AMBROSE THE CAMALDOLITE (Ambrogio Traversari, Lat. Traversarius): Prominent humanist; b. at Portico (36 m. n.e. of Florence) 1386; d. Oct. 20, 1439. He became general of the Order of the Camaldolites in 1431. Pope Eugenius IV. sent him to the Council of Basel, but his exertions in behalf of his master were unsuccessful, as were also his efforts at Ferrara and Florence, 1438-39, toward a union with the Greeks. As an enthusiastic humanist Traversari offers "the first example of a monk in whom the polite scholar is in conflict with the Holy spirit" (G. Voigt, Die Wiederbelebung des klassischen Altertums, i., Berlin, 1893, p. 321). At the table of Cosimo de' Medici where the most learned met, he took an active part
His exegetical works are mostly founded upon Basil and are marred by the allegorical method; their chief and best characteristic is their practical tendency. The same thing may be said of his sermons, which exhibit the full worth of the true Roman gentleman. Among his moral and ascetic works are De ofJ'cciis miniatrorum (modeled upon Cicero), De virgintLus, De viduia, De trirginiteete, etc. The growing tendency toward asceticism shows itself in the high value he attached to celibacy, the martyr's death, and voluntary poverty; and the notion of a higher and purer Christian life to be attained by such means betrays the influence of the Stoic moral theory which he found in his model. Ambrose introduced a comprehensive reform in Church music (see AasaxoslnN CseNT); and a liturgy long used in the diocese of Milan is associated with his name by tradition. Of the hymns ascribed to him not more than four or five are genuine, and the Te Deum is not in this number (see Ta DEUM). His extant works also include ninety-one letters.Ambrose was buried in the Ambrosian basilica at Milan near the martyrs Gervasius and Protasius. In the ninth century Archbishop Angilbert II. placed the remains of the three in a porphyry sarcophagus, which was discovered in 1884, and opened in 1871 (of. Biraghi, 1 tre aeloolchri Sdnt ombrosiani, Milan, 1884; A. Riboldi, Deserizione dells reliquie dei SS. Ambrogio, t3ervaaio, a Pro taaio, 1874; F. Venosta, Sara' Ambrogio, la ava basilica, ld sepoltura a to scoprimento del auo corpo, 1874). (T. Fb11eTER1'.) Brsnioassrar: The works of Ambrose have been published by the Benedictines of 8t. Maur, 2 vole., Paris, 1888-90; often reprinted, se in MPL; aiv: zvu., by Balerini. 8 vole., Milan, 1875-86; and in CSEL, Vienna, 1898 eqq. Some of his principal works are translated in NPNF, vol. a., New York. 1896. The oldest life in by Paulinus (in the Bene dictine edition of the works). Later lives are: In French, by Louie Baunard, Paris, 1871, sad the Duo de Brogue. 1899, Eng, travel., London, 1899; in German, by T. FSreter, Halls, 1884; in English, by Alfred Barry. London, 1898. Consult also J. Pruner, Die T>eoiogie des Ambrosias, Eiahetatt, 1882; P. Ewald, Der Ein/tuea der ataixA-cicerosarchen Moral aut die Efhik bee Ambrosias. Leipeia, 1881; M. Ihm, 3ludia Arnbroeiana, 1889 ; G. M. Drevea; Aurelius Ambroriw, der Vater du RircGanpasaapaa. Freiburg, 1893; J. B. Kellner, Der Wive Atn6roeiw a7a ErkdArer des Allen Taefamsnta. Rstisbon,1893; R. Thamin, 8R Ambr. at la morals eAr6henns au quatridme sickle, Paris, 1895.
AMBROSE, ISAAC: Puritan; b. in Lancashire, England, 1804; d. at Preston 1884. He studied at Brasenoee College, Oxford, and after 1831 became one of the king's four preachers in Lancashire with residence at Garstang. Favoring Presbyterianism, he suffered imprisonment and other hardships during the civil war, and was ejected from Garstang for non-conformity in 1882. He is described as a learned man, of quiet and retiring disposition and sincere piety. His bestknown work is Looking unto Jesus (London, 1858). A collected edition of his works appeared in 1874 and has been often reprinted (Dundee, 1759; London, 1829, etc.).
AMBROSIAlf CHANT: A lively, rhythmical, melodious congregational song, which grew out of a union of the ancient Greek musical system
in four keys with the traditional Church psalmody. Whether it was introduced by Ambrose, bishop of Milan (374-397), or whether he merely regulated and improved it, is not certain. The singing had been confined to the choir (Gk. psaltai, Lat. cantores), who recited the psalms and prayers in monotonous fashion with no fixed rules. The new Ambrosian tunes were lively and joyous, all took part in the singing, and the people found pleasure and enjoyment in it. Augustine in his Confessions (IX. vii. 15; X. xxxiii. 50) speaks in glowing terms of the effect of this new method of singing, which was executed " with a clear voice and modulation most suitable." Antiphonal or responsive singing between men and women, congregational choirs, or congregation and choir, borrowed from the Greek Church, came particularly into use (see ANmPHON). As text Ambrose used the Greek and Latin hymns already existing, both rimed and unrimed. He also composed hymns himself, generally without rimes, but well adapted to the melodies; as Deus creator omnium; Jam surgit hors tertia; Eterne rerum conditor; Vent redemptor gentium; perhaps also 0 lux beats Trin% tar; Splendor paternce gloram.The Ambrosian music spread rapidly and was soon dominant throughout the West. But in course of time an artificial and profane manner crept in, which, toward the close of the sixth cen tury, called forth the Gregorian reaction; and thus the singing in the churches was again confined to the choirs or the clergy. The popular, fresh, congregational singing of the Reformation period may be regarded as a partial revival of the ancient Ambrosian chant. M. HEROLD.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. A. Daniel, Thesaurus hymnoIopitue, Halle, 1841; C. Fortlage, Gesgnpe christlicher Vomit, Berlin, 1844; F. J. Mons, Lateinische Hymnen des Mitklalters, 3 vols., Freiburg, 1853-54; J. Kayser, Berotrage swr Geschichk and Erkldrung der dltesten Kirchenhymnen, Paderborn, 1881; F. Gevaart, Les origanes du chant liturgique dans 1'&glise latine, Paris, 1890; M. Dreves, Aurelius Ambrosius der "Vater des Kirchengesangs," Freiburg, 1893; H. A. Koetlin, OeschiMte der Musik, Berlin, 1899.
AMBROSIANS: Name of several religious societies, organized in the city or diocese of Milan after the fourteenth century, which chose St. Ambrose as their patron. The only one to attain more than local importance was the Order of the Brethren of St. Ambrose of the Grove (Fratree S. Ambrosii ad Nemus), founded before 1530 by three pious Milanese, Alexander Crivelli, Alberto Besuzi, and Antonio Petrasancta, and called after their meeting-place, a grove outside the Porta Cumena in Milan, to which Ambrose used at times to resort (Of. his De bOnO mortis, iii. 11). Gregory XI. confirmed the society in 1375 on the rule of St. Augustine; Eugenius IV. in 1445 united it with three other Ambrose-brotherhoods, which had Originated independently at Genoa, Eugubio, and Recanati near Ancona, into a Cangregatio S. Ambrosii ad Nemus Mediolanensw. Sixtus V. brought about in 1589 the reunion of the Milanese and a non-Milanese division of the order, which was temporarily separated under the name of Congregatio fratrum S. Ambrosia ad Nemus et S. Barnabte. To these combined Ambrose and Barnabas orders, Paul V. granted many privilegesTHE NEW SCHAFF-HERZOG 152
in 1606. But Innocent X., considering the smallness and insignificance of the order, decided upon its dissolution about 1650. The bull with respect to it is given in the Bullarium magnum, iii. 194.
The following societies were confined to Milan and its neighborhood: (1) The Nuns of St. Ambrose of the Grove, founded in 1475 by two ladies of Milan not far from Pallanza on Lago Maggiore. (2) The Schola S. Ambrosii or Oblationarii, a society of old men and women who undertook to assist at the Ambrosian mass in the churches of Milan, especially in bringing oblations (oblationea). (3) The Society of the Oblates of St. Ambrose, founded by Archbishop Carlo Borromeo and confirmed by Gregory XIII. in 1578. They were bound to strict obedience to superiors, especially the archbishop of Milan. During the seventeenth century the society was in a flourishing state and numbered about 200 members, but having decreased to only 16 in 1844 it was abolished. O. ZSCSLExt.
