HITZE, FRANZ: German Roman Catholic; b. at Hannemicke, Westphalia, Mar. 16, ,1851. He studied at Wilrzburg 1872-78, and then was chap lain of the German Campo Santo at Rome for two years. He was then appointed secretary of the Roman Catholic society Arbeiterwohl at Munich Gladbach, and two years later was elected to the Landtag, going to the Reichstag in 1904. In 1893 he was appointed associate professor of Christian sociology at Munster, where he was promoted to his present position of full professor of the same subject in 1904. He has written: Die soziale Frage and die Beatrebungen zu ihrer Uaung (Pader born, 1877); %apital and Arbeit and die Reorgani sation der Gesellsehaft (1880);, Quintessenz der 8o zialen Frage (1880); Pflichten and Aufgaben der Arbeitgeber (Cologne, 1888); Wesentliche Bestim mungen des Gesetzes betreffend die Invaliditf- and Alteraversicherung (Munich-Gladbaeh, 1889); Schutz dem Arbeiter (Cologne, 1890); Normale Arbeitaord nteng (1891); and Arbeiter frage (Berlin, 1898).

HITZIG, hit'siH, FERDINAND: German exegete and Old Testament critic; b. near L6rrach (28 m. s.s.w. of Freiburg), Baden, June 23, 1807; d. at Heidelberg Jan. 22, 1875. He studied theology at Heidelberg, Halle, and GBttingen, and became privet-docent at Heidelberg in 1829. He first at-


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of the congregation requires that in the sermon the communion with God as established by him be represented, and, after that, the attitude of the congregation toward him as conditioned by that relationship. In this sense the sermon, like Christian worship in general, may be regarded as an expository activity. Schleiermacher distinguishes between an expository and an effective activity; but it is impossible to exclude from the former the idea of effective purpose. A homiletics which admits the means of grace to be real powers of salvation can not refrain from putting the sermon into the category of effective activity. Thus the question is raised in what the effect of the sermon should consist. It has been shown that instruction is not simply and solely the purpose of the sermon. But it must be admitted that lack of knowledge is a prominent and pervading defect of personal Christianity, to remove which instruction is the only means, and this is accomplished most effectively in preaching. Moreover, the congregation has the promise that the Spirit of truth will guide it into all truth (John xvi. 13). Homiletics must therefore find a designation which does not exclude instruction. A comprehensive designation offers itself in the word "to edify," which leaves room for instruction (I Cor. xiv. 4). This indication of purpose was not unknown to the older church, and has been correctly explained in Mosheim's Anweisung erbaulich zu predigen, Vorb., § 2 (Erlangen, 1771): The hearers are (1) to be confirmed in the knowledge of religion which they have already obtained, and this is to be extended; (2) to be awakened and exhorted to diligence and growth in godliness. This confirmation takes place through the exposition of Christian truth, which has edifying power through the testimony of the Holy Spirit. As a means of accomplishing this it is evident that, above all, the subject-matter of the sermon must be edifying. Thus Hyperius requires that that should be preached which concerns faith, love, and hope. To faith belong all those religious subjects which are contained in the Apostles' Creed. To love belong the doctrine of morals, the decalogue, especially the second table, the doctrine of the Church and of the sacraments. To hope belongs the doctrine of the last things. Hyperius, like other writers on homiletics, thus arrives at the catechism, guided by the correct idea that that should be preached which corresponds to the religious needs of the congregation. But even though the subject-matter be properly chosen, this does not guarantee that the sermon is capable of edifying. The subject-matter becomes edifying or unedifying according to its treatment by the preacher. It was rationalism which made the subject-matter responsible for edification through the sermon, and as rationalism discarded catechetics, it excluded from the sermon the very matters upon which earlier times had laid stress. Recent writers on homiletics again tend toward the opposite extreme by trying to eliminate from the sermon almost all social, economical, and merely philosophical questions. But all such subjects have a religious side, and are therefore subject to sermonic treatment. Theoretical homiletics must insist upon the fact that there is nothing which a priori may be excluded from the sermon as unedifying. Edification lies not in the quality of the subject-matter, but in the quality of the sermon; hence the doctrine of the edification of the sermon must be distributed over both material and formal homiletics.

