JANUARIUS, SAINT: The patron saint of Naples; b., according to tradition, either at Naples or Benevento about the middle of the third century; martyred at Puteoli Sept. 19 (according to other accounts, May 1 or 2, Oct. 19, or Dec. 16), 305. Within a century after his death his relics are said to have been translated to a, church before the gates of Naples, whence they were taken, about 820, to Benevento (the head being left in Naples), and were finally interred in a church of Benevento in 1129. Since 1497 they have rested in the Januarius chapel of the cathedral of Naples, the head and two glass flasks said to contain his blood being in the Capelladi Tesoro of the same structure. The famous miracle of the liquefaction of the blood in the flasks when brought near the head is said to have taken place first in the twelfth century, and is abundantly confirmed since the middle of the fifteenth century, as by Pius II. (Aeneas Sylvius), the physician Angelus Cato (1474), the Bollandists Henschen and Papebroch (Mar. 10, 1661), and the Bollandist Stilting (Aug. 21, 1754); cf. the account of J. P. Peters, in American Church Magazine, Aug. or Sept., 1902. , It occurs three times a year--on the first Saturday of May, in the evening, on Sept. 19 and Dec. 16, between 9 and 10 A.M. "According as the liquefaction is rapid or slow it is considered a good or evil omen for the ensuing year." (Baedeker.) Other miracles are also related as occurring in the nineteenth century in connection with this phenomenon. There are other less important saints and beatified of the same name.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The early Acta and Translatio, with comment, are in ASB, Sept., vi. 762-894. A list of literature is given, Potthast, Wegweiser, p. 1385. Consult: Kirwan's Romanism at Home, pp. 81-94, New York, 1852: J. Peter, La Légende de S. Janvier, Lausanne, 1884; E. Gothein, Die Culturentwicklung Süd-Italiens, pp. 112-142, Breslau, 1886.
Its Character (§ 1).
Its Obscuration by Buddhism (§ 2).
Its Revival (§ 3).
Its Writings and Cosmogony (§ 4).
Its Worship and Sects (§ 5).
Its Establishment in Japan (§ 1).
Its Dominance. Decline, and Recovery (§ 2).
Buddhist Sects (§ 3).
Modern Doctrinal Basis (§ 4).
Introduction under St. Francis Xavier (§ 1).
Conditions Favoring Christianity (§ 2).
Beginnings of Persecution (§ 3).
Dissensions among Roman Catholics (§ 4).
Persecution under Ieyasu (§ 5).
Period of Exclusion of Christianity (§ 6).
Renewed Missionary Efforts (§ 7).
Modern Roman Catholic Missions (§ 8).
Results (§ 9).
Initiation by Nicolai Kasatkin (§ 1).
Results (§ 2).
Beginnings in 1859 (§ 1).
Alternating Advance and Reaction (§ 2).
The Advance, 1873-88 (§ 3).
The Obstacles Encountered (§ 4).
The Reaction of 1889 (§ 5).
The New Advance since 1899 (§ 6).
Harmony of Protestant Effort (§ 7).
General Results (§ 8).
Buddhism came to Japan in 552 A.D., and in the ninth century it taught that the kami were avatars (reincarnations) of Buddhist saints. Buddhism proved the stronger religious element in this combination, and most of the prominent Shinto shrines, with the exception of those at Ise and Izumo, were served by Buddhist priests, who introduced the images, incense, and elaborate ritual of their worship. Many of the smaller shrines remained unchanged, and there was nothing in either Shinto or Buddhism that made it seem inconsistent for the people to observe the rites of both. While every locality had its Shinto shrine where some hero or other superior being was honored as the patron saint of the community, it may be said that the people were at the same time Buddhists and Shintoists. There was, however, one marked distinction in their conceptions of the two systems. The chief concern of Shinto was with the present world, while Buddhism busied itself more with what came after death. The erection of buildings and the commencement of public works were preceded by Shinto rites, and infants were taken to the village shrine for consecration to the local deity; but funerals and memorial services for the dead were conducted by Buddhist priests. Hence graveyards were contiguous to Buddhist temples, while Shintoism avoided the pollution associated with death. In the rare cases where Shinto funerals were held, there were usually additional Buddhist rites.
In the seventeenth century a movement began for the revival of ancient Shinto, largely political in its motives. It was chiefly conducted by scholars who investigated old records and embodied the results in books that advocated a return to ancient ideas of government and ritual. Their writings, though reaching only a small section of people, had an important influence in bringing
The chief authority for the cosmogony and mythology of Shinto is the Kojiki ("Records of Ancient Matters"), a compilation of legends that was completed in 712 A.D. The Nihongi ("Chronicles of Japan"), though compiled only eight years later, is much more affected by Chinese ideas. The Yengishiki describes the ritual as practised in the Yengi era (901-923) and includes prayers that had come down from more ancient times. According to the Kojiki, after heaven and earth were separated from the original chaos, three kami came into existence on the Heavenly Plain and afterward passed away. They were succeeded by others until finally there came two named Izanagi ("Male who Invites") and Izanami ("Female who Invites"). Standing on the bridge of Heaven, these two thrust a spear into the liquid mass below them, and as they drew it back, the falling drops became an island, to which they descended. They there gave birth to the other islands of Japan and afterward to a number of gods and goddesses. The birth of the Fire-god caused the death of Izanami. Izanagi visited her in the underworld, but did not succeed in bringing her back to earth. After his return, as he purified himself from the pollution he had incurred, new deities were produced from each article of clothing and from different parts of his body. The most important of these was Amaterasu-O-Mi-Kami, the Sun-goddess, who, after a quarrel with one of her brothers, withdrew into a cave, leaving the earth in darkness. The 800 myriad deities lured her forth by offerings, dances, songs, and the exhibition of a mirror in which she seemed to see another being as splendid as herself. One of her descendants was Jimmu Tenno, the first emperor of Japan, whose ascension to the throne is said to have occurred 660 B.C.
