KIPPIS, ANDREW: English non-conformist; b. at Nottingham Mar. 28, 1725; d. in London Oct. 8, 1795. He was prepared for the Presbyterian ministry at Philip Doddridge's academy at Northampton, where he spent the years 1741-46. He was pastor of dissenting congregations at Boston, Lincolnshire, 1746-50; at Dorking, Surrey, 1750-53; and at Westminster, London, 1753-95. From 1767 till 1784 he was classical and philological tutor in the Coward Academy at Hoxton, and was afterward a tutor in the dissenting academy at Hackney. He early abandoned Calvinism for Socinianism, was associated with many charities, and was a voluminous writer. His reputation rests upon his unfinished edition of the Biographic Britannica, (5 vols. and part of vol. vi., London, 1778-95). Other works are: A Vindication of the Protestant Dissenting Ministers (1772); Sermons on Practical Subjects (1791); and lives of Nathaniel Lardner and Philip Doddridge for editions of their works.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Walter Wilson, Hist. and Antiquities of Dissenting Churches, iv. 103-117, 402, London, 1814; DNB, xxi. 195-197 (where references to other literature may be found); Julian, Hymnology, p. 625.
KIR, ker: A place-name mentioned II Kings xvi. 9; Isa. xxii. 6; and Amos i. 5, ix. 7 as within the Assyrian region and as the dwelling-place of an Aramaic people. Even the early translators did not know its location; the later translators followed J. D. Michaelis in placing it on the river still known as Kur and flowing into the Caspian. But the Assyrian kingdom never included this region. Schrader sought it in South Babylonia. The correct position is given by Winckler as the plain of Jatbur, between the Tigris and the mountains, and bordering on Elam, the land of the Karians mentioned by Arrian (III., viii. 5) near Sittakene. Winckler regards the Kir as a mistake for Kor. That Aramaic peoples were inhabitants of the region appears both from the Bible (II Kings xvi. 9), and from the inscriptions, since Tiglath-Pileser transported Damascans thither. It seems probable that this was the original home of the Arameans, whither they were deported after the manner of Isa. xxxvii. 29. In Amos i. 5 and ix. 7 the word seems to be a later intrusion.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. Winckler, Alttestamentliche Untersuchungen, ii. 253 sqq., Nachtrag, p. 378, Leipsic, 1892; idem, Altorientalische Forschungen, pp. 178-179, ib. 1894.
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