4. Relation of the Sermon to Scripture and the Creeds.

But there are other problems which theoretical homiletics must try to solve. The congregation possesses in Holy Scripture an authoritative norm, inasmuch as the Spirit of God acts in it and through it. What, therefore, is the connection between sermon and Scripture? All theologians agree that the authority of Scripture is higher than that of the sermon, but a question which arises is whether the sermon is superfluous if Scripture is all-sufficient. The answer must be that the Bible, without detriment to its authority, belongs to the past, though destined for all times, while the sermon is a testimony from the present life of the congregation and in its immediate object applies only to the present. This testimony must agree with Scripture, but must have an independent form, corresponding to modern needs. Therefore the sermon is necessary alongside of Scripture. Theoretical homiletics also asks how far the preacher is bound to the confession of his Church. Protestant Church commmuties have in the past provided for their preachers certain norms of doctrine in which the sum total of Christian doctrine is expressed. These church communities were not contented merely to unite against the Catholic Church and to decide not to have anything in common with fanatics. They felt bound to explain why they dissented, to give to their better knowledge a definite positive expression, and this not merely from reasons of church polity, but because of pastoral interest in their own congregations. This is the deeper reason why preachers were always bound to teach according to such doctrinal standards. Homiletics may not surrender this obligation. It must admit, however, that not everything in the different confessional writings is to be regarded as an integrating constituent of the confession. But this concession does not involve the possibility that the Evangelical confessions will some time be abolished; for homiletics rests upon the presupposition that it is one and the same spirit, the spirit of Jesus Christ, who speaks in Scripture and leads his disciples to the knowledge of truth. From this it is self-evident that the preacher is to be personally devoted to the faith and confession of his Church. It would be too little simply to keep within the limits of the confession without personal fidelity to it, although the effect of the sermon does not depend upon the personal attitude of the preacher to that which he preaches.

5. Subject and Basis of the Sermon.

From these fundamental conceptions concerning the nature and purpose of the sermon in general, homiletics passes to the treatment of the quality of the individual sermon, i.e., material and formal homiletics. Since edification is the purpose of the sermon, while the possibility of edification through the individual sermon is dependent upon its quality, the first question is, What can homiletics teach in regard to the subject


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361 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Homiletfos Homilies imp, ib. 1884; H. Bassermann, Handbuck der peiatlidlien BeredeamkeiR Stuttgart, 1885; A. Stole, Honiletik, Frei burg, 1885; J. A. BroaAus, Preparation and Delivery of Sermons, New York, 1888 (Professor Broadue earned a wide reputation for his .kill in this branch); J. W. Etter, The Preacher and his Sermon, Dayton, O., 1888; C. Palmer, Evanpelische Homiletik, Stuttgart, 1887; A. J. F. Behrends, The Philosophy of Preaching, New York, 1890; A. T. Pierson, The Divine Art of Preaching, ib. 1892; T. Christlieb, Homiletik, Basel, 1893; R. F. Horton, Ve bum Doi, Londop, 1893; W. B. Carpenter, Lectures on Preaching, London, 1895; J. Jungmann, Theorie der paiat lichen Beredamkeit, 2 vole., Freiburg, 1895; J. stalker, The Preacher and his Models, London, 1895; 1. Stoek meyer, Homil6tik, Basel, 1895ˇ Phillips Brooks, Lectures on Preaching, New York, 1898; H. Van Dyke, Gospel for an Age of Doubt, ib. 1898; J. A. Kern, Ministry to the Congregation, ib. 1897; T. H. Pattison, The Making of a Sermon,, Philadelphia, 1898; H. Hering, Die Lehre ton der Predipt, 2 vole., Berlin, 1897-1904; J. S. Kennard, Psychic Power in Preaching, Philadelphia, 1901; F. Bar ton, Pulpit Power and Eloquence, 2 vole., Cleveland, 1901 1902; T. H: Pattison, Hist. of Christian Preaching, Philadel phia, 1903; W. J. Fosell, The Sermon and Preaching, New York, 1904; J. J. A. Proudfoot, Systematic Homiletics, ib. 1904; A. S. Hoyt, The Work of Preaching, ib. 19M; L. O. Brastow, The Modern Pulpit, ib. 1908; A. E. Garvie, A Guide to mss, London, 19118; H. C. Graves, Lcoˇ lures on Homiletics, Philadelphia, 1908; W. Rhodes, Homiletics and Preaching, Baltimore, 1908; P. T. Forsyth. Positive Preaching and the Positive Mind, New York, 1907; S. Horne, The Ministry of the Modern Church, London, 1904; P. Kleinert, Homildik, Leipsio 1907; H. Johnson, The Ideal Ministry, New York, 1908; C. R. Brown, The Social Message of the Modern Pulpit, London, 1908. For further literature see under PabACrr?Na, Harroa: or.