A Shinto shrine in its purest form is of very simple architecture, being constructed of unpainted wood and thatched with bark or thin shingles. Before it is a torii or detached portal. There is no visible object of worship, but hidden within the sanctuary is something in which the spirit of the kami is supposed to reside. At the shrine in Ise there is a mirror said to have been bestowed by the Sun-goddess on her grandson when she sent him to subdue the land. Shrines where mirrors are exposed to view and those with tiled roofs or painted wood show the influence of Buddhism. Services consist chiefly of the recital of ancient prayers, the offering of articles of food, and dancing by priestesses. Ise and other prominent shrines are visited by large numbers of pilgrims, who carry home charms to be placed in their household shrines. Shinto lays stress on ceremonial purity. There is no formulated system of ethics, such being thought necessary only for the immoral people of other lands, while in Japan each person's heart teaches him what he ought to do. A number of popular sects have more of the religious element than has the Shintoism thus far described. The Kurozumi, Tenrikyo, and Remmonkyo sects are the best known. Springing up in the last century, they combine Shinto, Buddhist, and Confucian elements. Most of these sects make much of curing disease through faith or by incantations, and at times have gained large numbers of adherents.
Acceptance of the doctrine that the ruler of a nation gained great merit by abdicating and becoming a monk vastly increased the influence of the monasteries, which thus became allied with the imperial family. The new faith spread from the upper to the lower classes. Its progress was more easy because it did not demand the abandonment of old beliefs and forms of worship. As in other countries, Buddhism could accommodate itself to the religious ideas of those whom it desired to win. At the beginning of the ninth century the priest Kukai (better known by his posthumous title, Kobo Daishi) formulated the doctrine that the Shinto deities were avatars of Buddhist saints, while the classification of many deified heroes as gongen, temporary manifestations of Buddha, simplified the problem and provided for the apotheosis of future emperors and great men. Most of the Shinto shrines soon lost their former simplicity, images and decorations of various kinds being introduced into them, while the forms of worship combined Shinto and Buddhist elements in proportions that differed with time and locality. Buddhism became the chief religious force in Japan and gradually attained to great political influence and even military power. In the Middle Ages some of the monasteries were strong fortresses, the monks of which took an active part in war with rival sects or political enemies. In the last half of the sixteenth century these fortresses were destroyed by the military leaders, Nobunaga and Hideyoshi, while the power of Buddhism was further weakened by the success of the Roman Catholic missions. Under the Tokugawa shoguns (1603-1867) it was restored to favor. The advent of Christian missions has done much to arouse the Buddhist priests from the lethargy into which they had fallen. Some of the sects imitate Christian methods, establishing schools for boys and girls, young men's associations, women's societies, and charitable institutions, while many Buddhist journals are published. Preachers have been sent to Korea, China, Hawaii, and California, primarily for the sake of Japanese colonists; but also with the hope of gaining converts.
Japanese Buddhism is divided into many sects. Some of these were brought from China, while others originated in Japan itself. Those now in existence, with the dates of their establishment, are as follows: Tendai (three subsects), 805; Shingon (two subsects), 806; Yuzu Nembutsu, 1127; Jodo (three suhsects), 1174; Rinzai (nine subsects), 1168; Shin, also called Monto or Ikko (ten subsects), 1224; Soto, 1227; Nichiren or Hokke (seven subsects), 1253; Ji, 1276; Obaku, 1650. The Rinzai, Soto, and Obaku sects are offshoots from the old Zen sect, by whose name they are sometimes called. The word zen signifies "contemplation," the earnest followers of this system giving much time to meditation, or rather to an attempt to induce a sort of hypnotic condition, in which there is a complete absence of thought. The Zen sects together with the Tendai and Shingon are sometimes called the learned sects, as they have attached much importance to the study of the Sanscrit texts. The sects having the moat influence with the people at the present time are the Jodo, Shin, and Nichiren. The name of the first signifies "Pure Land." It teaches that Amida (Amitabha), the object of its worship, made a series of vows to the effect that on attaining the state of a Buddha he would create a paradise into which those who had faith in him should enter after death. This faith is chiefly shown by use of the formula Namu Amida Butsu ("Hail, Amida Buddha!"). The Shin sect sprang from the Jodo, which it rebukes for seeking salvation through "self-effort depending on the merits of another," while it teaches reliance upon Amida's merit alone. This belief in salvation by faith, the rejection of penance, fasting, and other forms of asceticism, together with the fact that it permits its priests to marry, has caused the Shin sect to be called the Protestantism of Japanese Buddhism. The Nichiren sect highly esteems charms, amulets, and pilgrimages. Its temples are gorgeous and the services noisy, and its priests are considered expert in exorcising demons. Delighting in controversy, the priests attack the doctrines of other sects, while these declare that the Nichiren sect ought not to be considered as belonging to Buddhism. The Yuzu Nembutsu and the Ji sects have but a small following.