BIBLIOORAPH7: Helyot, Ordres monaetiquea, iv. 52-83, Paris, 1715; Heimbueher, Orden and Kongregationen, i. 488-489,510, 1338-338.
AM13ROSIASTER: The name commonly used for the unknown author of the Commentaria in xiii. epistolas beati Pauli, which, from about 850 until the time of Erasmus, were commonly ascribed to Ambrose of Milan. This opinion, which is not yet quite extinct, has no support in ancient tradition, and there are many reasons against itsuch as the style, the Scripture version used, the opinion about the authorship of the Epistle to the Hebrews, and the attitude toward Greek literature. But the idea that it is a compilation made about 800 is equally baseless. The Codex Cassinensis, though lacking Romans, shows that the commentary had its recognized form earlier than 570. The Scripture text is consistent, belonging to a time before Jerome and to the recension known as the Itala. The anthropology is naive pre-Augustinian; the eschatology is still millenarian; the polemics against heresy point to the period about 380; the falioque is lacking. Numerous small details of historical allusion point to the same date.
Little success has attended the attempt to identify the author. Because Augustine in 420 quoted a passage as from sanctus Hilarius, some critics have been inclined to see in the Ambrosiaster's work a part of the lost commentary of Hilary of Poitiers on the Epistles. For a long time it was thought that Augastine referred to the Roman deacon Hilary, the partizan of Lucifer of Calaris. The presbyter Faustinus, the opponent of Damasus and author of a treatise on the Trinity, has also been suggested. But neither the style, the Scripture version used, nor the christology is his. The author was probably a presbyter of the Roman Church; possibly Augustine and he were both quoting Hilary. The attempt to identify him, On the ground of notable similarities, with the author of the pseudo-Auguatinian Qucsstiones ex utroque testamento has not met with general approval.
Though the work of Ambrosiaster does not, from an antiquarian standpoint, belong to the most interesting relics of Christian antiquity, its exegesis
AMERICAN BAPTIST MISSIONARY UNION. See BAPTIBTs, II., 3, . § 7.
AMERICAN BAPTIST PUBLICATION SOCIETY. See BAPTIBTs, II., 3, § 7.
AMERICAN BIBLE SOCIETY. See BIBLE SOCIETIES, III., 1.
AMERICAN BIBLE UNION. See BIBLE SOCIETIES, III., 2.
AMERICAN BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS FOR FOREIGN MISSIONS. See CONGREGATIONALISTS, I., 4, § 11; MISSIONS.
AMERICAN AND FOREIGN BIBLE SOCIETY. See BIBLE SOCIETIES, III., 2.
AMERICAN AND FOREIGN CHRISTIAN UNION: A society organized May 10, 1849, by the union (as indicated by the name) of the American Protestant Society (founded 1843), the Poreign Evangelical Society (instituted 1839 as
the expansion of the French Association of 1835), and the Christian Alliance of 1842. The purpose
was to prosecute more efficiently the work of the three societies named; viz., to convert Roman Catholics to Protestantism; or, to quote its con-
stitution, " by missions, colportage, the press, and other appropriate agencies, to diffuse the principles of religious liberty, and a pure and evangelical
Christianity, both at home and abroad, where a corrupted Christianity exists."
For a number of years the society prospered, and spread its influence over Europe, North and South America, and adjacent islands. From 1849to 1859 its yearly receipts averaged 1660,000. But
it was compelled gradually to contract its operations. It withdrew from France in 1866, from Italy and Europe, and other foreign stations generally, in 1873; and ultimately it limited its efforts to the support of the American Church in Paris. Its monthly periodical, The Christian World (35 vols., New York, 1850-84), gave an account of its work; the number for April, 1880, contains a historical sketch of the first thirty yea"; that for June, 1884, has the thirty-fifth annual report; consult also the last number (Nov., 1884).
AMERICAN LECTURES Oft THE HISTORY OF RELIGIONS: A lectureship made possible by the union of a number of universities and theological seminaries in the United States, each of which provides a sum proportionate to the requirements of the year. The lectures are under the care of a committee consisting of representatives of the institutions which unite in furnishing the funds and hearing the lectures. The courses thus far delivered and published are:1895: T. W. Rhys Divide, Buddhism: Its History and Literature, NewYork, 1895. 1896: D. G. Brinton, Religions of Primitive Peoples, ib. 1897. 1898: T. K. Cheyne, Jewish Religious. Life after the Exile, ib. 1898. 1899: K. Budde, The Religion of Israel to the Exile, ib. 1899. 1903: G. Steindorff, The Religion of the Early Egyptians, ib. 1905. 1908: G. W.. Knox, The Development of &livion in Japan, ib. 1908. AMERICAN MISSIONARY ASSOCIATION. See CONGREGATIONALISTS, I., 4, § 10.
AMERICAN REFORM TRACT AND BOOK SOCIETY. See TRACT SOCIETIES.
AMERICAN SEAMEN'S FRIEND SOCIETY. See SEAMEN, MISSIONS FOR.
AMERICAN SUNDAY-SCHOOL UNION. See SuNDAY-SCHOOLS.
AMERICAN TRACT SOCIETY. See TRACT SOCIETIES.
AXES, WILLIAM (Lit. Amesiw): Puritan; b. at Ipswich, Suffolk, England, 1576; d. at Rotterdam Nov. 14, 1633. He studied at Christ's College, Cambridge, and became fellow. From the first he was a rigid and zealous Puritan and so without hope of preferment in the Church of England. In 1611 he went to Leyden, thence to The Hague, where he became chaplain to, Sir Horace Vere, commander of the English troops in the Netherlands, but lost this post through intrigues of the High-church party at home. He was paid four florins a day by the States General to attend the Synod of Dort (1618-19) and assist the president; because professor of theology at Franeker in 1622, and rector in 1626; shortly before his death he became pastor of the English church in Rotterdam. He contemplated settling in New England, and his family went thither, taking with them his library. His influence on the Continent was considerable, and his reputation is greater there than in his native land. As a decided Calvinist he was active in the Arminian and other controversies of his time, both with voice and pen. His most noteworthy books were the Medulla theolo*aTHE NEW SCHAFF-HERZOG 154
(Amsterdam, 1623; Eng. transl., The Marrow of Sacred Divinity, London, 1642) and the De conscientia et ejus jure vel caat7bua (1632; Eng. transl., Conscience, 1639), an ethical treatise which was really a continuation of the old scholastic casuistry. A collected edition of his Latin works, with life by M. Nethenus, was published in five volumes at Amsterdam in 1658. (E. F. KARL M$LLER.)
AMICE, am'is: A vestment worn by Roman Catholic priests when celebrating mass. See VESTMENTS AND INSIGNIA, ECCLESIASTICAL.
AMIOT(wronglyspelledAmyot),d"mf"S', JOSEPH MARIA: Jesuit missionary; b, at Toulon Feb. 18, 1718; d. at Peking Oct. 8, 1793. He joined the Jesuits in 1737 and entered China as a missionary in 1751. The reigning emperor, Kien-Lung, was hostile to the Christians, but the missionaries were allowed to proceed to Peking and to work there, if not -in the provinces. Father Amiot devoted himself assiduously for the rest of his life to the study of Chinese history, language, and literature and was one of the first to give Europe accurate information concerning Eastern Asia. The results of his work were published for the most part in the Mfoires concernant lea Chinois (15 vols., Paris, 177fr-91), in the proceedings of learned societies, and in the Lettres edi fiantea et curiemm (34 vols., 1717-76). They include a life of Confucius (Mg moires, vol. xii.) and a Dictionnarore t artare-rtaan tchouwfrawais (ed . Langl6s, 3 vols., 1789-90).AMISH. See MENNONITES.
