BRUNO (BONIFATIUS) OF QUERFURT: Missionary to the Slavs and Prussians, among whom he suffered martyrdom, Feb. 14, or Mar. 16. 1009.


He was a Saxon nobleman, educated at the cathedral-school at Magdeburg, and accompanied his cousin, the Emperor Otto III., to Rome (996), where he took holy orders. Pope Sylvester II. entrusted to him a missionary expedition to the Slavs in the east, which the Polish duke Boleslav had asked for, and he was raised to the rank of archbishop. His chief task was to be the conversion of the heathen Prussians, to whom Adalbert of Prague had fallen victim but a short time before. Being detained at Magdeburg by wars between Germans and Poles, he wrote the Vita S. Alberti. Peace being reestablished, he went to Poland and was gladly received by Boleslav, but being unable to enter into Prussia, he converted the Petchenegs and organized their church affairs. Remaining for some time in Poland, he wrote the Vita quinque fratrum Poloniœ, Christian martyrs slain in 1003 near Meseritz, and when at last he took upon him the task he was entrusted with, he and his companions, like St. Adalbert, lost their lives by the swords of the heathen not far from Braunsberg. Boleslav, who was deeply afflicted, ordered the remains of the martyrs to be gathered and brought to Poland, where they were solemnly buried and became an object of most devoted reverence.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: The sources for a life are: the Chronicon of Dietmar, ed. J. M. Lappenberg, Hanover, 1889; Damian's Vita St. Romualdi, ed. G. H. Pertz, in MGH, Script., iv. 850-854, ib. 1841; Chronicon Magdeburgense, ed., Meibom, in Script. rer. Germ., pp. 269-378. Consult: W. von Giesebrecht, Geschichte der deutschen Kaiserzeit, ii. 104, 192 sqq., Brunswick, 1875; idem, Erzbischof Brun-Bonifatius in Neue preussische Provinzialblätter, i. (1859); Hauck, KD, vol. iii.; ADB, iii. 433.

BRUNO, SAINT: Founder of the Carthusian order. See CARTHUSIANS.

BRUNO OF SEGNI: Bishop of Segni (28 m. s.e. of Rome); b. at Solero (6 m. w. of Alessandria), Lombardy, between 1045 and 1049; d. at Segni July 18, 1123. He was educated in a monastery near his birthplace and at Bologna, became a canon at Sienna, and came to Rome in 1079. Here he came in contact with the leaders of the Church, and must have soon attracted the attention of Gregory VII., if it is true that it was at his request that he disputed with Berengar on the Eucharist. In any case he accomplished his task so well that the pope made him bishop of Segni in the Campagna the same year. He was even more closely connected with Urban II., whom be accompanied to France in 1095. In 1099 he entered the monastery of Monte Cassino, but without resigning his see or severing his relations with the outside world. He undertook an important mission to France for Paschal II. in 1106, and remained with the pope for some time after his return, finally going back to his cloister, where he was elected abbot in 1107. Paschal made no objection to this pluralism until in the conflicts of 1111 Bruno took the part of the antipope Maginulf (Sylvester IV.), and was forced to resign his abbacy and return to Segni. Lucius III. canonized him in 1181. His works (in MPL, clxiv., clxv.) are principally exegetical. His Libellus de symoniacis, written before 1109, is important for its discussion of the meaning of simony, and especially for its attitude on the sacraments of a simoniacal priest.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources for a life are the Chronicon Cassinense, book iv., chaps. 31-42, ed. W. Wattenbach, in MGH, Script., vii. 776-783, Hanover, 1846, and an anonymous Vita in ASB, 18 July, iv. 478-488. The fullest and best modern treatment is by B. Gigalski, Bruno, Bischof von Segni, . . . sein Leben und seine Schriften, Münster, 1898. Consult also Hefele, Conciliengeschichte, vol. v.; C. Mirbt, Die Publizistik im Zeitalter Gregors VII., pp. 384-385, 423-424, 522-523, Leipsic,1894; Meyer von Knonau, Jahrbücher des deutschen Reichs unter Heinrich IV., pp. 92 sqq., ib. 1904.


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