Horace's Ars poetics (London, 1749; Moral and Political Dialogues (1759), in which historical personages discuss various topics; Letters on Chivalry and Romance (1762), which helped to initiate the Romantic movement; An Introduction to the Study of the Prophecies Concerning the Christian Church (1772; 5th ed., 2 vols., 1788, being Warburton lectures delivered at Lincoln's Inn; and Sermons (3 vols., 1776-80). He edited, among other things, Warburton's Works (7 vols., 1788), and left materials for an annotated edition of Addison's Works (6 vols., 1811). His own Works were published, with an autobiography, in 8 vols., 1811.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. Kilveit, Memoirs of the Life and Writinge of Richard Hurd, London, 1880; John Nichols, Literary Anecdotes of the 18th Century, London, 1812-15; DNB, xzviii: 314-318.

HURLBUT, JESSE LYMAN: Methodist Episcopalian; b. in New York City Feb. 14, 1843. He was educated at Wesleyan University, Middletown, Conn. (A.B., 1864), and after teaching for a year (1864-65) in Pennington Seminary, Pennington, N. J., entered the Methodist Episcopal ministry. He held various pastorates from 1865 to 1879, when he was appointed an agent of the Sunday School Union of his denomination, a position which he held five years. From 1884 to 1888 he was assistant Sunday-school literature editor, and from 1888 to 1900 was full editor, and also secretary, of the Sunday School Union and Tract Society. In 1900 he resumed the ministry, and was pastor at Morristown, N. J., and since 1904 has held a pastorate at South Orange, N. J. He has been active in Chautauqua work, and was one of the founders of the Epworth League, of which he was secretary in 1889-92. Special mention may be made of his American History (New York, 1880); Life of Christ (1882); Manual of Biblical Geography (Chicago, 1884); Studies in the Four Gospels (New York, 1889); Studies in Old Testament History (1890); Traveling in the Holy Land through the Stereoscope (1900); From Saul to Solomon: Studies in Old-Testament History (1903); Story of the Bible told for Young and Old (Philadelphia, 1904); Stories from the Old and New Testaments (1904); Outline Studies in the Old Testament for Bible Teachers (New York, 1905) ; and Sunday Half Hours with Great Preachers (1908). He has prepared numerous volumes on Sunday School lessons, many of them in collaboration with J. H. Vincent.

HURST, JOHN FLETCHER: Methodist Episcopal bishop; b. at Salem, Md., Aug. 17, 1834; d. in Washington, D. C., May 4, 1903. He was educated at Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pa. (A.B., 1854), where he taught classics for two years (1854-56), after which he studied theology at the universities of Halle and Heidelberg (1856-57). He was then a pastor in the Newark (N. J.) conference of his denomination from 1858 to 1866, after which he was professor of theology in the Mission Institute of the Methodist Episcopl Church for the training of German ministers for his denomination, first at Bremen (1866-69), and later at Frankfort (1869-71), where the institution was removed in 1869. Returning to the United States, he was professor of historical

theology in Drew Theological Seminary, Madison, N. J., from 1871 to 1880, and president of the same institution from 1873 to 1880. In 1880 he was elected bishop of his denomination. In 1898 he was elected chancellor of the American University, Washington, D. C. Besides translating K. R. Hagenbaeh's History of the Church in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries (2 vols., New York, 1869); J. J. Van Oosterzee's Apologetical Letters on John's Gospel (Edinburgh, 1869); Romans in J. P. Lange's Commentary (New York, 1870); and a number of the moral essays of Seneca (in collaboration with H. C. Whitney, 1877), he was the author of a large number of works, among which special mention may be made of the following: History of Rationalism (New York, 1866); Martyrs to the Tract Cause (1872); Outlines of Bible History (1873); Outlines of Church History (1874); Our Theological Century (1877); Bibliotheea Theologica (1883); Short History of the Reformation (Cleveland, O., 1884); Theological Encyclopadia and Methodology (New York, 1884); Short History of the Early Church (Cleveland, 1886); Short History of the Mediwval Church (1887); Short History of the Modern Church in Europe (1888); Short History of the Church in the United States (1890); Indika, the Country and the People of India and Ceylon (New York, 1891); Short History of the Christian Church (1893); The Literature of Theology (1895); History of the Christian Church (2 vols., 1897-1900); and History of Methodism (7 vols., 1904).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Osborn, John Ftetder Hurst, New York, 1905.

HURTER, FRIEDRICH EMANUEL VON: Roman Catholic historian; b. at Schaffhausen, Switzerland, of Protestant parents, Mar. 19, 1787; d. at Graz Aug. 27, 1865. He studied theology in GSttingen; in 1824 was chief pastor in Schaffhausen, and in 1835 dean of the synod, but was converted to Roman Catholicism through his historical studies, especially those made for his history of Innocent III., and in 1844 entered that church. He was called to Vienna in 1845 as imperial councillor and historiographer. Besides controversial writings, he was the author of the famous Geschichte des Papstes Innocenz 111. and seiner Zeitgenossen, 4 vols., Hamburg, 1834-42; Denkwiirdigkeiten Gus dem letzten Dezennium des achtwhaten Jahrhunderts, Schaffhausen, 1840, an account of his conversion, which is said to be one of the best books of its class; Geburt and Wiedergeburt, 2 vols., 1845; Geschichte Ferdinand 11. and seiner Zeit, 11 vols., 1850-64; and other works dealing with Austrian history.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. von Hurter, Friedrich von Hurter . . and seine Zeit, 2 vols., Gras, 1876 (by his son).

HURTER, HUGO ADALBERT FERDINAND VON: Austrian Roman Catholic; b. at Schaffhausen (25 m. n.e. of Zurich), Switzerland, Jan. 11, 1832. He was educated at Rome, and was ordained to the priesthood in 1855. Two years later he entered the Society of Jesus, and in the following year (1858) was appointed professor of dogmatic theology at the University of Innsbruck, a position which he retained until his retirement as professor emeritus in 1903. He has written Ueber die Rechte der Vernunft and des Glaubens (Innsbruck, 1863);