AMLING, WOLFGANG: German Reformed theologian; b. at Milnnerstadt (35 m. n.n.e. of Wiirzburg), Franconia, in 1542; d. at Zerbst May 18, 1606. He studied at Tilbingen, Wittenberg, and Jena; was appointed rector of the school of Zerbst in 1566, minister at Koswig in 1573, and, shortly after, minister and superintendent at St. Nicolai in Zerbat. He was vehemently opposed to the Formula Concordia, and led the population of Anhalt from Lutheranism to Calvinism. He wrote the Confessio Anhaldina (1578).
AXXIANUS MARCELLINUS, am"m"'nus mdr"sel-li'nus: Author of a Roman history (Rerun geatarum libri xrxi.) extending from Nerva to the death of Valens (96-378). He was a native of Antioch, and is l;sid to have died about 400. He devoted himself to philosophical studies, entered the army under Constantius, accompanied Julian in the war against the Persians, and took part under Julian's successors in the wars both of the Orient and the Occident. He afterward retired to Rome and resumed his studies. The first thirteen books of his history are lost; the remaining eighteen, beginning with the year 353, give much valuable information concerning the general State of the Church and many important particulars--the character of Julian, his proceedings, views held by the educated concerning Christianity, etc.
The question whether Ammlanus was a Christian has often been raised. At present the generally accepted view is that he was not. His work contains many caustic remarks on the doctrines of Christianity. He speaks of the martyrs, of synods,
and of other details of the Christian system, in a way which points to a non-Christian author. It is, however, equally certain that he was not an adherent of the common paganism. He recognized a supreme numen, which curbs human arrogance and avenges human crime, and, in general, his views are those of the best Greek writers, approaching a monotheistic standpoint. It seems probable that he believed that primitive pure Christianity and the philosophy of enlightened pagans were the same. From this point of view Ammianus could consistently speak with favor of many things he found among the Christians. He censures Constantine's interference in the Arian controversy and calls it a " confusion of the absohlte and plain Christian religion with old-womanish superstition," meaning by " superstition,." as the connection shows, the controversy concerning the Trinity and the divinity of Christ. He censured the emperor Julian for forbidding to the Christians instruction in liberal studies, while he did not blame the restoration of pagan sacrifices at the beginning of Jovian's reign. He was not opposed to the paganism of Julian, but to the violation of religious toleration. (E. voN WOLFFLIN.)BIBLIOGRAPHY: The editio prinoepe (books xiv: xxvi. only), ed. Angelus Sabinus, was published in Rome, 1874; a bet ter edition (books xvi.-xxx.) is S. Gelenius, Basil, 1533; the latest is by V. Gardthausen, Leipsic, 1874. Consult Teuffel-Schwabe, Geechichte der r6miachan LiWratur, p. 1092, Leipsic, 1890.
AMMON, CHRISTOPH FRIEDRICH VON: German theologian; b. at Baireuth Jan. 16, 1766; d. in Dresden May 21, 1850. He distinguished himself as a student at Erlangen, and became professor there in 1789. In 1794 he went to Gtittingen as professor, university preacher, and director of the theological seminary; returned to Erlangen in 1804; in 1813 went to Dresden as court preacher; became member of the Saxon ministry of worship and public instruction in 1831, and vicepresident of the consistory in 1835. He was a versatile and many-sided man, an accomplished scholar in diverse fields, an influential official in Church and State, a prolific writer, and much admired as preacher and orator. The most noteworthy of his theological writings were: Entwurf saner reinen bZliechen Theologie (3 vols., Erlangen, 1792; 2d ed., 1801-02); Handbuch der christlichen Sittenlehre (1795; 2d ed., 3 vols., Leipsie, 1838); Summa theologim christians; (1803; 4th ed., ib. 1850); Die Fortbilduny des Christentums zur Weltreligion (ib. 1833; 2d ed., 4 vols., 1836-40). At first Ammon was a decided rationalist, but his tone changed in successive editions of his works, and in 1817 he surprised his friends by defending the theses of Claus Harms (q.v.) in Bitters Arxnei fur die Glaubensschwdche der Zeit , (Hanover) . Later he returned to his earlier views, and his vacillation subjected him to, much harsh criticism. His last writings were Die Geschichte des Leben Jesu (3 vols., Leipsic,184i-47) and Die wahre and falache Orthodoxie (1849). From 1813 to 1822 he was editor of the Kritisches Journal der xieuesten theologischen Litteratur. (F. W. DIBELIus.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Ch. F. v. Ammon, nark Leben, Ansidten and Wirken, leipsie, 1850.
AMMONITES: A people of Palestine, allied, according to Gen. xix. 38, to Abraham through Lot, and therefore, like the brother people Moab, akin to the other Abrahamic nations, Israel, Ishmael, and Edom. The name is here explained as ben `ammi, " son of my kinsman." Their territory lay east of the Jordan and north of Moab, from whom they were separated by the Arnon (Num. xxi. 13). An Amoritic king, Sihon, and, later; the Israelites are said to have excluded them from the western and richer part of this district and to have confined them to the steppe lands farther to the east (Josh. xii. 2, xiii. 10, 25; Judges xi. 22). Cities belonging to them are mentioned (Judges xi. 33; II Sam. xii. 31), whence it appears that they were in part a settled people, in part nomadic. Their chief city and the one most frequently named was Rabbah (Rabbath-ammon; Deut. iii. 11; Josh. xiii. 25; II Sam. xii. 26-27; Ezek. xxi. 20; and often), the modern Amman. They had a king in the earliest time. Their religion was doubtless like that of the Moabites; their chief divinity was Milcom (I Kings xi. 5, 33; II Kings xxiii. 13; the mention of Chemosh as god of the Ammonites in Judges xi. 24 is probably an error; see CHEMOBH). The name " Milcom " has been explained as meaning " Am is king," Am (`Am) being the name of an older deity (cf. Balsam, " Am is lord," and Gen. xix. 38). The relations between the Israelites and Ammonites were generally hostile (Judges xi.; I Sam. xi.; II Sam. x. 1-14, xii. 26-31; II Kings xxiv. 2; II Chron. xx.; Neh. ii. 10, iv. 3, vi. 1; Jer. xl. 13-14, xlix. 1-6; Ezek. xxv. 1-10; Amos i. 13; Zeph. ii. 8); and this fact is reflected in the account of their disgraceful origin in Gen. xix. 30-38. Solomon had an Ammonitish wife (I Kings xiv. 21). Assyrian inscriptions state that Baasha, king of Ammon, was among the allies defeated by Shalmaneser II. at Karkar (854 B.C.), and show that the Ammonite Puduilu, a contemporaryof Manasseh of Judah, like all the west-Asiatic princes of the time, was a vassal of Esarhaddon (681-668 B.C.).In poetexilic times also the Ammonites shared the fortunes of their neighbors, and were under Persian, Egyptian, and Syrian rule. Their old capital Rabbah was made a Hellenistic city and named " Philadelphia " after Ptolemy II., Phila delphus. In 218 B.C. it was captured under Anti ochus the Great. In the Maccabean period the Ammonites were under a tyrant Timotheus, whom Judas defeated in several battles (I Mace. v. 6-8). About 135 B.C. Philadelphia was ruled by a tyrant named Zeno Cotylas (Josephus, Ant., XIII. viii. 1). It was included in the Decapolis by Pompey, and long remained under Roman rule. At the beginning of the Jewish wars, like most of the Hellenistic cities, it was attacked' by the Jews. The game " Ammonite " occurs for the last time in Justin Martyr (d.166), who says they were very numerous. The present extensive ruins at Amman belong to Roman times. (F. BUHL.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: E. Kautaseh, in Riehm, Handmbrterbueh des bibliachen AUerdume, pp. bb-b8. Bielefeld, 1884 (an admirable sketch); A. H. Sayoe, Races o/ the Otd Testament, London, 1891; A. Dillmann, Commentary on Geaeris, on xix. 38, Edinburgh. 1897; DB, i. 82-83: BB, 5. 141145.