Though three extinct sects belonged to the Hinayana ("Smaller Vehicle"), Japanese Buddhism of to-day belongs to the Mahayana (" Greater Vehicle "). The differences that divide the sects turn upon abstruse metaphysical and technical points, and often depend upon the sutras that are held in chief honor, here being one point in which the divisions of Buddhism differ from those of Christianity with its one Bible. It is to be remembered further that, as very few of these books have been translated into Japanese, they are read only by the priests. The common people have but slight knowledge of Buddhist doctrines. Simply following the religious customs that have been handed down in their families for generations, they know little about the meaning of the rites or the nature of the beings that they worship. The beliefs of the younger priests are being greatly influenced by Western ideas. One resulting movement has taken the name "New Buddhism." It is an attempt to bring Buddhist doctrines, or rather nomenclature, into harmony with modern thought. The doctrines are so explained as to bear little resemblance to what was formerly taught; and there is an attempt to replace the pessimism of Buddhism by a more hopeful philosophy. No formulated system has yet been constructed, as the leaders differ greatly among themselves; some being atheistic, some pantheistic, while others assert that they believe in a personal God.
In all, Xavier spent only twenty-seven months in Japan before returning to India. Though he led the way and inspired others, the real work was done by Torres and Fernandez, who spent the remainder of their lives in Japan, and by those who afterward joined the mission. Many circumstances favored their success. The Japanese were to a remarkable degree ready to listen to new doctrines. Shintoism had little religious influence; Buddhism was powerful, but its leaders were taking an active part in political and military affairs, and for this reason many of the daimios were ready to favor a movement that seemed likely to weaken the power of the arrogant priesthood. Some of the feudal lords were also desirous of attracting foreign commerce. The country had long been vexed by internal strife; and Nobunaga, the military leader who, by gaining control of the central provinces, began the work that finally resulted in the unification of the country, was a bitter enemy of the Buddhists and openly favored the missionaries. Among the early converts were several feudal lords and other men of high rank. Some of these confiscated the Buddhist temples, destroyed the images, and compelled their subjects to be baptized. Christianity soon gained a strong foothold in Kiushiu and in the region of Kyoto. Churches, monasteries, and schools were built, and many books of instruction or devotion were published. In 1583 the Christian lords of Kiushiu sent four young men on an embassy to the pope. In 1581 the Christians numbered about 150,000, and probably the highest number ever attained was 300,000 in 1596.
Hideyoshi, who, soon after Nobunaga's death (1582), gained control of political affairs, seemed at first inclined to favor the Christians, some of whom were among his leading officers. In 1587, however, he suddenly sent into exile Takayama Ukon (the Justo Ucondono of the Jesuit historians), the most prominent of the Christians, and ordered all the missionaries to leave the country within twenty days. The chief reasons given by Roman Catholic historians for this action are the scandalous lives of the Portuguese merchants, that Hideyoshi was angered at Christian maidens who would not yield to his lust and that the refusal of a Portuguese captain to bring into harbor a large ship that he wished to examine aroused suspicions. Japanese accounts say that from the first he had considered Christianity dangerous to the state and had only been waiting a favorable opportunity for attacking it, and also that the arrogant demeanor of the missionaries enraged him. Murdoch suggests that Hideyoshi probably had no desire to extirpate Christianity, but only to reduce it to the position of a serviceable tool. However this may be, he postponed the time of the missionaries' departure for six months, and even then did not insist upon the enforcement of the decrees, though he pretended to be angry at the failure to carry them into effect. The missionaries worked in a less public manner than formerly, but there continued to be many baptisms.
