BENTON, ANGELO AXES: Protestant Episcopalian; b. at Canea (Khania), on the island of Crete, July 3, 1837. He studied at Trinity College, Hartford, Conn. (B.A., 1856) and the General Theological Seminary, New York city (1860). He held various parishes in North Carolina from 1860 to 1883, when he was appointed professor of mathematics and modern languages at Delaware College, Newark, Delaware, being transferred to the chair of Greek and Latin two years later. In 1887 he accepted a call to the University of the South as professor of dogmatic theology, where he remained until 1894, being likewise rector of the Otey Memorial Church, Sewanee, from 1893 to 1895. He was then rector at Albion, Ill., in 1895-1904, this being interrupted by a temporary charge at Tarentum, Pa. Since 1905 he has held a temporary charge at Foxburg, Pa. His chief literary work has been the editing of the Church Encyclopedia (Philadelphia, 1884).
BENZINGER, EMMANUEL (GUSTAV ADOLF): German Orientalist; b. at Stuttgart Feb. 21, 1865. He was educated at the University of Tübingen (Ph.D., 1888; licentiate of theology, 1894), and after a pastorate at Neuenstadt, Württemberg, from 1894 to 1898, was privat-docent for Old Testament theology at the University of Berlin until 1901, when he retired, and has since resided in Palestine. In theology he belongs to the historicocritical school. He has been a member of the Deutscher Palästinaverein since 1888, editing its journal in 1897-1902, and has also been on the executive committee of the Deutscher Verein zur Erforschung Palästinas since 1897. He has written Hebräische Archäologie (Freiburg, 1894, 2d ed.1907); Commentar zu den Königsbüchern (1899) and Commentar zu den Chronik (1901), both in the Kurzer Hand-Kommentar zum Alten Testament; and Geschichte des Volkes Israels (Leipsic, 1904). He likewise collaborated with R. J. Hartmann in Palästina (Stuttgart, 1899), and with Frohnmeyer in Bilderatlas zur Bibelkunde (1905), and has edited Baedeker's Palästina und Syrien since the third edition (1889).
BENZO: Bishop of Alba, a zealous partizan of Henry IV; b. about the beginning of the eleventh century; d. not earlier than 1085 or 1086. Little that is definitely attested can be related of his life; but it may be reasonably conjectured that he came originally from southern Italy, that he gained some sort of a position at the German Court, possibly as one of the chaplains of Henry III, and that before 1059 he was raised to the bishopric of Alba by Henry's influence. He was one of the most devoted upholders of the Italian claims of the
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Benzo's Ad Henricum IV imperatorem Libri septem, ed. K. Pertz, is in MGH, Script., xi, 591-681, Hanover, 1854. On his life and work consult: W. von Giesebrecht, Annales Altahenses, pp. 123, 213-227, Berlin, 1841; idem, Geschichte der Kaiserzeit, ii, 535, Brunswick, 1875 (in opposition to the work of K. J. Will, next mentioned); K. J. Will, Benzos Panegyrikus, Marburg, 1857; H. Lehmgrübner, Benzo von Alba, . . . sein Leben und . . . " Panegyricus", Berlin, 1887; idem, Benzo von Alba, . . . eine Quellenuntersuchung, ib. 1886; T. Lindner, Benzos Panegyricus auf Heinrich IV, pp. 497-526, Göttingen, 1866; O. Delarc, in Revue des questions historiques, xliii (1888), 5-60; E. Steindorff, in Göttinger Gelehrte Anzeiger, No. 16, 1888, pp. 593 sqq.; Wattenbach, DGQ, ii (1886), 202, ii (1894), 328-329; C. Mirbt, Die Publizistik im Zeitalter Gregors VII., Leipsic, 1894; Hauck, KD, vol. iii.
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