plained it as meaning " the concealed," from the root 'MN, " to be veiled, hidden." Anion appears to have been originally a harvest-god; but as early as the Middle Kingdom he was thought of as sungod, according to the teaching that all Egyptian deities, whatever might be their names, were only different forms of the one sun-god. As such he was called Anion-Rasetnrnt8ru, " Anion the Sun God, the King of the Gods," and was later identified by the Greeks with their Zeus (hence the late Greek name for Thebes, Diospolis). His holy animal was a ram with horns curving downward. He is usually represented in human form, blue in color, wearing a close-fitting hat with two long upright plumes. Leas often he is represented ithyphallic, in the form of the harvest-god, min of Koptos, with whom he was often identified. Ram-headed figures of Anion are also found, especially in Nubia. Anion gained much from the changed political conditions after the fall of the Old Kingdom. Thebes became the metropolis of Egypt and its god took the chief place in the Egyptian pantheon. The Pharaohs undertook their campaigns in Asia and Nubia in the name of Anion and naturally the lion's share of the booty fell to him. His great temple, near the present Karnak, " the throne of the world," was begun by the kings of the twentietkS,dynasty, and was extended and adorned by succeeding generations until it became the most imposing of Egyptian temples (see No). His worship was introduced in the conquered provinces and his sanctuaries arose all over Nubia, in the oases of the Libyan desert, and in Syria. Under the New Kingdom he was preeminently the national god of Egypt. The only check to the growth of his power and wealth was the abortive attempt of Amenophis IV., about 1400 B.C., to introduce the worship of the sun's disk. Under the Ramesaids Anion's possessions were almost incredible (cf. Erman, Life in Ancient Egypt, London, 1894, pp. 302-303). His high priest came to be the first person in the State after the king, and eventually, toward the end of the twentieth dynasty, was able to supplant the latter. The priests of Anion did not long retain the throne, but their great wealth perpetuated their political influence until the twenty-sixth dynasty, when their power seems to have declined, and Anion gradually sank back to the position of a local deity. -In the oases, however, and in Ethiopia his worship and the authority of his priests lasted till Roman times and the introduction of Christianity.(G. &E>Nnoa".)
BniLI00HAPH7: C. P.15e1e, History of fha Egyptian Religion, PP. 147-1b0, Boston, 1882; 13. Brugeah. Religion . . .
der alter Aepypter. PP. 87 aqq., Leipaio. 1885; A. Erman, Life in Ancient Egypt, passim, London, 1894; A. Wiede-
mann. RAO- of the Ancient Egyptians, 109-110, New York, 1897 (authoritative); E. A. W. Budge. Gods of as Egyptians. i. 23. 79, 88, ii. 1-18, 324, London, 1903 (the
fullest account, in a volume richly illustrated); P.D. Chsn_ tepee de 18 Bausesye, Lehrbueh der Religionapeaehichte. i.
208-209 Tfibingen, 190b; G. 6teindorff, ReZipion of fhs Ancient EpWians, NewYork, 190b.
AMON, 6'men, KING OF JUDAH: Fourteenth king of Judah, son and successor of Manasseh. He teed, according to the old chronology, 642-841 B.C.; according to Hamphaueen, 640-839;
The Amorites are mentioned in the Old Testament more frequently than any other people of Palestine except the Cansanites. West of the Jordan they seem to have been confounded the one with the other; but as the Cansanites are never said to have lived east of the Jordan so the Amoritea do not appear on the Mediterranean coast-land. The difficult question as to whether or not the two peoples are essentially identical is probably to be decided in the negative, though it is quite possible that the Amorites as well as the Canaanites were a Semitic people. There is, in any case, no sufficient warrant for the assumption of Sayce and others that they were akin to the Libyans. The Babylonian name for Canaan, mat Amurg, "land of the Amorites" shows that at least the eastern side of Palestine was Amoritic at an early date, and it is a plausible supposition that the two related peoples separated in southern Syria, the Canasnites following the coast-land-(their proper home) and then spreading eastward to the hill-country, and the Amorites coming gradually southward, mainly east of the Jordan. A learned annotator intimates (Deut. iii. 9) that they were once the dominant people about Anti Lebanon, as the " Sidonians " or Phenicians were about Lebanon. After their loss of the Moabite country (Nam. xxi. 21-35) they were gradually ab sorbed by the Hebrews, Amorites, and Arameans. J. F. MCCURDY.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. H. BRyee, The White Race of Ancient Palatine, in Expositor, July, 1888; idem, Races of theD. T., London, 1891; DB, i. 84-8b; EB, i. 146-147, 840-843; Meyer, in.ZATW, i. (1881) 122 eqq.; J. F. McCurdy, Hjatory, Prophecy and the Monuments, §§ 130-131, 3 vole., New York, 1896-1901.
AMOS, 6'mes: The third of the minor prophets, originally a herdsman and farmer of Tekoa (a town twelve miles s.s.e. of Jerusalem), and destitute of a prophetical education (Amos i. 1, vii. 12, 1415). The Fathers wrongly identified him with the father of Isaiah (Amoz), because his name
in the Septuagint is identical with Life. that of Isaiah's father. He prophe-
sied in the Northern Kingdom during, the reigns of Uzziah in Judah (777-736 B.c.) and Jeroboam II. in Israel (781-741), when Israel was at the, very height of its splendor (i. 1, vii. 10-11). His prophecies were apparently all given in one year, specified as "two years before the earthquake," a momentous but undatable event (i. 1; cf. Zech. xiv. 5; Josephus, Ant., IX. x. 4, gives a fabulous story). The place was Beth-el, the greatest sanctuary of the Northern Kingdom. His plain speaking led to the charge of conspiracy, and he was compelled to return to Judah (Amos vii. 1012). Nothing more is known of him.
The Book of Amos, after the opening verse, is divisible into three parts: (1) Chaps. i. 2-ii. 16, describing the judgments of God upon Damascus (i. 3-5), Philistia (i. 6-8), Tyre ti. 9-10), Edom (i. 11-12), Amnion (i. 13-15), Moab (ii. 1-3), Judah (ii. 4-5), and Israel (ii. 6-16). (2) Chaps. iii.-vi., a series of discourses against the Northern Kingdom threatening punishment and judgment. The sub-division of this section is a matter of The dispute. The 'prophet sets forth in Book of his usual rhetorical manner the moral AmoB. and religious degeneracy of the people. (3) Chaps. vii.-ix., beginning with three successive threatening visions .(vii. 1-3, 4-6, 7-9). These were made the basis of the complaint' against Amos of Amaziah, high priest at Beth-el, to the king Jeroboam II., and hence resulted his banish ment (vii. 10-13). Before he goes, however, he insists upon the reality of his call (vii. 14-15), and foretells the sad fall of the high priest and his family (vii.16-17). Chaps. vii., viii., and ix. contain two visions and their explanations. The first is of threatening content, but the second (ix. 1-7) adds a promise of salvation for a faithful remnant and of the universal sway of religion and prosperity (ix-8-15). The book gives only an abstract of the prophet's complete discourses,
The style of Amos is rhetorical. His figures, analogies, and similes are excellent, though at times surprising (cf. iii. 3-6; iv. 2; v. 7; xiii. 11-14). The
notion that Amos borrows his similes chiefly from his early mode of life, and thus betrays his extraction, is generally accepted; but it is hardly well founded when the variety of them is observed (of. ii. 13; iii. 4, b, 8, 12; vi. 12; viii. 8; ix. 5; and the visions of vii. 1 and viii. 1). On the other hand, the Hebrew of Amos is abnormal, but it is uncertain how much belongs to the author himself. The integrity and genuineness of the book are generally acknowledged; only i. 9-11; ii. 4, 5; iii. 14b; iv. 13; v. 8, 9; viii. 6, 8, 11, 12; ix. 5, 6, 8-15, partly on account of the contents, partly on account of the connection, have been. regarded as glosses by modern critics (Duhm, Stade, Giesebrecht, Cornill, Schwally, Smend, Wellhausen).
