JAUFFRET, zho"frê', GASPARD JEAN ANDRÉ JOSEPH: Bishop of Metz; b. at Roque-Brussane (15 m. n. of Toulon), Provence, Dec. 13, 1759; d. in Paris May 13, 1823. He studied at Toulon, Aix, and Paris, where, in 1791, he established the Annales de la religion et du sentiment to oppose the civil constitution of the clergy. After the Revolution he was one of the principal collaborators on the Annales religieuses. About 1801 he became vicar-general of Lyons. Subsequently he was recalled to Paris as secretary of the grand almonry. He became bishop of Metz in 1806. In 1811 he was appointed by Napoleon to the archbishopric of Aix , but was never instituted. His best-known works are: De la religion à l'Assemblée Nationale (Paris, 1790); Du culte public (2 vols., 1795); Meditations sur les souffrances de la croix de Notre-Seigneur Jésus-Christ (1800), and Entretiens sur le sacrement de la confirmation (1809).
JAVAN: A designation common to the Old Testament and the entire Orient for Greeks in general and those of Asia, Minor in particular. The name is an example of a tribal name being given to a whole people, and the Hebrew (Yawan) form corresponds to the Greek Iaones or IaFones. In an inscription of Sargon II. (722-705 B.C.), also
Old-Testament mention is found in Ezek. xxvii. 13, where Javan is mentioned with Tubal and Meshech, and refers probably to the Ionians settled in Asia Minor on the coast of the Black Sea; Isa. lxvi. 19 (Septuagint) connects Lud, Meshech, Tubal, and Javan; Javan in Ezek. xxvii. 19 is a corruption of the text, as the Septuagint shows. The word has the general sense of "Greeks" in Gen. x. 2, 4; in verse 2 they are connected with Tubal and Meshech, but in verse 4 the term includes Elishah (probably Sicily), Tarshish in Spain, Kittim (Cyprus), and Rodanim (see DODANIM), and therefore covers the people of the Mediterranean. The priestly writer who wrote this verse knew of the supersession of the Phenicians by the Greeks, in commercial matters. Joel iii. 6 mentions the Greeks, Zech. ix. 13 speaks of the Greek empire, Dan. viii. 21 has in mind Alexander's kingdom, and x. 20 that of the Seleucidæ.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: B. Stade, De populo Javan, Giessen, 1880, also in Reden und Abhandlungen, pp. 123-142, ib. 1899; E. Meyer, Geschichte des Altertums, i. 490-494, ii. 433, 685 sqq., Stuttgart, 1884-93; A. H. Sayce, Higher Criticism and the Monuments, London, 1894; DB, ii. 552-553; EB, ii. 2338-39; also literature under TABLE OF THE NATIONS.
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