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Forbem Formorua tile was finally abolished by the Moravian Synod in 1818. In the Lutheran Church, during the period of orthodoxy, foot-washing was considered as '- an abominable papal corruption." In the year 1718 the Upper Consistory at Dresden con demned twelve Lutheran citizens of Weida to pub lic penance for having permitted Duke Maurice William (at that time still a Roman Catholic) to wash their feet. PAUL TscaAcgxaT.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: E. Marthne, De antiquia exleeiss ritibus, IV., xltii. 8, 4 vole., Baeeano, 1788; J. Goar. Bucholopium, pp. 591-596, Paris, 1647; G. Catalani, Ceremonials e0aoopomm . . . commentariis Qusbatum, ii. 286-272, Rome,

1744; W. F. Gees. Die Fusewaschunp Jesu, Basel. 1884; F. Kattenbuech, Lehrbuch der romgleichenden Confessionkunde, Freiburg, 1890; AL, iv. 2146-48.

FORBES, ALEXANDER PENROSE: Bishop of Brechin; b. at Edinburgh June 6, 1817; d. at Dundee (37 m. n.n.e. of Edinburgh) Oct. 8, 1875. He studied at the University of Edinburgh, Haileybury College, and Brasenose College, Oxford (B.A., 1844; M.A., 1846; D.C.L., 1848), where he came strongly under the influence of the Oxford movement. Before entering Oxford he was in the civil service in India. He was curate at Aston Rowant, near Oxford, 1844, and at 8t. Thomas', Oxford, 1845. In 1848 he became the incumbent of Stonehaven, Kincardineshire, in May, 1847, vicar of St. Saviour's, Leeds, a church built expressly to further the tractarian doctrine. Later in the same year he was appointed bishop of Brechin. He removed the headquarters of the bishopric to Dundee and added to his duties as bishop those of vicar of 8t. Paul's,- Dundee. For inculcating the doctrine of the ~ real presence in his primary charge to the clergy, Aug. 5, 1857, he was formally tried for heresy. He was finally acquitted with an admonition and censure in- Mar., 1860. Bishop Forbes published numerous sermons, commentaries, translations, etc.; his principal works are, A Short Explanation of the Nicene Creed (Oxford, 1852; 2d ed., enlarged, 1866), a handbook of dogmatic theology; An Explanation of the Thirty-Nine Articles (2 vole-., 1887-68); and Kalendars of Scottish Saints (Edinburgh, 1872).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: D. J. Mackey, Bishop Forbes, a Memoir, London, 1888; S. M. F. Slkene]; Meter of Alexander Bishop of BrwAin, ib. 1876.

FORBES, JOHN: Scotch theologian; b. May 2, 1593; d. at Corse (19 m. w. of Dumfries), Kirkcudbrightshire, Apr. 29, 1648. He studied at King's College (Aberdeen), and at Heidelberg, Sddan, and other Continental universities, and in 1619 was ordained at Middelburg, returning in the same year to Aberdeen, where his father was bishop. In 1620 he was appointed professor of divinity is King's College, Aberdeen, where he was conapicuous for his defense of episcopacy. He succeeded to his father's estate of Corse in 1635, and two years later was an advocate of the project to unite the Reformed and Lutheran churches. In 1638, however, he refused to sign the National Covenant, and despite the protests of the synod was ejected from his professorship by the General Assembly

He accepted the Presbyterian form of government, but the Solemn League and Covenant, sanctioned in 1643, forced him to leave Scotland, and from THE NEW fiCHAFF-HERZOG 340

1644 until 1648 he resided in Holland. He then returned to his native country, and spent the remainder of his life at Cores. Forbes, who was irenic in temperament, was the author of Irenicum amatort'bus veritatis et paGia in Ecclesia Scoticana (Aberdeen, 1629) and Irratitutianes historico-theodogicce de dodrina Christians (Amsterdam, 1845), as well as of a number of minor writings. His complete Latin works, including several posthumous treatises and a Latin translation of his diary, were edited by G. Garden (2 vole., Amsterdam, 1702-03).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A Life by Dr. Garden was prefixed to the Works, ut sup.; DNB, ai:. 402-404.

FORBES, PATRICK: Bishop of Aberdeen; b. probably at Come (30 m. n.w. of Aberdeen), 1584; d. at Aberdeen Mar. 28, 1835. He studied at the universities of Glasgow and 8t. Andrews under his kinsman Andrew Melville (q.v.). In deference to his father's wishes, he declined a professorship in theology, and did not take orders till 1612, though for years he had been preaching privately at Cores. Prior to his ordination he had begun to hold services in the parish church, but these public ministrations were stopped by royal order. He held the pastoral charge of Keith 1612-18. In 1618 he took a prominent part in the General Assembly, and was placed upon a commission to revise the confession of faith, liturgy, and rules of discipline. In 1818 he was appointed bishop of Aberdeen. He was conspicuously successful is the administration of his diocese, did much to put down existing feuds, and raised the University of Aberdeen to a condition of prosperity. His principal work is An Ezquisite Commentary upon the Revelation of St. John (London, 1613; Middelburg, 1614; Lat. trawl., Amsterdam, 1648), which is directed against Romanian.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Funeral of Patrick Forbes .... consisting o/ , Orations, Epitaphs, and other. Pisces on the Death of the Rood BHP. Aberdeen. 1635, reprinted by C. F. Shand for the Spottiewoode Society, Edinburgh, 1845; DNB, uZ. 407-409.

FORBES, WILLIAM: Bishop of Edinburgh; b. at Aberdeen 1585; d. there Apr. 12, 1834. He studied at Marischal College (M.A.,, 1801), where he held the chair of logic for several years. He

traveled on the Continent 1808-11, visiting several Dutch and German universities and making the acquaintance of Scaliger, Grotius, and Vossius. Soon after his return to Britain-he entered the min-

istry, having declined a professorship in Hebrew at Oxford. In, 1616 he was appointed one of the ministers of Aberdeen, and at the assembly at Perth in 1818 he was chosen to defend the article enjoining kneeling at the communion. In 1621 he was chosen one of the ministers of Edinburgh, but, owing to the unwelcome reception which his Romanism encountered here, he was glad to return to his former charge at Aberdeen is 1826. In 1833

be preached at Holyrood before Charles L, who was so delighted with ;the sermon that he made the

preacher bishop of Edinburgh. Forbes wan consecrated in Feb., 1834. His only published work is the posthumous Conaideraxiones modeato? et pa-

d tificte corttroversiarxcm de justifications, purgatorio m invocations aanctorum Chriato mediators et exicha-