The modern school of Biblical scholars regard the Book of Amos as the oldest written. testimony to that activity of the prophets of
Its Im- the eighth century B.C. whereby the portance. religion of Israel was given a more ethical and spiritual character. It is therefore important to note its contents and presuppositions. Two evils in the moral and religious conditions of the Northern Kingdom receive the prophet's severe condemnation, viz., the reprehensible conduct of the high and mighty (ii. 6-7a; iii. 10; iv. 1; v. 7, 11-12; viii. 4-6), and the perverted religious forms and observances (ii. 7b-8; v. 26; viii. 14). The latter, with their idolatrous representations of the deity, were specially offensive to a pious Judean, who believed that Yahweh dwelt on Zion and not in visible form. Reliance upon the offerings, gifts, feasts, and processions of Beth-el and the other sanctuaries as a means of securing Yahweh's favor was a terrible mistake, which could only bring the most direful consequences (iv. 4-13; v. 4-6, 21-24; ix. 1-8). The true way to serve Yahweh was to become like him and to practise goodness and righteousness (v. 14, 24). The prophet makes no claim to new ideas concerning Yahweh or his relations to the world in general and to Israel in particular. What he has to say upon these topics is all assumed as already known to the pious. It is the idolatrous worship, with its attendant evils, which he reprobates and wishes to correct. (A. KbH1.rRt.)BIBLIOGRAPHY: Besides the works mentioned in the article MINOR PROPHare, consult: W. R. Harper, AMa and Hoses, in Inkrnational Critical Commentary, New York,
1905 (gives a full list of the important literature, el xxviii: elxxxlx.); G. Baur, Der Prophet Amps erkldrt, Giessen, 1847; J. H. Gunning, De pod:praken roan Amos, Leyden, 1885; K. Hartung, Der Prophet Amos neck dem Grundtexte erkl&t. in BiNiache Studien, iii.. Freiburg, 1898; H. G. Mitchell, Amos, an Easy in Exeparis, Boston, 1893, 1900; J. J: P. Valeton, Amps en Rosso, Nijmwegen, 1894 (Germ. tranel., Giessen, 1898, an excellent work); S. R. Driver, Joel and Amps, in Cambridoe Btbde, 1897; S. Oettli. Amos and Hoses, swei zewen pepen die Antosnduny der Eroolutions0eorie auf die Religion lsraela, in Bearape sur Ftnderunp Ckristlichen Thedogie, v. 4, Gatersloh, 1901.
AMPHILOCHIUS, a,m"fi-la'ki-as, SAINT: Apparently a cousin of Gregory Nazianzen, and closely associated with him and with Basil the Great in directing the policy of the Church at the time of the defeat of Arianism. He was originally a lawyer, but retired to a life of devotion and asceticism. In 373 he was chosen bishop of Ioonium, the metropolitan see of Lycaonia. The year ofTHE NEW SCHAFF-HERZOG his death is uncertain; but Jerome includesim h,
as still living, in his De triria illuatribus (392), and he appears as taking part in a synod at Constantinople in 394. Of the numerous works ascribed to him byCombefis (ef.MPG, xxsix.),not afeware doubtless not genuine. Late investigation, however, has brought to light other genuine works of Amphilochius. The Epiatola synodica in defense of the orthodox doctrine of the Trinity (376), and the lambi ad Selettcum, ascribed to Gregory Nazianzen (MPG, xxxvii.), not without importance for the history of the canon, are not the only works of Amphilochius which are still extant. (F. LOOFa.)BIBLIOGRAPHY: FRbricius·Harles, Bs'bliotheea Grava, viii. 373-381, Hamburg, 1802; DCB, i. 103-107 (quite ex haustive); J. Feeeler, Institutionea patrolopto:, i. 800-804. Innsbruck, 1900; K. Roll, Amphilochiw won Ikonium, Ti1-
binqen. 1904: G. Ficker. Amphilochiana. Part i.. Leipeic, 1908.
AMPULL,E, am-pul'lf or -lA: [Flasks or vials for holding liquids. In ecclesiastical usage they have been employed for the water and wine of the mass and for the consecrated oil used in baptism, confirmation, and extreme unction. Such vessels were sometimes of considerable size and were made of gold, silver, crystal, onyx, or glass. Specimens are preserved at Paris, Cologne, Venice, and elsewhere; and there is one at Reims said to have been miraculously provided for the baptism of Clovis in 496.] Deserving of most notice are the so-called ampttlke sanguirwlentce, phiohe truentce or rubricatte (" blood-ampulls; "), glees flasks which contain a reddish sediment and are alleged to have once held the blood of martyrs. They have been found almost exclusively in the graves of the catacombs, near the slab with which the grave was sealed or fastened to it by mortar. They are first mentioned by Antonio Bosio, the explorer of the Roman catacombs, who relates that in certain graves as well as in glass or clay vessels, he found blood congealed and dried, which, when moistened with water, assumed its natural color (Rome sotterranea, Rome, 1632, p. 197). Soon afterward a certain Landucci discovered such vessels with a watery or milky fluid which, when shaken, assumed the color of blood (De Rossi, 619). The discovery of a phiola rubricata came to be regarded as certain proof of a martyr's grave, and the Ccngregation of the Sacred Rites decided accordingly in 1668 when doubts were raised concerning the irtdicia martyrGi at the removal of relics from the. catacombs. Doubts continued, however, and a Jesuit, Victor de Buck, made the strongest presentation of the case of the skeptics, arguing on scientific grounds (De phiolis rttbricatis, Brussels, 18bb). After a new find in the cemetery of S. Saturnino in 1872 a papal commission undertook an exact microscopical investigation, which was believed to establish the presence of blood. Roman Catholic archeologist); and theologians .had generally conceded a possibility that the claims might be well founded, while opposing the unsystematic and unscientific assumption that all red sediment was blood, and demanding an adequate investigation is each ease.
The following weighty and conclusive objections, however, are made even to the possibility: (1) There
in no literary testimony that the blood of martyrs was preserved as is presupposed, and no satisfactory reason has been given why it should have been thus saved. (2) A large percentage of these ampullee come from the graves of children under seven years of age, who can hardly have suffered in the persecutions of the Christians; furthermore, more than one-half of them are of the time of Constantine or later. (3) Non-Christian graves furnish similar vessels with red sediment. (4) In no case has the sediment been proved to be blood by chemical and microscopic examination. The attempt made in 1872 is untrustworthy, and its results are rejected by competent judges. (5) The specimens with inscriptions (such as sang., sa., and the like) and the monogram of Christ or the cross are forgeries. The red sediment is probably oxid of iron produced by the decomposition of the glass. It has been suggested that it is the remains of communion wine, and the sixth canon of the Synod of Carthage of 397 lends support to the view, but the chemical analysis is against it (of., however, Berthelot in Revue arcUologique, new series, xxxui., 1877, p. 396). Certain heathen burial customs in which wine (cf. Schultze, Katakomben, pp. 52, 54, and note 15) or off was used offer analogies. The original purpose and significance of these ampullm was probably not uniform.(VICTOR SCHULTZE.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. X. Kraus, Die Blutampuilen der r6misehen Katakomben, Frankfort, 1868; idem, Ueber den pepenw&rtipsn Stand der Frage each dem Inhalte and der Bedeutunp der r6bxiisehen Blutampullen, Freiburg, 1872; idern. Roma eotterranea, pp. 507 eqq., ib. 1879: " Paulinus," Die Mkrtyrer der Katakomben and die rbmische Praxis, Leipsie, 1871; G. B. de Rossi, Ronna sotterranea, iii. 602 sqq., Rome, 1877; Victor Schultze, Die sopenannten Blutplflaer der rbmischen Katakvmben, in ZKW, i. (1880) 515 sqq.; idem, Die Katakombcn, pp. 225 sqq., Leipnie. 1882.
AMRAPHEL. See HAafmuRASI AxD His CODE, I., § 1.
