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KA¤RES, ka'ţ-rŕz (KA¤RIS), THEOPHILUS: Modern Greek liberal; b. on the island of Andros Oct. 19, 1784; d. on the island of Syra Jan. 12, 1853. After attending the academy at Cydonia, he studied for eight years in Pisa and in Paris, coming under the influence of Count Frayssinous (q.v.) and imbibing the political doctrines of the French Revolution. Returning to his fatherland in 1810, he taught in Smyrna and in Cydonia. After the successful termination of the War of Liberation, in which he took an active part, he was admitted to the priesthood and formed the plan of founding an orphan asylum on Andros especially for the sons of those who had fallen in the war. He collected funds for the project by a journey to western Europe and in 1835 opened an institution which soon became the resort of all Greeks who would learn modern culture in their native land. Then rumors were spread that the fasts were not observed on Andros, that the customary prayers were not offered in the school, and that scientific doctrines were taught which were at variance with those of the Church. Writings were disseminated, treating of the "Fear of God," asserting the purely human character of the Scriptures and attacking ecclesiastical dogmas and mysteries. The national synod felt called upon to interfere and by an official ordinance of July 10, 1839, demanded from Ka´res a statement of his belief. He attempted to evade the issue, claiming that he was no theologian and had not taught dogmatic theology; in philosophy, however, he had taught the existence of God and immortality as well as a final judgment. When the synod renewed its demand he asked for a few months more time and offered to close his orphan asylum and go wherever the authorities might require. The synod, influenced by the narrowly orthodox patriarch Gregory VI. (q.v.), had him brought to Athens and put him on trial Oct. 21, 1833. He repeated his former declarations, adding that he had taught nothing contrary to Christianity, refused to give a more detailed exposition of his faith, and offered to leave the country. By intervention of the government he was sent for further reflection, first to a monastery on the island of Sciathus, then at his own request to a more healthful and agreeable place of confinement in a monastery on Thera. Persisting in his course, in Oct., 1841, he was deposed and excommunicated. He then lived abroad, most of the time in London, until 1844, when he was permitted to return to Andros. Protected by an old school friend, the minister Koletti, he resumed his former activity more boldly than ever. Koletti died in 1847, however, and when Ka´res published (Athens, 1849) his most important book, *I'-araa5*, the best exposition of his religious system, his opponents made formal charge against him under a section of the criminal law, declaring that all adherents of religious sects not recognized by the government should be treated as members of forbidden societies. On Dec. 21, 1852, Kalres was condemned to two years and one month imprisonment in Syra; two of his friends were sentenced for shorter terms. The judgment was set aside by the Areopagus on appeal Jan. 26, 1853, but in the mean time Ka´res had died in prison at Syra.

(PHILIPP MEYER.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. A. Brandis, Mitteilungen Řber Griechenland, i. 299-304, iii. 36-38, Leipsic, 1842; J. Wenger, Beitrńge zur Kenntnis des gegenwńrtigen Geistes und Zustandes der griechischen Kirche, pp. 11-13, Berlin, 1839 A. D. Kyriakos-Rausch, Geschichte der orientalischen Kirchen, pp. 191-194, Leipsic, 1902; E. Curtius, Ein Lebensbild in Briefen, ed. F. Curtius, pp. 165, 215, Berlin, 1903; Further literature in Greek is given in Hauck-Herzog, RE, xix. 669-670.

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