JUNIUS, FRANCISCUS (FRANÇOIS DU JON): Reformed theologian; b. at Bourges May 1, 1545; d. at Leyden Oct. 13, 1602. At the age of thirteen he began the study of law, but soon gave it up in order to repair the deficiencies of his earlier education at the school of Lyons, where he succumbed for a time to the temptations of atheism, but soon was converted and then studied theology at Geneva. In 1565 he was called as preacher to the Walloon congregation of Antwerp, whence he had to flee in 1567, owing to intrigues of Roman Catholic and Anabaptist opponents. He accompanied Prince William of Orange on his campaign to Champagne, then he became pastor of the Walloon congregation at Schönau in the Palatinate. In 1573 Elector Frederick III. called him to Heidelberg to assist in a Latin translation of the Old Testament. After the death of the elector, Count Palatine John Casimir called him to the newly established Casimirianum at Neustadt-on-the-Haardt. Soon afterward he became preacher of the Walloon congregation in Otterberg. In 1582 he returned to his professorship at Neustadt and in 1584 removed to the University of Heidelberg. In 1592 he followed a call to Leyden. In his theological convictions he was always a genuine pupil of Calvin. His Ecclesiastici sive de natura et administratione ecclesiae Dei libri tres (Heidelberg, 1581) had great influence upon the development of synods and presbyteries. His Parallela sacra (1588), a treatise on Old-Testament quotations in the New, was epoch-making for Biblical exegesis. In his Animadversiones (1602), against Bellarmine, he defended Protestantism against Romanism, and in Defensio catholicae doctrinae (1592) he attacked the Antitrinitarians. Le Plaisible Chrestien ou de la paix de l'église catholique, written a few months before the renunciation of Protestantism by Henry IV., is a defense of an independent Gallico-Catholic Church. He also made several translations, and wrote works of philological and historical interest. His contemporaries esteemed him very highly.
The early Vita by P. Merula appeared Leyden,
1595, and Esslingen, 1769, also reprinted in the
Opera of Junius, Geneva, 1607, 1613. The best modern
life is by F. W. Cuno, Amsterdam, 1891; others are by
J. Reitsma, Groningen, 1864, and A. Davaine, Paris,
1882. Consult also Niceron, Mémoires, vol. xvi.; P.
Bayle, Dictionary Historical and Critical, iii. 623-628,
JUNKIN, jun'kin, GEORGE: Presbyterian; b. near Carlisle, Pa., Nov. 1, 1790; d. in Philadelphia May 20, 1868. He was graduated at Jefferson College, Pa., in 1813, studied theology under John M. Mason in New York, and in 1819 became pastor of the Associate Reformed Church at Milton, Penn. In 1822 he went over to the Presbyterian Church. He was principal of the Pennsylvania Manual Labor Academy, Germantown, Pa., 1830-1832, president of Lafayette College, Easton, Pa., 1832-41 and again 1844-48, and president of Miami University, Ohio, 1841-44. In 1848 he became president of Washington College (now Washington and Lee University), Lexington, Va. On the secession of Virginia in 1861, which he had strongly opposed, he removed to Philadelphia. He was one of the leaders of the Old School Presbyterians, and was moderator of the General Assembly in 1844. The more important of his publications are: The Vindication: A Reply to the Defence of Robert Barnes (Philadelphia, 1836); A Treatise on Justification (1839); Lectures on the Prophecies (1844); Political Fallacies (New York, 1863); A Treatise on Sanctification (Philadelphia, 1864); The Two Missions, the Apostolical and the Evangelical (1864); The Tabernacle (1865); and A Commentary upon the Epistle to the Hebrews (1873).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: His Life was written by his brother, D. X. Junkin, Philadelphia, 1871. Consult: E. H. Gillett, History of the Presbyterian Church, ii. 473-475 et passim, Philadelphia, 1864; R. E. Thompson, American Church History Series, vi. 109-111 et passim, New York, 1895; J. H. Patton, Popular Hist. of the Presbyterian Church, U. S. A., pp. 402-404, 422, ib. 1900.
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