AMSDORF, NIKOLAUS VON: German Protestant; b. at Torgau (30 m. n.e. of Leipsic) Dec. 3, 1483; d. at Fisenach May 14, 1565. He began his studies at the University of Leipaic in 1500, but two years later went to Wittenberg, being among the first students in the newly founded university in that city. There he fell under the influence of Luther, whose intimate friend he became, and to whose teachings he lent unquestioning adhesion from the very beginning. He was with Luther at the Leipsic disputation in 1519, accompanied him to Worms in 1521, and was in the secret of his sojourn at the Wartburg. In 1524 he became pastor and superintendent in Magdeburg and was active in introducing the Reformation into that city, organizing the ritual closely on the model of Wittenberg. He performed similar services in Goslar and Einbeck. From the first he was rigid in his views, opposed to the least departure from the orthodox Lutheran doctrine, and fierce in his attacks on such men as Melanchthon and Butzer who came to represent a policy of conciliation and compromise both within the Protestant Church and toward the Roman Catholic princes. Thus he was largely instrumental in the failure of the Regensburg conference of 1541, where
his attitude toward the emperor was as fearless as it was narrow. In the same year the Elector John Frederick appointed him bishop of Natunburg-Zeitz against the wishes of the chapter and in spite of the protest of the emperor. The battle of Miihlberg (1547) compelled him to seek refuge in Weimar. His quarrel with Melanchthon and his supporters had grown embittered with time, and he helped to found a new university at Jena in opposition to the tendencies represented at Wittenberg. In the same spirit he assumed charge of the Jena edition of Luther's works, which was to correct the alleged faults and omissions of the Wittenberg edition.In 1552 Amedorf was made superintendent at Eisenach, whence, with Flacius, whom he caused to be called to Jena, he carried on a virulent polemic against the so-called Philippists and Adi aphorists. The formal break between the orthodox Lutheran party and the followers of Melanchthon at the colloquy of Worms in 1557 was largely due to Amsdorf's efforts. From 1554 to 1559 he was engaged in a- violent controversy with Justus Menius, superintendent at Gotha, concerning the doctrine of good works as essential to salvation; and in the stress of conflict he was led to assume the extreme position that good works are actually detrimental to the welfare of the soul, denoting by " good works," however, those that man per forms for the express purpose of attaining sal vation. When; in 1561, as a result of his views on the doctrine of sin, Flacius, together with his followers, was expelled from Jena, Amsdorf was spared because of his advanced age and his great services to the Protestant cause in the early days of the Reformation. (G. KAWERAU.)
BIBLIOasAPay: E. J. Meier, biography of Abudorf in M. Meurer, Dos Leben der Altvater der luderiachen Kirdte. iii., Leipsic, 1868; Eicbhorn, Amsdor/iana, in ZKG, vol. xxii., 1901.
AMULET, am'yu-let: A word first used to designate objects having a magical effect in warding off or driving away evils--the evil eye, illness, demons, etc.-and thus practically equivalent to " talisman." By degrees it came to be employed for objects worn about the person. Used down to the seventeenth century for things forbidden by the Church, it gradually acquired a more general meaning. The limits of this article preclude the discussion of the origin of amulets, of their psychological basis, or of their significance in the universal history of religion.
In the Old Testament, objects of the kind are mentioned among the ornaments worn by women
(Isa. iii. 16-26) and by animals (Judges In the Old viii. 21); the bells on the border of
Testament the high priest's robe had no other and Juda- primary significance (cf. " the bells ism. of the horses," Zech. xiv. 20). Later
Judaism completely surrounded the individual with intangible spirits, but provided numerous means of protection against the evil they might effect-the presence of angels, pronouncing the name of God, amulets containing the Holy Name, and fragments of Scripture worn on the person (the " phylacteries " of Matt. xxiii. 5) or fastened
to the door-posts of houses. The special power over demons attributed to Solomon may also be mentioned; formulas of exorcism were referred to him, and the possessed were supposed to be healed, on the invocation of his name, by the methods prescribed by him.
The demonological conceptions of Judaism and the magic of the East had a very strong influence
on the Greco-Roman world. ChristiIn the anity, however, at first rejected these Early superstitious observances, and proChurch. tested against every accusation of
the use of magic arts. There came a change with the entrance of the pagan multitudes, with their material ideas of religion and their need for an external realization of the supernatural. The ideas about demons, found in the exorcisms of the second century (Origen, Contra Celsum, vi. 39, 40) were generalized, paganized, and Judaized. AB the ecclesiastical writers abundantly testify (see passages quoted in Bingham, Origines, vii. 250), magical formulas began to be used again; mysterious objects, inscribed with characters often unintelligible, were placed upon the bodies of newborn infants and the sick; and Chrysostom (on I Cor. vii. 3) warns his hearers against love-philters. The teachers of the Church branded all this as actual apostasy from the faith; and the Christian civil government punished severely the use of amulets in sickness. To meet this tendency an attempt was made to give these methods a Christian coloring, or to employ elements susceptible to a Christian interpretation. The demons, who had been supposed to have special care of races or of individuals, now became angels, and protection was afforded by their names inscribed on amulets. In like manner the name of God was used. Even some of the clergy provided such amulets, though the Church forbade them to do so, and excommunicated those who wore them (Synod of Laodicea; Synod of Agde, 544). The cross (see CRosa AND 1TBU USE A$ A SYMBOL, ¢ 3) took a specially prominent place among these protecting objects. Women and children commonly wore verses from the Gospels for this purpose. Chrysoatom told the people of Antioch that they ought rather to have the Gospels in their hearts. That of John was thought to be particularly efficacious; it was laid on the head to drive out fever, and Augustine commends the practise (Tractatus vi in cap. i. Johannis evangelic, MPL, xxv. 1443), "not because it is done for this purpose," but because it means the abandonment of the pagan ligatures. The whole range of sacred things was brought into service. Satyrua, the brother of Ambrose, in a shipwreck, hung the eucharistic bread, wrapped in an orarium about his neck "that he might get help from his faith" (Ambrose, De oWu frtltris,
-)- Similar use was made of oil and wax from holy places and of water and salt that had been blessed. Relics of the saints, enclosed in costly cases, were worn. Since the Church was unable entirely and all at once to drive out every vestige of heathen superstition, it did the next beat thing when it took into consideration the needs of popular, unspiritual devotion, and gradually, by
the conversion of the old means, forced into the background or effaced their non-Christian elementA.
Lack of space forbids the discussion in detail of the diversified forms even of Christian development of the idea, as they are found in the numerous relics of antiquity, from those of the catacombs down, or to give any account of the multiplicity of objects which are commonly used Survi- among the devout Roman Catholics vals. at the present day, with at least some remnant of the idea of the ancient amulets underlying them-scapulars, crosses, the agnua dei, rosaries, and an endless variety of medals with pictures of the Virgin and the saints. These objects may serve different purposes; they may be tokens of sharing in a wide-spread and approved devotion, or signs of membership in some pious confraternity, or souvenirs of a visit to some holy place; but in moat instances the priestly blessing which they have received is distinctly understood to give them a positive power (on condition of the proper faith and other dispositions on the part of the wearer or possessor) against the assaults of evil spirits and other ills.(JoHANNEs FICKER.)
BIBLIOORAPBT: W. King, Talisman and Amulets, in Archmolopical Journal, Iozvi.(1869) 25-34, 149-157, 225-235; J. A. Martigny, Dictionnaire des antiquitms chretiennes, arti cle Amulefe, Paris, 1877; W. R. Smith, in Journal o/ Philology, riv. (1881) 122-123; E. C. A. Riehm, Handw6rtsr buchdes biblischen Altertums, Bielefeld, 1884; J.Wellhausen, Skizzen. iii. 144, Berlin, 1887; M. Friedlander, Jewish Religion, pp. 331-338, London, 1891; J. L. Andr6, Talismans, in The Reliquary, vii. (1893) 162-167, 195-202, viii. (1894) 13-18; DB, i. 88-90, iii. 869874.AMYOT. See AM1oT.
AMYRAUT, am"f-ro', NOISE (Lat. Moses Amyraldus): Calvinist theologian and preacher; b. at Bourgueil (27 m. w.s.w. of Tours), Touraine, 1596; d. at Saumur Jan. 8, 1664. He came of an influential family in Orleans, began the study of law at Poitiers, and received the degree of licentiate in 1616; but the reading of Calvin's Institutio turned his mind to theology. This he studied eagerly at Saumur, under Cameron, to whom he was much attached. After serving as pastor for a short time at Saint-Aignan, he was called in 1626 to succeed Jean Daill6 at Saumur, and soon became prominent. The national synod held at Charenton in 1631 chose him to lay its requests before Louis XIII., on which occasion his tactful bearing attracted the attention and won the respect of Richelieu., In 1633 he was appointed professor of theology at Saumur with De la Place and Cappel, and the three raised the institution into a flourishing condition, students being attracted to it from foreign countries, especially from Switzerland. Theological novelties in their teaching, however, soon stirred up opposition, which came to little in France; but in Switzerland, where the professors were leas known, it reached such a pitch that students were withdrawn, and in 1675 the Helvetic Consensus was drawn up against the Saumur innovations. Amyraut was specially attacked because his teaching on grace and predestination seemed to depart from that of the Synod of Dort, by adding
a conditional universal grace to the unconditional particular.
