1876-77), and pastor at the orphan asylum at Rummelsburg, an eastern suburb of Berlin (1877-81). Since 1881 he has been professor of Old-Testament exegesis and Hebrew at the University of Strasburg. He is also a canon of St. Thomas, Strasburg, a member of the supreme consistory, and an overseer of the Protestant gymnasium at Strasburg, as well as a member of the Deutsche Morgenlhndische Gesellschaft and of the Strasburg Wissenschaftliche Gesellschaft. In theology he is an adherent of the historical critical school. He has written: Die BedeWung des Hieronymua fur die alttestamentliche Textkrttik (G6ttingen, 1875); Die aseyrisc)-babyloniachen Keilinschriften and daa AIM Testament (Berlin, 1878); Der Prophet Hosea erkldrt (1880); Die 8ozialen Problems in Israel ursd deren Bedeutung fur die religibse F,nttsriekelung diesea Volke8 (Strasburg, 1892); HebrdisscAe Arehdologie (2 vols., Freiburg, 1894); Die Zukunftahq$nungen 1sraels in der astyrischen Zeit (Tubingen, 1902); and Texlausgabe der kleineren Propheten in Kittel's Bible (1906). He has prepared the second edition of E. Bertheau and F. Hitzig's commentaries on Proverbs and Ecclesiastes for the Kurzgefaastee ezegetiachm Handbluh zum Allen Testament (Leipsic, 1883); the third edition of H. Hupfeld's commentary on the Psalms (2 vols., Gotha, 1888); and Amos and Hosea for Religionsgeachichtliche Volkabilcher (Til bingen, 1908). Since 1892 he has been the editorin-chief of the Handkommentar zum Alters Testament, to which he has contributed the volumes on the Minor Prophets (G6ttingen, 1897; 2d ed., 1903), Judges and Ruth (1900), and Samuel (1902).

NOWELL nS'el (VOWEL, NOEL), ALEXANDER: Dean of St. Paul's and preacher of the Elizabethan period; b. at Read Hall, Whalley (37 m. n.e. of Liverpool), County of Lancaster, 1507 or 1508; d. at London Feb. 13, 1601 or 1602. He was educated at Middleton, near, Manchester, and at Brasenose College, Oxford, which he entered at thirteen. He was the " chamber-fellow " of Foxe the martyrologist, and was made bachelor of arts in 1536 and master in 1540. In 1543 he was appointed master of Westminster School, London, he being the second incumbent of that position; was licensed to preach in 1550, and in 1551 received a stall at Westminster. He adopted the principles of the Reformation, and, at the accession of Mary, fled to the continent, where he tarried at Strasburg and Frankfort, in intimate intercourse with the exiles, who subsequently became eminent under Elizabeth. Returning to England at Elizabeth's accession, he was made archdeacon of Middlesex; and canon of Canterbury in 1560; and was appointed one of the commissioners to visit several of the dio-


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of Calvin (1874-77) and is the author (in Swedish) of "Bible Dictionary" (1868) and "Library of Biblical Antiquities" (1874).


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