Papal bulls by Gregory XIII., Jan. 28, 1585, confirmed by Clement III., 1600, had decreed that none but Jesuits should go as missionaries to Japan; and Philip II., ruler of Spain and Portugal, had given the merchants of the latter country a monopoly of trade with Japan. The Spanish colonists in the Philippines and the different religious orders that had established themselves there were very restive under these restrictions, and finally broke them. Franciscan monks, coming as envoys from the governor of the Philippines, were allowed by Hideyoshi to reside in Kyoto on condition that they would not attempt to teach their religion. Soon, however, they were engaged in the open propagation of Christianity. Bitter feeling arose between the two orders, and also between the Portuguese and Spanish merchants who allied themselves respectively with the Jesuits and the Franciscans. In 1595 the pilot of a Spanish ship wrecked on the coast of Japan was pointing out on a map the wide possessions of his king. When asked how so many lands in different parts of the earth had been brought under one sway, he replied: "The king first sends out teachers of religion. After they have gained the hearts of a sufficient number of persons, soldiers are sent to unite with these converts in subduing the desired territory." This speech was reported to Hideyoshi, who had always suspected that the missionaries had political ends in view. Thinking it time to give them another warning, he ordered arrests to be made, and six
Hideyoshi died in 1598. The missionaries came out from their hiding-places and were reenforced by new arrivals. Unfortunately their work was weakened by dissensions between the orders. Augustinians and Dominicans, as well as Franciscans, disregarded the papal prohibitions and came to Japan from the Philippines. After a period of civil strife, Ieyasu, the founder of the Tokugawa line of shoguns, gained control of the country. His desire for commerce led him to adopt a kindly policy toward the missionaries; but some of the Christians were active supporters of his enemies, and they were also accused of plots with foreign rulers to effect his overthrow. Indeed, in all this history of Roman Catholicism in Japan, the chief cause of official opposition was the suspicion that its teachers were agents of the European nations that wished to gain possession of Japan. In 1614 Ieyasu ordered the expulsion of the missionaries and the suppression of Christianity, and the flames of persecution broke out. Not only missionaries, but many Japanese Christians were deported, and horrible tortures were invented to secure recantation. Although multitudes apostatized, there wire many that stood firm. Men, women, and even little children were beheaded, burned at the stake, or crucified. Many missionaries also suffered, for they had endeavored to remain in the country, and even those who had been once expelled returned under various disguises to face almost certain martyrdom. After Ieyasu's death (1616) the persecution was continued by his son, Hidetada. The final blow came in the suppression (1638) of a rebellion raised by the peasants living in Shimabara and Amakusa. Though largely a revolt against the oppression of their daimios, the leaders were Christians, and they fought under banners inscribed with the names of Jesus, of Mary, and also of St. James, the patron saint of Spain. The rebels seized an old castle where they defended themselves so bravely that they were put down only with the greatest difficulty. When finally defeated, all of them were put to death. The lawn against Christianity were thereafter enforced still more strictly, and the country was closed to all foreigners except the Dutch, who were per mitted under restrictions to have a trading-post in Nagasaki.
For more than two centuries Japan refused to have intercourse with foreign nations. The Christians were deprived of all the sacraments except baptism. In every town was posted a notice saying "The evil sect called Christian is strictly prohibited," and offering rewards for information against believers. Every Householder was required to procure annually from the Buddhist priest a certificate that no member of his family was a Christian. In many parts of the land all were compelled to trample on a cross or on a copper plate that bore a representation of the crucified Jesus. The publication of books containing references to Christianity was prohibited. The Dutch ships that came to Nagasaki were closely searched for priests and Christian books. Nevertheless Christianity was not completely extirpated, but was carefully handed down from parent to child. Sacred images were hidden in what had the appearance of Buddhist shrines, lay baptism was practised, in some villages nearly all the inhabitants were believers, and had their catechists and baptizers. Ways were devised for evading the tests used for the detection of believers, In some places where the officials were themselves Christians the plate on which the people trampled was engraved with Buddhist symbols. Elsewhere the believers, after stepping upon the cross, would wash their feet and drink the water while returning thanks that they had been permitted to touch the sacred symbol. But from time to time Christians were discovered by the officials and punished.
The missionaries made some attempts to return. In 1642 five Jesuits entered the country and were put to death; they were followed a year later by five others, who were imprisoned until their death; as was also the case with Sidotti; an Italian priest who, in 1709, had himself set ashore on the coast of Japan. In 1844 a French war vessel left under the name of official interpreters a missionary and a Chinese evangelist in Liuchiu, which was a dependency of Japan. It was thought that they might there learn the Japanese language, do missionary work among the people, and be preparing for the opening of the Japanese group itself. They and others who succeeded them were so closely watched that they were able to have but little intercourse with the inhabitants. Protestants were also seeking entrance to Japan. In 1837 the ship Morrison attempted to restore some shipwrecked Japanese to their country. In addition to this philanthropic motive, there was a hope that the expedition might help to open the land to trade and the Gospel. Three missionaries from China accompanied it. The waifs were not allowed to land, and the Morrison was fired upon, so that it had to return without having accomplished anything. A number of British officers organized the Loochoo Naval Mission, and in 1845 sent Dr. Bettelheim, a medical missionary, to the Liuchiu Islands. Though subjected to the most annoying surveillance and opposition, he baptized a few persons. He also prepared Japanese translations of portions of the Scriptures, and some of these were printed.
In 1854 Commodore Parry succeeded in negotiating a treaty between the United States and Japan. This did not provide for the residence of Americans; but later treaties made with the United Staten and some other nations permitted their citizens after July, 1859, to live in certain ports. The Société des Missions * * to procure annually veer °useholder was ~ ' y from the Buddhist commenced work Ptrangisrea at once in Yokohama, gakOdate, and * *
In comparing the growth of Roman Catholicism with that of Protestantism and of the Greek Church, it must be remembered that it began its new propaganda with several thousand adherents, while the others had none. On the other hand, it has been more hindered than they by the prejudices aroused three centuries ago against Christianity. Its work has spread into most of the large towns of Japan. It is governed by an archbishop who, with his coadjutor, lives in Tokyo; and there are four bishops, whose residences are in Tokyo, Sendai, Osaka, and Nagasaki. At the close of 1907 the missionaries, most of whom are French, numbered 124 men and 124 women. There were 33 Japanese priests and 303 catechists. The number of believers was 61,095, of whom more than half were in the island of Kiushiu. 1,551 adults and 3,604 infants were baptized in 1907. Schools for the training of priests had 20 students. There were several other schools, while in 19 orphanages 1,027 children found a home. Among other forms of charity, two hospitals for lepers deserve special notice. A large number of books is published, among them being a translation of the Bible. There are also two periodicals issued by the mission.