Amyraut first published his ideas in his TratM de la pr6destination (Saumur, 1634), which immediately caused great excitement. The controversy became so heated that the national synod at Alenpon in 1637 had to take notice of it. Amyraut and his friend Testard were acquitted of heterodoxy, and silence was imposed on both sides. The attacks continued, however, and the question came again before the synod of Charenton in 1644-45, but with the same result. Amyraut bore himself so well under all these assaults that he succeeded in conciliating many of his opponents, even the venerable Du Moulin (1655). But at the synod of Loudun in 1659 (the last for which permission was obtained-partly through Amyraut's influence-from the crown), fresh accusations were brought, this time including Daill6, the president of the synod, because he had defended what is called " Amyraldism." This very synod, however, gave Amyraut the honorable commission to revise the order of discipline. In France the harmlessness of his teaching was generally recognized; and the controversy would soon have died out but for the continual agitation kept up abroad, especially in Holland and Switzerland.
Amyraut's doctrine has been called " hypothetical universalism "; but the term is misleading, since it might be applied also to the Arminianism which he steadfastly opposed. His main proposition is this: God wills all men to be saved, on condition that they believe-a condition which they could well fulfil in the abstract, but which in fact, owing to inherited corruption, they stubbornly reject, so that this universal will for salvation actually saves no one. God also wills in particular to save a certain number of persons, and to pass over the others with this grace. The elect will be saved as inevitably as the others will be damned. The essential point, then, of Amyraldism is the combination of real particularism with a purely ideal universalism. Though still believing it as strongly as ever, Amyraut came to see that it made little practical difference, and did not press it in his last years, devoting himself rather to non-controversial studies, especially to his system of Christian morals (La morale chrestienne, 6 vols., Saumur, 1652-60). The read significance of Amyraut's teaching lies in the fact that, while leaving unchanged the special doctrines of Calvinism, he brought to the front its ethical message and its points of universal human interest. See CALVINISM, (E. F. KARL MLDLLER.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: E. and It. Haag, La France proteatanfs. i. 72-80, Paris, 1846 (gives a complete hot of his voluminousworks); E. 8sigey, in Rev" de Woiopie, pp. 178 aqq., Paris, 1849; A. Schweizer, Tiibinga thsolopiwAa Jahr- l4cher. 1852. pp. 41 eqq., 155 sqq. ANABAPTISTS. I. The Sober Anabaptists. II. The Fanatical Anabap- In Switzerland (11). Anabaptist Tenets (§ 2). In the Netherlands and England (13). lisle. The Zwickau Prophets U I). In Strasburg and MGneter (§ 2). The name "Anabaptists" (meaning "Rebap tizera ") was given by their opponents to a party L-11
among the Protestants in Reformation times whose distinguishing tenet was opposition to infant baptism, which they held to be unscriptural and therefore not true baptism. They baptized all who joined them; but, according to their belief, this was not a rebaptism as their opponents charged. In opposition to the Church doctrine they held that baptism should be administered only to those who were old enough to express by means of it their acceptance of the Christian faith, and hence, from their point of view, their converts were really baptized for the first time. Another epithet often applied to them was " Catabaptieta," meaning paeudobaptists, as if their baptism were a mockery, and with an implication of drowning, which was considered the appropriate punishment for their conduct and frequently followed their arrest.
In studying this movement the following facts should be borne in mind: (1) The Anabaptists did not invent their rejection of infant baptism, for there have always been parties in the Church which were antipedobaptista (cf. A. H. Newman, History of Antipedobaptiam, Philadelphia, 1897). (2) There are two kinds of Anabaptists, the sober and the fanatical. Failure to make this distinction has done mischief and caused modern Baptists to deny their connection with the Baptists of the Reformation, whereas they are the lineal descendants of the sober kind and have no reason to be ashamed of their predecessors. (3) Even among the fanatical Anabaptists there were harmless dreamers; not all the fanatics were ready to establish a Kingdom of the Saints by unsaintly deeds. (4) Information concerning the Anabaptists is largely derived from prejudiced and deficient sources.I. The Sober Anabaptists: These were the product of the Reformation in Switzerland started by Zwingli. Shortly after he began to preach Ref ormation doctrine in Zurich, in 1519, some of his hearers, very humble persons mostly, gathered in pri vate houses to discuss his sermons, and Zwingli often met with them. He had laid it down as a principle that what is not taught in the Bible is not a law of God for Christians, and had applied this prin ciple to the payment of tithes and the observance of Lent. In 1522 these friends of Zwingli asked him where he found his plain Scripture authorizing infant baptism and whether, according to his principle he was not compelled to
z. In give it up. Zwingli, however, though Switzer- he wavered at first, decided to stand byland. the Church, arguing that there was fair inferential support in the Bible for the practise, and that it was the Christian substitute for the Jewish rite of circumcision. Over this point an estrangement took place between him and his parishioners. The little company received accessions of a desirable character, and came to include scholars and theologians like Felix Manz and Conrad Grebel, who socially and intellectually were the peers of Zwingli's followers. Hffbmaier was a visitor. In 1524 as the result of letters or visits from Thomas Mower and Andreas Carlstadt they took very decided antipedobaptist positions; but public opinion in Zurich was against
them, and the magistrates on Jan. 18, 1525, after what was considered the victory of the Church party in a public debate, following many private conferences, ordered that these antipedobaptiata present their children for baptism, and made it a law that any parents refusing to have their infant children baptized should be banished. On Jan. 21 they forbade the meetings of the antipedobaptists and banished all foreigners who advocated their views. Shortly after this the antipedobaptista began to practise believers' baptism. In a company composed entirely of laymen one poured water in the name of the Trinity on other members in succession, after they had expressed a desire to be baptized, and so, as they claimed, they instituted veritable Christian baptism. Like scenes were enacted in other assemblies. It is noteworthy that these first believers' baptisms were by pouring; immersion was introduced later. Also that in all the lengthy treatises of Zwingli on baptism there is no discussion as to the mode. These early Baptists practised pouring, sprinkling, and immersion as suited their convenience, and did not consider the mode as of much importance.Though infant baptism was the first and the main issue between the Anabaptists and the Church party, there were others of great i. Anabap- importance. The former said that fist Tenets. only those who had been baptized after confession of faith in Christ con stituted a real Church; the latter, that all baptized persons living in a certain district constituted the State Church. The Anabaptists maintained that there should be a separation between the State and the Church; that no Christian should bear arms, take an oath, or hold public office; that there should be complete religious liberty. All this was not in accord with the times; and thus the Anabaptists were considered to be enemies of the standing order, and were treated accordingly. On Sept. 9, 1527, the cantons of Zurich, Bern, and St. Gall united in an edict which maybe taken as a specimen of its class. It gives reasons for prose cuting the Anabaptists, which are manifestly prej udiced and even in part false, and then decrees the death by drowning of all of them who are teachers, baptizing preachers, itinerants, leaders of conventiclea, or who had once recanted and then relapsed. Foreigners in these cantons associating with the Anabaptists were banished, and if found again were to be drowned. Simple adherents were to be fined. It was made the bounden duty of all good citizens to inform against the Anabap tists (for the full text consult S. M. Jackson, Huldreich Zwingli, New York, 1903, pp. 259-281). Similar laws against the Anabaptists were made and enforced in South Germany, Austria, the Tyrol, the Netherlands, England, and wherever they went. Such treatment suppressed Anabap tism, or stall events, drove it beneath the surface. How ineffectual it was to extinguish it appears from the fact that early in 1537, four Anabaptists from the Netherlands quietly stole into Geneva, and began making converts. John Calvin, who neg lected no opportunity to do God service, as he conceived it, got wind of their presence and had
them and their seven converts banished by the magistrates (the incident is described by Beza in his life of Calvin, ed. Neander, p. 8; cf. Calvin's Tracts, Eng. transl., i. xxx.; Doumergue, Jean Calvin, ii. 242; Herminjard, Correapmidance des R9formuteura, iv. 272). Anabaptists persisted in great numbers in Moravia, the Palatinate, Switzerland, Poland, and elsewhere.Only in the Netherlands did the Anabaptists escape persecution, and there they became quite numerous. They were joined in 1538by 3. In the a remarkable man, Menno Simona(q.v.), Nether- who organized them and his name has lands and been given to the sect (see MFjiNoN- England. ITEB). From the Netherlands they passed into England; but no sooner did they make converts there than Henry VIII. in cluded them in a decree of banishment, and those who remained he threatened to put to death. Indeed, in 1535 there is record of ten persons who were burned in London and other English towns on the charge of Anabaptism (cf. John Foxe, Acts and Monuments, ed. Townsend, v., London, 1843, p. 44). How little this cruel course succeeded is evidenced by the continued presence in England of the Baptist Church.
