MOLTHER, mel'tiAr, MENRAD: Humanist and Reformer; b. at Augsburg in 1500; d. at Heilbronn Apr. 8, 1558. He received his first education in the school of Johann Pinicianus; went to Heidelberg in 1526, where he became a tutor for young noblemen, and also edited several works, some of which had been recently recovered, e.g., those of Alcuin, Avitus, Christian Drutmar, and W illimar Ebersbergiensis; he directed the Realistenburse, 1532; was called as preacher to Heilbronn to assist Johann Lachmann (q.v.) 1533, whom he succeeded in 1539; and in 1543 he arranged the church rules according to the pattern of Hall. Because of the threatening presence of the imperial troops, he advised, in 1548, the acceptance of the Interim (q.v.); but he continued to preach in a strictly Evangelical and anti-Roman spirit, without, however, being able to persuade the council to abolish the mass. His successor was Jacob Ratz (q.v.). G. BOssERT.

B113LIOGRAPELY: G. Bossert, in Bldtter far wórttembergieche Kirchengeschichte, 1887, pp. 57-61.

MOMBERT, JACOB ISIDOR: Protestant Episcopalian; b. at Cassel, Germany, Nov. 6, 1829. In early life he went to England, where he was engaged in business for a number of years, after which he studied both in England and at the universities of Leipsic and Heidelberg. He was ordered deacon in 1856 and in the following year went to Canada, where he was ordained priest. He was then curate of Trinity, Quebec (1857-59), curate (1859-60) and rector (1860-70) of St. James', Lancaster, Pa., and rector of St. John's, Dresden, Germany (1870-76), Christ Church, Jersey City, N. J. (1877-79), and St. John's, Passaic, N. J. (1879-82). In 1882 he retired from active parochial work, and since that time has been engaged in literary pursuits. He has translated F. A. Tholuck's " Commentary on the Psalms " (London 1856) and the commentary on the Catholic Epistles for the American Lange series (New York, 1867), edited William Tyndale's Five Books of Moses (1884), and has written: Faith Victorious: Account of the Venerable Dr. Johann Ebel , Late Archdeacon of the Old Town Church of K6nigsberg ire Prussia (1882); Handbook of the English Versions of the Bible (1883; new ed., 1907); Great

Lives: A Course of History in Biographies (Boston, 1886); History of Charles the Great (New York, 1888); Short History of the Crusades (1894); and Raphael's Sistine Madonna (1895).

MOMERIE, ALFRED WILLIAMS: Church of England; b. in London Mar. 22, 1848; d. there Dec. 6, 1900. He was of Huguenot stock and restored his name from its phonetic form of Mummery. His father was a Congregational minister, who, after sending him to the City of London School, sent him to the University of Edinburgh (M.A., 1875; SC.D., 1876). But to his Scotch training he added English, for he went through another university course in Cambridge (M.A., 1881). Previously be had been admitted to holy orders, in the Church of England, becoming deacon in 1878 and priest in 1879. In 1879 he was elected fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, and in 1880 professor of logic and mental philosophy at King's College, London. He was curate of Leigh in Lancashire from 1878 to 1880. In 1883 he became morning preacher at the Foundling Hospital in London. His sermons and his teaching attracted great attention, but their outspoken " Broad Churchism " brought him into trouble, and he was forced to retire from his preachership and professorship in 1891. After that he preached at the Portman Rooms, London. In 1896 he married. The number and sale of his publications attest the interest in his teachings. Mention may be made of: Personality the Beginning and End of Metaphysics (London, 1879, 4th ed., 1889); The Basis of Religion (Edinburgh, 1883, 2d ed., 1886), a criticism of J. R. Seeley's Natural Religion; The Religion of the Future, and other Essays (1893); The English Church and the Romish Schism (1896); and Essays on the Bible, ed. J. Nield (1909).

BiBL7oGRAPHY: Alfred Williams Momerie: his Life and Work, written by his Wife, Edinburgh, 1905; DNB, Supplement, iii. 183.

MOWERS, MUMMERS: The contemptuous name, meaning " hypocrites," given to certain strict Calvinists in the two French cantons of Switzerland, Geneva and Vaud, because of their fervent acceptance of the doctrines of the Trinity, the divinity of Christ, and of total depravity, which had been denied by the great majority of the pastors of the State Church, and because of their practise of holding meetings in which these and similar socalled " pietistic " views found expression. In Geneva the party was started in 1813 by Henri Louis Empaytaz, a theological student; in 1820 their most distinguished leader, Rev. Cesar Malan (q.v.), organized them into a church. In 1831 a theological seminary was started, and in 1848 the party declared themselves free altogether of the State Church. In Vaud they ran a similar course. They started about the same time and were ignored by the authorities till, on Dec. 24, 1823, three of the cantonal clergy, who had been prominent members, resigned from the State Church. Four others followed them the next month. The authorities condemned this action and so the meetings held henceforth were subjected to some petty persecution.

BrBwoampHY: G. B., Geschichte der sopenannten Ifomie rs, einer in einigen schweizer-Cantonen arch ausbreitenden .Sects, 2 parts, Basel, 1825. 0


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cases it will be supplemented (a great portion of the history of the church of Rome during its first centuries has been dug out of the catacombs); in others it will be strikingly illustrated. See ARCHEOLOGY, CHRISTIAN; ARCHITECTURE; ART AND CHURCH; SCULPTURE, CHRISTIAN USE OF.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. Piper, Einiaitunp in die monumentaie Theolopie, Gotha, 1867; J. P. Lundy, Monumental Christianity, New York, 1881; H. D. M. Spence, The White Robe of Churches, ib. 1900; and the literature in and under the three articles referred to above.


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