In 1861 Nicolai Kasatkin went to Hakodate as chaplain of the Russian consulate there. As a student he had been moved by a desire to give the Gospel to the Japanese, and this position furnished an opening for carrying out his wish. His first convert was a Shinto priest whose prejudice against Christianity led him to come to the chaplain either to conquer him in argument, or to assassinate him, who, however, became convinced that the foreigner's doctrine was true, and in 1868 he and two others were secretly baptized. When the Shogunate was overthrown, many of those who belonged to the defeated party went to Hakodate, among them several from the Sendai clan. Led in part by curiosity and in part by the thought that a new religion might subserve their political aims, some of them began to study Christianity. Many accepted it and returned as evangelists to their own province, or went elsewhere to teach what they had learned. In a visit to Russia, Nicolai organized a missionary society to support his efforts, and when in 1871 another priest took his place in Hakodate, he removed to Tokyo, where, besides engaging in direct evangelistic work, he opened a seminary for training evangelists and also a school for teaching languages and the sciences. In 1872 three evangelists in Sendai were arrested with several of their hearers, and there were arrests in Hakodate. Appeals to the imperial government resulted in the release of these persons. That same year Nicolai baptized ten persons in Tokyo; the greatest secrecy was observed, but a few days later a Buddhist priest showed him a sketch, drawn by a spy of the government, of the room in which the ceremony had taken place. But, as no arrests followed, anxiety gave way to confidence. Other spies entered the school as pupils and at least two became Christians. Great success attended the early efforts at evangelization, especially in Sendai and its vicinity. In 1875 the man mentioned above as the first convert was ordained as the first priest.
Nicolai was made a bishop in 1880. The growth of the Eastern Church in Japan has been to a remarkable degree due to this one man. There have never been more than four other missionaries, and most of the time only one. He trained the Japanese priests and, in addition to the supervision of churches and schools, he prepared a translation of the New Testament and published several other books. A force of ten translators and writers is kept busy under his
The treaty made by Japan with the United States in 1858 provided that in July of the next year certain ports should be opened for the residence of American citizens; also that "Americans in Japan shall be allowed the free exercise of their religion, and for this purpose shall have the right to erect suitable places of worship. No injury shall be done to such buildings, nor any insult offered to the religious worship of the Americans." This treaty was followed by similar ones with other Western nations. Though no permission was given for teaching Christianity to the Japanese, it was believed that this would soon become possible. Soon after the treaty was signed, Chaplain Wood, U. S. N., Dr. S. Wells Williams, the well-known missionary and diplomatist, and Rev. E. W. Syle met in Nagasaki. As a result of their conference, they decided to write to the Episcopal, Reformed (Dutch), and Presbyterian Boards in America, urging that they send missionaries to Japan. Within a year all three societies had done this. In May, 1859, two months before the time set for opening the ports, the Rev. J. Liggins, of the Episcopal Board, was in Nagasaki, where he was followed a month later by the Rev. (afterward Bishop) C. M. Williams. In October J. C. Hepburn (q.v.), of the Presbyterian Board, reached Kanagawa, while the next month saw the arrival of three missionaries of the Reformed Board--Rev. S. R. Brown and D. B. Simmons, M.D., at Kanagawa, and Rev. G. F. Verbeck (q.v.) at Nagasaki. The next April, Rev. J. Goble, who had been a marine on Perry's expedition, came to Kanagawa under the American Baptist Free Mission. At first the missionaries labored under great difficulties. They were surrounded by spies and were in danger of attack from those who hated all things foreign, and especially the Christian religion. One man became Dr. Hepburn's teacher with the intention of assassinating him. Japanese who showed any inclination toward Christianity were in danger of arrest. The teaching of English gave some opportunities for exerting an influence over young men. Even before missionaries came, Chaplain Wood, U. S. N., had held classes, and though extreme caution was necessary, the questions asked by students about words found in their books could be answered only by telling something concerning Christian beliefs. In 1861 the Shogun's court itself sent several persons to the missionaries for instruction in English. As many of those who were gathered in such classes afterward held places of influence, the honor in which they held their teachers and the ideas that they received concerning morals, politics, education, and religion had much influence in shaping the course of events in which these men became leaders. It was a great help to the propagation of the Gospel that educated Japanese could read Chinese. Their curiosity to learn about Western ideas led them to purchase not only works on geography, history, and science prepared by missionaries in China, but also those dealing directly with Christian truth, and even the Bible itself.
