JENKS, BENJAMIN: English clergyman and theological writer; b. at Eaton-under-Haywood (13 m. s. of Shrewsbury), Shropshire, May, 1646; d. at Harley (8 m. s.e. of Shrewsbury), Shropshire, May 10, 1724. Very little is known of his life. After his ordination he officiated for a time as curate at Harley, and subsequently became vicar of the parishes of Harley and Kenley, and also chaplain to Francis, Viscount Newport, the patron of these livings. He is remembered for his Prayers and Offices of Devotion for Families, and for particular Persons upon Most Occasions (London, 1697; 2 vols., 1706; 26th ed. by C. Simeon, 1808; 13th ed. of Simeon's revision, 1866), Other works by Jenks are Meditations, with Short Prayers Annexed, in Ten Decades (London, 1701); A Second Century of Meditations (1704); and The Poor M ? ? ? Companion (1713). ? ? ?
JENNINGS, ARTHUR CHARLES: Church of England; b. in London Dec. 19, 1847. He was educated at Jesus College, Cambridge (B.A., 1872), and was ordered deacon in 1873 and ordained priest in 1874. He was curate of St. Edward's, Cambridge (1873-74), and rector of Whittlesford, Cambridgeshire (1877-86). Since 1886 he has been rector of King's Stanley, Gloucestershire. Theologically he is a broad churchman. Besides contributing the commentary on Nahum, Haggai, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah to the fifth volume of C. J. Ellicott's Old Testament Commentary (London, 1884), was joint author of Commentary on the Palms (2 vols., London, 1875-77); Ecclesia Anglicana: A History of the Church of Christ in England . . . to the Present Times (1882); Synopsis of Ancient Chronology (1886); Manual of Church History (2 vols., 1887-88; 3d ed., 1905); Chronological Tables of the Events of Ancient History (1888); and Mediæval Church and the Papacy (1909).
JEPHTHAH, jef'tha: The name of one of the
Judges of Israel. It is related (
Examination of the narrative shows that several
sources are employed, and the story enclosed in the
pragmatic framework is itself complex.
Jephthah is mentioned as the son of
Gilead by a foreign wife; but Gilead
is the name of a district or of its population.
Moreover, the section
Against the historical character of the narrative
of the Ammonitic war there is no reasonable objection.
Jephthah appears as an exile
who has gained position as head of a
band like that of David. The differences
of the two sources do not oppose
the historicity, since the events may
be referred to different times and occasions, a war
with the Ammonites and one with Moabites. The
hero is not to be taken as a mythical invention to
explain the celebration of the death of his daughter,
and analogies of the event are not lacking in the
history of other Semitic peoples. One is furnished
by the story of II Kings iii. 27, and another comes
out of Arabic history of the seventh Christian century
(Tabari, i. 1073-1074), so that the historical
character of the event which the celebration commemorated
appears at least probable. Since in the
narrative there is no mention of substitution, it
must be that Jephthah really sacrificed his daughter.
This was the understanding of the early exegetes
until D. Kimchi, who asserted that the maiden was
simply devoted to the service of Yahweh, an explanation
which gained the approval of later Christian
exegetes, who combined the idea with that of
an enforced celibacy. The reason for this is not
far to seek, since not only is human sacrifice in itself
unusual for such a state of society, but it was
supposed that the Pentateuchal legislation was well
known in the time of the Judges
(cf. Lev. xviii. 21, xx. 2-5,
and see VOWS, I.; cf. also the Targum on
Judges xi. 39);
moreover emphasis was laid on the
fact that the maiden bewailed not her life, but her
virginity, as though condemned to a single life.
Some support was gained from
Ex. xxxviii. 8 and
I Sam. ii. 22, though it is not said that the women
mentioned here were celibates. But the true explanation
of verse 37
doubtless is that the cause of
the maiden's grief was that she must die without
being either wife or mother. Some take refuge in
a disjunctive in the statement of the vow
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The best discussion is in the Commentary on Judges by G. F. Moors, with which should be compared the treatment in the Commentaries of Studer, Heil, Cassel, Bertheau, Harvey, Oettli and Budde, as mentioned under JUDGES, and that in the standard works on the History of Israel, mentioned under AHAB. Consult further: E. W. Hengstenberg, Einleitung in das A. T., iii. 127, Berlin, 1839, Eng, transl., Edinburgh, 1847-48; K. A. Auberlen, in TSK, 1860, pp. 540 sqq.; E. Reuss, Geschichte der heiligen Schriften A. T., Brunswick, 1874, Eng. transl., Boston, 1884; I. Goldziher, Der Mythus bei den Hebräern, pp. 113 sqq., Leipsic, 1876; A. Kuenen, Historisch-kritisch Onderzoek, i. 349, Leyden, 1885; J. Wellhausen, Komposition des Hexateuchs, pp. 228-229, Berlin, 1889; K. Budde, Richter und Samuel, pp. 125 sqq., Giessen, 1890; M. Köhler, Biblische Geschichte des Alten Bundes, ii. 1, p. 100; H. Schultz, O. T. Theology. London, 1892· W. Frankenberg, Die Komposition des deuteronomischen Richterbuches, Marburg, 1895; A. Kamphausen, Das Verhältnis des Menschenopfers zur israelitischen Religion, pp. 46 sqq., Bonn, 1896; E. Sellin, Beiträge zur israelitischen und jüdischen Religion, i. 200 sqq., Leipsic, 1896; DB, ii. 567-568; EB, ii. 2359-62; JE, vii, 94-95.
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