JOHANNES ASKUSNAGES, as-kus'na-jÓz: Greek theologian of the sixth century. He was a pupil of the Syrian Peter of Rhesina, whom he succeeded as teacher of philosophy at Constantinople during the reign of Justinian I. In a conference held in the presence of the emperor, Johannes declared himself not only a monophysite, but a tritheist, and he was accordingly banished as a heretic. Abulfaraj makes Johannes Askusnages the founder of tritheism, but the Greek sources, which ignore this theologian, assign this place to Johannes Philoponos (q.v.), the discrepancy being apparently due to the fact that the latter was the most distinguished representative of the tritheistic doctrine.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. W. F. Walch, Historie der Ketzereien, viii. 684, 11 vols., Leipsic, 1762-85; Neander, Christian Church, ii. 613.
JOHANNES BEKKOS: Patriarch of Constantinople; b. at Constantinople in the early part of the thirteenth century; d. in the castle of St. Gregory in Bithynia 1293. He first became important in the unionistic synod of 1274, when the Emperor Michael Palśologus, a zealous advocate of union, sought his aid as a scholar and orator. Johannes, however, after some hesitation declared the Latins heretics, and was accordingly imprisoned. During his confinement he read the older Greek literature on the controverted points and became convinced of the truth of what he had hitherto rejected. The consequence was his elevation to the patriarchal throne, but the change in ecclesiastical policy resulted in his deposition in 1282 and his banishment in the following year. His final years were spent in prison. The Greek Church has stricken the name of Bekkos from the list of the orthodox, but his polemical writings were included in the Graecia orthodoxa of Leo Allatius (Rome, 1652-59). His theological works were chiefly in defense of the union, the moat important being "On the Union and Peace of the Old and New Churches of Rome."
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Krumbacher, Geschichte, pp. 96-97 (where the literature is indicated); Fabricius-Harles, Bibliotheca Graeca, xi. 344-349, Hamburg, 1808.
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