In Jan., 1866, a meeting held by Christian believers of various nationalities living in Yokohama issued an address to the Christian world asking that special prayers be offered for Japan. It mentioned among encouraging changes that the missionaries were no longer watched by spies, but were in some instances employed by the goverment as school-teachers, that students of English no longer uttered the name of Jesus with bated breath, but manifested a readiness to talk about Christianity; and that some of them went daily to the missionaries "to read the English Bible, preferring this to the study of school-books." At Yokohama, in 1864 occurred the first Protestant baptism in Japan. In 1866 at Nagasaki a high official from Saga was baptized with his brother. The greatest secrecy had to be observed, as the new converts were liable to capital punishment. Up to the spring of 1872 only ten persons had been baptized. Soon after the restoration of imperial power in 1868, the attempt to revive the Shinto religion was accompanied by a renewal of strong opposition to Christianity. The new government posted edicts against it almost identical with those of the Shogunate. One of the few baptized Protestants was cast into prison. In 1870 and 1871 two teachers of missionaries were arrested under suspicion of being Christians, and one of them died in prison. Knowledge of these persecutions made other persons afraid for a while to visit the missionaries. Yet even before the removal of the edicts in 1873, it became evident that the government was becoming more liberal, and in Mar., 1872, the first Japanese church was organized in Yokohama with eleven members as a result of the work of the Reformed and the Presbyterian missionaries. Though this church has since become connected with the Nihon Kirisuto Kyokwai (Presbyterian), it at first had no denominational name. The next two churches, those of Kobé and Osaka, organized
The year 1873 marked the beginning of a period of rapid advance. Among progressive Japanese there sprang up a great desire to adopt Western customs and ideas. Protestant Christianity, as the religion of England and America, was thought to be at least worthy of investigation, and large audiences listened to its proclamation. Some, like the popular leader Fukuzawa, argued that as a matter of policy it would be well for the country nominally to adopt Christianity. The Christian schools became crowded with earnest young men and women, many of whom became Christians and showed much zeal for carrying the Gospel to others. Bibles and other religious books had an increasing sale. The churches received large accessions to their membership, and several became self-supporting. In 1883 a general convention of the missionaries and a union meeting of the Japanese Christians were followed by marked religious awakenings. So rapid did the growth of the churches become that extravagant expectations were aroused, and even some enemies of Christianity said that ere the century closed it would be the most prominent religion of the land. The statistics of Protestant missions for 1888 showed 249 churches with a membership of 25,514, the number of adults baptized in the year being 6,959. Outside of the professedly missionary ranks there were those from foreign lands who did much to help on the movement. Among them may be mentioned President Clark of the Massachusetts Agricultural College, who, in 1876, went to Japan to assist in establishing a similar institution in Sapporo. Capt. Janes, U. S. A., who was employed as a teacher in the city of Kumamoto, invited his pupils to come to his house for the study of the Bible. Some of them became Christians, whereupon a severe persecution broke out. A number of these went, in 1876, to the Doshisha School which Joseph Neesima and missionaries of the American Board had opened the preceding year in Kyoto. Mr. Neesima was a young man who, at a time when an attempt to leave the country was a capital crime, had been led by his desire to learn about God and Western civilization to go to America (1864). He was there befriended by Alpheus Hardy, a Boston merchant, and given opportunities for study such as fitted him to do a noteworthy religious and educational work for his own people.
The period of rapid growth was not without its difficulties. The movements of missionaries were hampered by regulations that limited freedom of travel in the interior. While the imperial government as a whole pursued a liberal policy, the educational department was much of the time in control of those who exerted a strong influence against Christianity. Local officials sometimes put hindrances in the way of evangelization, and there was much petty persecution by the relatives and neighbors of believers. Fear of losing office, trade, or popularity deterred many from following what they believed to be the truth. Buddhism awoke from its slumber to oppose the rival religion by means of lectures, tracts, schools, and societies. When elections were to be held in 1890 for the first national diet, the Buddhists entered the political arena and urged that the people should not choose any Christians to represent them. It was a bitter disappointment when returns showed that out of the 300 members of the House of Commons, thirteen were Christians, one of whom was made president, while another became chairman of the committee of the whole. Incidentally it may be mentioned that in subsequent diets Christians have several times held the same offices or that of vice-president, which is one of many facts that disprove the assertion that the influential classes in Japan are not reached by the Gospel.
The movement in favor of Christianity was checked by a reaction that began to be apparent about 1889. Failure to secure desired revision of treaties, with other untoward events, caused the Japanese to feel much irritation against foreign nations. Conservatives seized the opportunity to foster a nationalistic spirit; while the relations of Christianity with western lands had once been helpful, now they proved a hindrance. Preaching-places were no longer crowded; pupils left the Christian schools, there were few additions to the churches, and many defections. Hitherto there had been but little doctrinal discussion; this was now aroused by the coming of Unitarian and other liberal missions, as well as by the increased reading of books written in other lands. The fondness of the Japanese for novelty and the desire of many to show their independence of the missionaries who had been their teachers increased the tendency to advocate all sorts of views, while theological unrest led to spiritual decline and a relaxation of evangelistic efforts, and the growth of trade and manufactures fostered a commercial spirit that made it more difficult to interest men in religious themes. Nevertheless, some advance was made in this period, so that in 1900 there were 538 churches with 42,451 members.
