CAINITES: According to Irenæus (Hœr., i. 31), a sect of the Ophites who worshiped Cain as an instrument of the Gnostic Sophia, treated with hostility by the demiurge. They saw in Judas the one who best of all knew the truth, celebrated his treason as a mystery, and had a "Gospel of Judas." The notices of Pseudo-Tertullian (Hœr., vii.), Philastrius (Hœr., ii.), and Epiphanius (Hœr., xxxviii.) accord with these statements. Cain was generated of higher power than Abel, and Judas was the benefactor of the human race, either because by his treason he frustrated Christ's intention to destroy truth (Philastrius), or because he compelled the archons to kill Christ, and so assisted in obtaining the salvation of the cross (Epiphanius). When Tertullian (Prœscriptio hœreticorum, xxxiii.; cf. De baptismo, i.) mentions "Gaiana heresis" he probably refers to the Cainites. Cf. also Clement, Strom., vi. 108; Theodoret, Hœr., i. 15; Hippolytus, Phil., viii. 20. For Cainites, descendants of Cain, See CAIN, KENITES.
CAIRD, JOHN: Church of Scotland: b. at Greenock (23 m. w.n.w. of Glasgow), Renfrewshire, Dec. 15, 1820; d. there July 30, 1898. He was educated at the University of Glasgow (1837-1838, 1840-45; M.A., 1845), interrupting his studies in 1838-39 while engaged in his father's engineering works. After the completion of his education he was minister successively at Newton-on-Ayr (1845-1847), Lady Yester's, Edinburgh (1847-49), Errol, Perthshire (1849-57), and the Park Church, Glasgow (1857-62). In 1862 he was appointed professor of theology in the University of Glasgow, where he became principal and vice-chancellor in 1873, retaining both positions until his death, although he announced his intention of resigning early in 1898. He was Croall Lecturer at Edinburgh in 1878-79 and Gifford Lecturer at Glasgow in 1890-91 and 1896, though a stroke of paralysis forced him to discontinue this second course. He wrote: Sermons (Edinburgh, 1858); Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion (Croall lectures for 1878-79; Glasgow, 1880); Spinoza (Edinburgh, 1886); and the posthumous University Addresses (Glasgow, 1898): University Sermons (1898); and The Fundamental Ideas of Christianity (Gifford lectures; 2 vols., 1899; ed., with a memoir of the author, by E. Caird).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: E. Caird, memoir prefixed to his edition of The Fundamental Ideas of Christianity, 2 vols., Glasgow, 1899; DNB, supplement, i. 368-369.
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