ISENMANN (more correctly Isenmenger or Eisenmenger), JOHANN: German reformer; b. at Schwäbisch Hall (35 m. n.e. of Stuttgart), Württemberg, c. 1495; d, at the monastery of Anhausen on the Brenz (near Heidenheim, in Württemberg, 20 m. n.n.e. of Ulm) Feb. 18, 1574. He studied at the University of Heidelberg in Apr., 1514, became dean of the classical faculty on Dec. 20, 1521; was called to Hall as pastor in the spring of 1524, and then wrought for twenty-four years with Brenz for the Reformation in that place. The festival of Corpus Christi was abolished in 1524; at Christmas, 1525, the Lord's Supper was observed by Evangelical rite; and in 1526, an Evangelical liturgy was introduced. Isenmann took an eager part in the Syngramma Suevicum in 1525 (see BRENZ, JOHANN, § 2). He became superintendent in 1542. At the beginning of 1546 he reformed the imperial town of Wimpfen. Heavy tribulation ensued from the Schmalkald War, with the emperor's triumphant entrance to Hall, Dec., 1546; and the situation grew still more dangerous during the Interim, which both Isenmann and Brenz rejected. When the Spaniards came, the council had to dismiss Evangelical preachers. In July, 1549, Isenmann removed to Württemberg, and became preacher at Urach. Soon afterward he became pastor at Tübingen, and general superintendent of the southwest district. He enjoyed the confidence of the new duke. In 1551 he went with Jakob Beurlin (q.v.) to Langensalza and Leipsic to have the Württemberg Confession subscribed by Melanchthon and the theologians of Wittenberg and Leipsic. In the summer of 1557 he accompanied the duke to the diet at Frankfort, and collaborated in the great Apologia confessionis Wirtembergicae, In 1558 he was appointed abbot at Anhausen, where he spent the remainder of his life.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: L. M. Fischlin, Memoria theologorum Wirtembergensium, i. 53, Leipsic, 1710; J. Hartmann and C. Jäger, Johann Brenz, 2 vols., Hamburg, 1840-42; T. Pressel, Anecdota Brentiana, 2 vols., Tübingen, 1868; G. Bossert, Das Interim in Württemberg, Halle, 1895; ADB, xiv. 634.

ISHBOSHETH: According to II Sam. ii.-iv. a son of Saul, whom his uncle, Abner, set on the throne of Israel at Mahanaim after the slaughter by the Philistines at Gilboa. In I Chron. viii. 33, ix. 39 he is called Esh-baal (Hebr. Eshba'al, a contraction of Ishba'al, "man of the Lord," i.e., of Yahweh); when the use of the name "Baal" was shunned, and bosheth, "shame," substituted for it (see BAAL, § 5), the form Ishbosheth became common. That in the Hebrew text the original form was lshba'al is shown by the translations of Aquila, Symmachus, Theodotion, Itala, and the Septuagint codex 93 Holmes. The original form remains in Chronicles probably because those books were read and copied less frequently than Samuel. The Chronicler names Ishbosheth fourth of the sons of Saul after Jonathan, Malchi-shua and Abinadab. I Sam. xxxi. 2 does not name him, I Sam. xiv. 49 names Jonathan, Ishui, and Malchi-shua. The order here indicates that Ishbosheth was the youngest son of Saul, and that is the more probable since he was dependent upon Abner, since there is no mention of his wife or children, and since he is not named among Saul's sons who were in the battle with the Philistines. The age given him in II Sam. ii. 10 does not agree with the indications of the context, according to which David and Jonathan were not yet forty years old at the time of the battle of Gilboa; the item belongs to the later chronological insertions.

Abner, a cousin of Saul, after the battle of Gilboa sought to save for Israel as much as he might of Saul's achievements, and had Ishbosheth set up as king beyond the Jordan at Mahanaim, where he was recognized by Gilead, Asher, Jezreel, Ephraim, and Benjamin--practically all Israel. Judah and the South had made David king there, though under tributary relations with the Philistines; and for his possessions west of the Jordan Ishbosheth was also a vassal of the Philistines. The strife which arose between Israel and Judah, the first indication of which is given in II Sam. ii. 12 sqq., was suffered by the overlords, and continued with increasing success for David. Finally Abner took offense at the complaint of Ishbosheth because the former had married one of Saul's concubines, and told Ishbosheth that he would influence Israel to choose David king, a threat which he proceeded to fulfil. David thereupon demanded of Ishbosheth the return of his former wife, Michal, thus forcing recognition of his relationship to Saul's household, the way having been paved by negotiations between himself and Abner (II Sam. iii. 12 sqq.). At the defection of Abner Ishbosheth lost heart, and he was soon after assassinated by two of his military officers, who thought in this way to secure their own advancement. They carried his head to David; but being a member of the house of Saul, David at once punished the murder by the execution of the murderers.

This is the course of the Judaic narrative in II


Sam. ii.-iv. Were the Ephraimitic account extant, possibly the coloring of the story might be somewhat changed. Two points in the story appear trustworthy: that David wished to be recognized as the son-in-law of Saul, and that he was innocent of the death of Ishbosheth. The length of Ishbosheth's reign was probably a little less than that of David in Hebron (II Sam. vi. 5).


BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Kamphausen, in ZATW, vi (1886), 43-97; the literature under SAMUEL, BOOKS OF; and the pertinent sections of the works cited under AHAB.


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