While many varieties of Protestantism are represented in Japan, there has been a great degree of harmony among the different bodies. Nearly all have joined heartily in united evangelistic efforts, and have manifested a tendency toward the organic union of churches having similar forms of government. The churches connected with the various Presbyterian missions form the Nippon Kirisuto Kyokwai (Church of Christ in Japan); those connected with Episcopal missions of America. and England form the Sei Kokwai (Holy Catholic Church); and a similar union of Methodists was effected in 1907. These three bodies and the Kumi-ai Kyokwai (Congregational churches) are of nearly equal strength, their membership including more than five-sixths of the whole. Nearly all the churches except the Sei Kokwai use the same hymn-book; and by arrangement with the latter body 100 of its hymns are uniform with those of the Union Hymnal. Most of the missions are represented in the "Standing Committee of Cooperating Missions," which serves as "a general medium of reference, communication, and effort." The Japanese Christians are also united in an alliance that holds large conventions from time to time. Most of the missions have educational institutions of various grades; a few schools have been established by the Japanese Christians. In many of the government schools of higher grade tire are Christian associations. The International Young Men's Christian Association has sent secretaries to several of the larger cities of Japan, and these, in addition to work for the general associations, give counsel and help to those in the schools. The educational officials have also used their aid in securing from America men of good character and ability as teachers of English. In the island of Yezo the Church Missionary Society has a mission to the Ainu, an aboriginal race which is gradually becoming extinct. Of the 16,000 survivors, about 1,200 are Christians. Much successful work has been done among the Japanese emigrants in Hawaii and on the Pacific coast of the United States. Since Formosa came into the possession of Japan, some of the Japanese churches have sent evangelists there to labor for their own people and also for the native inhabitants. Other evangelists have been sent for similar work in Korea (q.v.) and the Chinese ports.
Even before the country was opened to foreign intercourse, most Japanese men were able to read more or less; and since the establishment of the educational system this ability has become almost universal among both men and women. This has made a great opening for Christian literature. The translation of the New Testament was completed in 1879, that of the Old Testament in 1877. For the most part the Scriptures are sold, and not given, to the people, the largest work of gratuitous distribution being in the army. Other Christian books and tracts were at first prepared by the missionaries or under their supervision, but now they come almost entirely from Japanese writers and are to a large extent published by Japanese firms. The same is true of Christian periodicals. Schools for poor children, orphan asylums, hospitals, dispensaries, leper asylums, schools for the blind, reform schools, and homes for released prisoners have been established, and these institutions have been founded and conducted by the Japanese Christians themselves. They have so far gained the approval and confidence of the people that believers and non believers alike have contributed toward their support, and some of them have received large gifts from the emperor and empress. The Christians are also recognized leaders in reform movements, such as those against intemperance, debasing exhibitions, and the system of licensed prostitution. The influence of Christianity is being felt in many ways that can not be tabulated. Partly because many literary men are Christians, or have been educated in Christian schools, Biblical quotations, theistic expressions, and arguments based on religious thought are common in newspapers and magazines. This shows that, in addition to what is visible to the eye, the leaven of Christian truth is silently working in the hearts of men. Apart from the directly religious results produced by the preaching of the Gospel, society is being in many ways affected by Christian ideas. No one can understand modern Japan who overlooks the influence that Christianity is exerting upon the thoughts and sentiments of the people.
F. Von Wenckstern, Bibliography of the
Japanese Empire, 1859-93, vol. i., Leyden, 1895; vol, ii.
Tokyo, 1907. On I. consult: E. Kaempfer, Hist. of
Japan, 2 vols., London, 1728, new ed. 3 vols., New
York, 1906; H. Faulds, Nine years in Nipon, Boston,
1888; P. Lowell, The Soul of the Far East, ib. 1888;
E. Lamairesse, Le Japon, histoire, religion, Paris, 1892;
H. Norman, Real Japan: Studies in Contemporary Manners,
Morals, Administration and Politics, New York,
1893; D. Murry, The Story of Japan, ib. 1894; J.
Page, Japan, its People and Missions, London, 1895; C.
Munzinger, Die Japaner, Berlin, 1898; W. G. Aston, History
of Japanese Literature, New York, 1899; F. Brinkley,
Japan, Boston, 1902; B. H. Chamberlain, Things Japanese,
and Art, Boston, 1906; idem, Mikado's Empire, 2 vols., New
York, 1903; idem, The Japanese Nation in Evolution
ib., 1907; Augusta M. C. Davidson, Present Day Japan, Social and Psychic, New York *
1904; idem, Imperial Japan: the Country and its People,
London, 1905; I. O. Nitobe, Bushido, the Soul of Japan,
New York, 1905 ; Mrs. E. Bickersteth, Japan, 1908.
