LABADIE, la"ba"di', JEAN DE, LABADISTS:
The founder of a Dutch quietistic sect and his
adherents. De Labadie, also called Jean de la Badie,
was born at Bourg (15 m. n. of Bordeaux) Feb.
13, 1610; d. at Altona Feb. 13, 1674. He studied
in the Jesuit school of Bordeaux, and against the
wishes of his friends connected himself with the
order, although he never became a professed
member. After 1626 he devoted himself to philosophy
and theology, as well as to the Vulgate and the
writings of St. Augustine, developing a mystical
and Augustinian trend. He was ordained in 1635,
but four years later was released from his vows as
a Jesuit at his own request on the plea of ill health.
He then began to preach with much success as a
secular priest in his native town, as well as in
Paris, Amiens (where he was made canon and
teacher of theology in 1640), and Abbeville. [He
regarded himself as divinely inspired; cf.
Declaration de la foi, p. 84;
Historisch verhael Lebens
Labadisten Schewingh, p. 109.] He became attracted
to the doctrines of the Reformation through his
studies of the Scriptures, but was protected against
the anger of the monks and priests by Cardinal
Richelieu, only in 1645 to be expelled from Amiens
by Mazarin as a disturber of the peace [a
modification of a sentence to life imprisonment,
obtained through an appeal from the assembly of
the clergy of France, then in session; Traite de la
Sol de Chretienne.] He went later to the Car-
recensions. The literature includes rules for the discipline of monks and nuns, metaphysical treatises, discourses of the Buddhas, legends from their lives, treatises on magic, hymns to deities, commentaries on the canon and commentaries on commentaries, dictionaries of philosophical terms and phraseology and of language, and works on philosopay, medicine, astronomy, and astrology, translated from the Sanscrit. Many of these are diglots of Sanscrit and Tibetan, and the literature has been translated also into Mongolian, a large collection of the plates of which was kept at Peking and destroyed during the Boxer uprising. The red church literature outside of the foregoing is by the yellow church held heterodox, and the principal work is the book of the legends of Padmasambhava, existing in many editions in Tibetan, Lepcha, and Mongolian. The popular literature is also immense and various-apocalyptic, miraculous, prophetic, and ritualistic. Noteworthy are the works of Milareba (1438-1122), a story of his life and travels, and the " Collection of 100,000 Songs." Both are valuable as pictures of the language and customs of the times. Another monk of about the same period, Kasarrgyalpo, wrote a huge epic on the deeds of heroes assigned to the eighth century, which has been widely diffused in the Mongolian and Kalmuck languages. The principal printing-press is at Nartang near Shigatse, in the jurisdiction of the Tasi Lama. Block printing is done from wooden plates, 12x24 inches in size, each block representing a page of text.
The language, while akin to the crude dialects of the wild peoples of the Himalayas, has been so developed by the monks as to be capable of expressing with fulness and precision the sublimest and subtlest thought of India. The religion of Lamaism hasmade of Tibet a land of culture so far as the monasteries are concerned, but has not raised the MaM Of the
population much above the level of animistic peoples, so hedged about is life with ritualistic and magical observances. GEO. W. GILMORE.BIBLroGRAPHY: The best account of the religion available in English is L. A. Waddell, The Buddhism of Tibet, Lon don, 1894. An excellent though condensed account, covering the literature and the history, is A. Granwedel, in Die Kultur der Gegenwart, 1., iii. 1, Die orientalieehen Re ligionen, pp. 136-161, Berlin, 1908, of. his Mytholoyie des Buddhismus in Tibet and der Mongolei, Leipsie, 1900. The account in P. D. Chantepie de la Sausmye, LehrbwA der Religionagesehichte, ii. 113-117, is so abbreviated as to be misleading. Material is found also in E. Scblagint. weit, Buddhism in Thibet, London, 1863; idem, Lebene be8ehreibunp des Padma Sambhava, in Abhandlunpen der k6niglichen bayriachen Akademie, Munich, 1899, 1903; W: W. Roekhill, The Lamaiat Ceremony called " Making of Mani Pills," in the Journal of the American Oriental Society, 1890, pp. xxii.-xxiv.; idem, The Uae pof Skulls in Lamaiat Ceremonies, ib. Pp, 8$IYI I~l~l., ,~Q11CLDana, Journey 10 Lhasa and Central Tibet, London, 1902.
Still of use is B. H, Hodgson, Essays on the Languapea, Literature and Religion of Nepal and Tibet ib. 1874. For travels consult: G. Sandberg, The Exyloration of Tibet IB.g3-1904, Calcutta, 1904 W, W, gockb01, The Land of the Lama*, New York 1891; H. S. Landor, In tha Forbidden Land London, 1898; O. T. Crosby, Tibet and Turkestan New York 1905; L. A. Waddell, Lhaeaa and
its Mysteries, with a Record of the (British) Expedition of 1903-01,, London, 1905.