JAPHET. See TABLES OF THE NATIONS, § 4.
JASON: A Greek name borne often by Jews of Maccabean or later times and by Jewish Christians. On account of its resemblance to the Hebrew-Jewish name Jesus or Joshua, it was often assumed by Jews inclined to Greek culture or living in a Greek environment. The following are notable bearers of the name.
1. A brother of the high priest Onias III., himself
occupying the office 174-172 B.C. Two very
different accounts of him exist, the first in
II Macc. iv. 7 sqq.,
2. The son of Eleazar, who, according to I Macc. viii. 17 (cf. II Macc. iv. 11 and Josephus, Ant. XII., x. 6), was sent about 161 B.C.with Eupolemus to Rome by Judas Maccabeus as ambassador to make a treaty of friendship. The treaty was made, though its results were not actually apparent. Willrich casts doubts upon the historicity of the event.
3. Jason of Cyrene, a Hellenistic Jew who, according to II Macc. ii. 19, wrote a history in Greek in five books on the Maccabees, the purification of the temple, the wars of the Jews against Antiochus Epiphanes and Eupator, and the divine help which came in those times. It embraced the period 171-161 B.C., and is the basis of II Maccabees, the author of which lays the responsibility for his form of statement of the facts upon Jason, though probably Jason is also a mask through which his own personality speaks. Jason wrote between 162 and 125 B.C., and probably in Egypt.
5. According to Acts xvii. 5-9, Paul, while at Thessalonica, dwelt at the house of a Jason, who is probably to be distinguished from the foregoing.
6. For the Jason of the "Dialogue between Jason and Papiscus" see ARISTO OF PELLA.
A treatment of the whole subject may be
found in DB, ii. 551-552; EB, ii. 2336-37; and of 1-3 in
JE, vii. 74-75.
For 1 consult: H. Willrich, Juden und Griechen vor der makkabäischen Erhebung, Göttingen, 1895; A. P. Stanley, Lectures on the Hist. of the Jewish Church, iii. 324, London, 1884; J. Wellhausen, lsraelitische und jüdische Geschichte, p. 325, Berlin, 1895; A. Büchler, Die Tobiaden und die Oniaden, pp. 106 sqq., Vienna, 1899; Schürer, Geschichte, i. 220, 194-196, Eng. transl., I., i. 202-205, 231 (on 1 and 2).
On 3: Trieber, in Nachrichten der königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, 1895, pp. 401, 408; Willrich, ut sup., chap. ii.; idem, Judaica, chap. iv., Göttingen, 1900; A. Schlatter, in Festschrift der Universität Greifswald, Greifswald, 1899; Schürer, ut sup., i. 40, 359-361, Eng. transl., I., i. 47, II., iii. 211-216.
On 5 consult: W. M. Ramsay, St. Paul the Traveller, p. 231, London, 1897.
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