On II, 1, consult: the Kojiki, transl. by B. H. Chamberlain, the supplement to Transactions of the Asiatic. Society of Japan, vol. x., 1882; the Nihongi, transl. by W. G. Aston in the Transactions of the Japan Society, 1896; W. G. Aston, Shinto, New York, 1905; P. Lowell, Occult Japan, Boston, 1895; F. Rinder, Old World Japan: Legends of the Land of Gods, New York, 1895; J. Batchelor, The Ainu and their Folklore, London, 1901; F. Brinkley, Japan, ut sup.; W. E. Griffis, The Religions of Japan, New York, 1904; M. Revon, Le Shintoisme, Paris, 1907; G. W. Knox, The Development of Religion in Japan, New York, 1907; E. Buckley, Phallicism in Japan, Chicago, privately printed. There are many papers of importance in the Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan, e.g., E. Satow, The Shinto Temples of Ise, ii. 113; idem, The Revival of Pure Shinto, iii. appendix; idem, Ancient Japanese Rituals, iv. 409, vii. 97, ix. 183; P. Lowell, Esoteric Shinto, xxi.-xxii.; D. C. Greene, Tenrikyo, xxiii. 24; K. Florenz, Ancient Japanese Ritual, xxvii. 1; A. Lloyd and D. C. Greene, The Remmonkyo, xxiv. 1, 17; J. Leo, Die Entwickelung des ältesten japanischen Seelenlebens, Leipsic, 1907.
On II, 2, consult: B. Nanjio, A Short Hist. of the Twelve Japanese Buddhist Sects, Tokyo, 1886; World's Parliament of Religions, 2 vols., Chicago, 1893; L. Hearn, Gleanings in Buddha Fields, Boston, 1897; idem, Japan, an Interpretation, ut sup.; F. Brinkley, ut sup.; W. E. Griffis, The Religions of Japan, ut sup.; and the following papers in the Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan: J. M. James, Notes on Rosaries used by Different Sects of Buddhists, ix. 173; J. Troup, On the Tenets of Shinshiu, xiv. 1; J. Summers, Buddhism and Traditions concerning its Introduction into Japan, xiv. 73; J. Troup, The Gobunsho, xvii. 101; A. Lloyd, Developments of Japanese Buddhism, xxii. 337.
On III, 1, the most valuable sources of information are to be found in the letters and reports of the missionaries, of which J. Hay gives many in De rebus Japonicis, Antwerp, 1605. Consult: Abbé de Talon (J. Crasset), Hist. de l'église du Japon, 2 vols., Paris, 1689, Eng. transl., London, 1705; P. F. Charlevoix, Hist. et déscription générale du Japon, 9 vols., Rouen, 1736; idem, Hist. du christianisme au Japon, 2 vols., ib. 1715; L. Pages, Hist. de la religion chrétienne au Japon, 2 vols., Paris, 1869; Le Premier Missionaire catholique du Japon au xix. siécle, Lyons, 1885 (largely composed of the letters of T. A. Forcade); F. Marnas, La Religion de Jésus ressuscitée au Japon, 2 vols., Paris, 1896; B. A. Wilberforce, Dominican Missions and Martyrs in Japan, London, 1897; J. Murdoch and Y. Yamagata, History of Japan 1542-1651, Kobé, 1903; M. Steichen, The Christian Daimyo, Yokohama, 1903; part of the literature under FRANCIS XAVIER; also the letters and reports in Annals of the Propagation of the Faith and Catholic Missions, periodicals published in London.
On III, 2, consult: C. Hale, Missions of the Russian Church, in American Church Review, Oct., 1878; G, W, Taft, Bishop Nicolai, in Japanese Evangelist, June, 1896; The first two volumes of a compendious history in Japanese, Nihon Seikyo Dendo Shi, were published Tokyo, 1900.
On III, 3, consult: Proceedings of the General Conference of Protestant Missionaries of Japan, Yokohama, 1883; General Conference of Protestant Missionaries of Japan, Tokyo, 1901; H. Ritter, Dreissig Jahre protestantischer Mission in Japan, Berlin, 1890, Eng, transl., History of Protestant Missions in Japan, Tokyo, 1898: M. L. Gordon, An American Missionary in Japan, Boston, 1892; Jinzo Nsruse, A Modem Paul in Japan: Account of the Life and Work of Rev. P. Sawayana, ib. 1893; R. B. Peery, The Gist of Japan, New York, 1897; idem, Lutherans in Japan, Newberry, S. C., 1900; A. D. Hail, Japan and its Rescue, Nashville, 1898; E. Stock, Japan and the Japan Mission of the Church Missionary Society, London, 1898; O. Cary, Japan and its Regeneration, New York, 1904; W. E, Griffis, Dux Christus, ib. 1904; H. Moore, The Christian Faith in Japan, London, 1904; E. W. Clement, Christianity in Modern Japan, Philadelphia, 1905; H. K. Miller, Hist. of the Japan Mission of the Reformed Church, 1879-1904, ib. 1905; A. Arnold, The Light of Japan. Church Work in . . . South Tokyo, Osaka, and Kiushiu under the Church of England, Hartford. 1906; W. M. Imbrie, The Church of Christ in Japan, Philadelphia, 1908; The Christian Movement in its Relation to the New Life of Japan, an annual published in Tokyo, 1903 sqq.; R. Allier, Le Protestantisme au Japon, Paris, 1908; O. Cary, Hist. of Christianity in Japan, New York, 1909.
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