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CALDECOTT, ALFRED: Church of England; b. at Chester Nov. 9, 1850. He was educated at the University of London (B.A., 1873) and at St. John's College, Cambridge (B.A., 1879), and was ordered deacon in 1880, and ordained priest two years later. He was curate of Christ Church, Stafford, in 1880, fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, in 1880-86, and fellow and dean of the same college in 1889-95, in addition to being curate of St. Paul's, Cambridge, in 1881-82, vicar of Horningsey, Cambridgeshire, in 1882-84, and principal of Codrington College, Barbados, and examining chaplain to the bishop of Barbados in 1884-86. He was organizing secretary of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel at Cambridge in 1889-1905, and was rector of North cum South Lophan, Norfolk, in 1895-98. Since the latter year he has been rector of Frating cum Thorington, Essex, and has also been examining chaplain to the bishop of St. Albans since 1903. He was examiner in Moral Science Tripos in Cambridge in 1884, 1888-89, and 1893-94, and was select preacher in the same university in 1884, 1890-91, and 1894, while in 1891-1892 he was junior proctor. In addition to his duties as rector, he has been professor of moral and mental philosophy in King's College, London, since 1891, and examiner in theology in the University of London since 1902, as well as Cambridge Extension Lecturer in 1880-82 and 1886-87. He has likewise been senior secretary of St. John's Cambridge Mission in South London in 1883-86 and 1889-95, vice-president of the Cambridge Ethical Society in 1890-1905, governor of Colchester Grammar School in 1900-05, a member of the committee of the Christian Evidence Society since 1903, and a member of the Senate of the University of London since 1904. In 1906 he was elected a fellow of King's College, London. He has written: English Colonisation and Empire (London, 1891); The Church in the West Indies (1898); and The Philosophy of Religion in England and America (1901).

CALDERWOOD, DAVID: The historian of the Church of Scotland; b. probably at Dalkeith (7 m. s.e. of Edinburgh) 1575; d. at Jedburgh (40 m. s.e. of Edinburgh) Oct. 29, 1650. He studied at Edinburgh, and in 1604 was ordained minister of Crailing, near Jedburgh. He was a determined opponent of the scheme of King James to introduce prelacy into the Church of Scotland; in 1617 he

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presented a remonstrance to the king, and argued so boldly and successfully in support of his position that he was imprisoned and ultimately ordered to leave the country. He went to Holland (1619), where he lived in quiet and obscurity; at one time it was rumored that he was dead and a false Recantation Directed to Such in Scotland as Refuse Conformity to the Ordinances of the Church, was published and ascribed to him (London, 1622). After the death of James (1625) he returned to Scotland, but did not obtain a charge until 1640, when he was appointed minister at Pencaitland, East Lothian. Gradually he came again into prominence and, with David Dickson and Alexander Henderson, was employed in drawing up the "Directory for Public Worship." In 1648 the General Assembly voted him an annual pension of 800 Scots (66 13s. 4d. sterling) to enable him to complete his great work, the history of the Kirk of Scotland. He died, however, leaving it still in manuscript, and in three forms; the first and longest is now partially preserved in the British Museum; the second, "a digest of the first," was published with a Life by Thomas Thomson by the Wodrow Society in eight volumes, Edinburgh, 1842-49; the third, another abridgment, was published in 1678 with the title The True History of the Church of Scotland from the Beginning of the Reformation unto the End of the Reign of King James VI. These histories have slight literary merit, but are invaluable as sources, their material having been collected with diligence and fidelity. The most notable of Calderwood's other publications was his Altar of Damascus, or the pattern of the English hierarchy and church obtruded upon the Church of Scotland (Leyden, 1621; Lat. transl., Altare Damascenum, with considerable additions, 1623; 2d ed., 1708), which became later the great storehouse of arguments in favor of Presbyterianism.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Besides the Life, by T. Thomson, prefixed to the Wodrow ed. of the History, and the Preface to vol. viii. of the same, by D. Laing, consult: G. Grub, Ecclesiastical History of Scotland, vols. ii., iii., Edinburgh, 1861; J. Walker, Theology and Theologians of Scotland, ib. 1872; DNB, viii. 244-246.

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