That among the sober kind of Anabaptists there were unworthy persons, that some of them held visionary views, and that a few may have -been goaded into occasional violence of expression, and possibly of conduct, may be accepted as proved; but that they were as a party guilty of the charges brought against them, as in the joint edict mentioned above, is untrue. As a class they were as holy in life as their persecutors; and their leaders, in Biblical knowledge and theological acumen, were no mean antagonists.
II. The Fanatical Anabaptists: The earliest mention of Anabaptism in connection with the Lutheran Reformation is in the spring of 1521 when Niklaue Storch, Markus Stilbner, and a third person, who was a weaver, as Storch had been,I r. The made their appearance in Wittenberg Zwickau and sought to convert the professors Prophets. of its university to their views, which I were the familiar Anabaptist ones of L opposition to military service, private prop ', erty, government by those not true Christians, infant baptism, and the oath, together with the novel one that there should be a dissolution of the marriage bond in the cases where there was not agreement between the married couple in religious belief. These views they pressed with great vehemence and no little success. They also claimed to be inspired to make their deliveraaeea. Aa they came from Zwickau, they are called the Zwick au Prophets (q.v.). Carlstadt was impressed by them, and characteristically allowed iconoclastic practises in his church. Melanchthon wavered, but Luther, who at the time of their visit was at the Wartburg, was so much stirred by the confusion they induced that he left his seclusion and opposed them stoutly and silenced them by ridicule rather than by arguments.
Among theleadera and followers on the peasant aide in the Peasants' war which desolated Germany
in 1525, were those who held antipedobaptist views. After the war Strasburg became the center of the Anabaptists and, after 1529, when it was visited by
Melchior Hoffmann (q.v.), " the evil z. In Stras- genius of the Anabaptists," it was burg and the center of their propaganda. HoffMunster. mann united to the usual Anabaptist
views, belief in himself as the inspired interpreter of prophecy and as inspired leader generally. He declared that he was one of the "two witnesses" of Rev. xi. 3; that Strasburg was to be the New Jerusalem, and the seat of universal dominion; and that non-resistance might be given up. These views he preached with great effect through East Friesland and the Netherlands, and his followers called themselves " Melchiorites." After he had been thrown into prison (1533) Jan Matthys, a baker from Haarlem, appeared in Strasburg and claimed to be the other " witness " of the Apocalypse; but he altered the programme by transferring the capital of the kingdom of the saints to Munster, and advocating force in maintaining it. After sending four apostles, one of whom was the notorious John of Leyden, he came thither himself (Feb., 1535), and led a successful revolt against the magistracy and bishop of the city. In Apr., 1535 he was killed and was succeeded by John of Leyden who caused himself to be proclaimed king, and declared polygamy to be the law of the kingdom. Meanwhile the city was besieged by the expelled bishop aided by the neighboring princes and by the imperial troops. If half that is said to have gone on within the city be true (the reports come from very prejudiced sources), fanaticism was there the order of the day. Hence the defense was lax, owing to dependence on divine power to work deliverance. Nevertheless, the siege lasted many months, and treachery within rather than assaults without at last opened the gates on June 25, 1535 (see MfJNBTER, ANABAPTISTS IN). The fanatical Anabaptists were universally taken as typical, and to this day when Anabaptism is mentioned it is supposed to be the equivalent of absurd interpretation of Scripture, blasphemous assumption, and riotous indecency. Munster was, however, only the culminating point of fanaticism engendered by persecution, and Anabaptism in itself, strictly interpreted, is not responsible for it.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The sources are the writings of Anabaptists, the official records of proceedings against them. and the writings of their opponents. Of the extensive literature, the following works may be mentioned: C. W. Bouterwek, Zur Lit<erahsr and Geschichta der Wiedertaufer, Bonn, 1864; C. A. Cornelius, Die niederlandieden Wieder diufer, Munieb, 1869; E. Egli, Die Zihuher Wiedertkufer, Zurich, 1878; idem, Die St. Gallen Wiedertdufer, 1887 ; H. s. Burrage, History of the Anabaptists in Switzerland, New York, 1882; L. Keller, Die Reformation and die dlteren Reformparteien, Leipsic. 1885; R. Nitsehe, Ge achichte der Wiedertdufer in der Schwew, Einsiedeln, 1885; J. Loserth. Der Anabaptiemue in Tirol, Vienna, 1892; idem, Der Kommuniemua der mahrischen Wiedertaufer, 1894; K. Kautsky, Der Kommunismus im Mittelalter im Ze0alter der Reformation,. Stuttgart, 1894, Eng. transl., Communion in Central Europe in the Time of the Reformation, London, 1897; H. Lfldemann, Reformation and T aufertum in Qrem Verhdltnis sum chriatliden Princip, Bern, 1896; R. Heath, Anabaptism from its Rise at Zwickau to 1536, London, 1895; E. Miller, Geachichk der berniechen
TBufer, Frauenfeld, 1895; K. Rembert, Die Wiedertaufer im Herzogtum JWich, Berlin, 1899; G. Trumbillt, Die Wiedertaufer, in Monographien zur Weltgeschichte, vii., Leipsie, 1899; E. C. Pike, The Story of the Anabaptists, in Eras of Nonconformity, London, 1904; the biographies of Anabaptist leaders, especially that of Balthasar Hfibmaier, by H. C. Vedder, New York, 1905, and works on the Reformation. See also the works mentioned in the article, MUNSTER, ANABAPTIBTg IN.ANACHORITE. See ANCHORET.
ANACLETUS, an"a kli'tus: The name of one pope and one antipope.
Anacletus I.: Roman presbyter at the close of the first century. The hypothesis of Volkmar, that he had no historical existence is opposed by the prevailing unanimity of the Greek and Latin lists of the popes. These differ, however, in the place which they ascribe to him, some naming him fourth and some third. The latter is the older order. As the name in Greek is sometimes written Anenkletos and sometimes Kletos, the Catalogus Laberianus and other early authorities were betrayed into the mistake of making two distinct persons. It is impossible to determine his date. Twelve years is the longest time assigned to his pontificate. The assertion, that he, as well as Linus and Clemens, was consecrated by St. Peter, sprang from the tendency to connect him as closely as possible with the beginnings of the Church. That he met a martyr's death under Domitian, or, as Baronius and Hausrath assert, under Trajan, can not be adequately demonstrated. His festival in the Roman Catholic Church falls on July 13.(A. HAucs.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Liber pontifu;alis, ed. Duchesne, v ol. i., pp. lxix. lxx., 52; G. Volkmar, Ueber Eunodia, Eunodiua, and Anaclet, in Baur and Zeller, Theologische Jahrbiicher, xvi. 147-151, Tfibingen, 1857; A. Hausrath, Neutestamentliche Zeitgeschichte, iii. 391,, Heidelberg, 1875; J. B. Light foot, The Apostolic Fathers, I. i. 201 sqq., London, 1890; A. Hamack. in Sitzungaberichte der Berliner Akademie, 1892, 817-658; idem, Litteratur, II. i. 70 sqq.
Anacletus Il. (Pietro Pierleoni): Antipope, 113038. He was descended from a Jewish family which had grown rich and powerful under Gregory VIL, studied in Paris, and later became a Cluniac monk. Paschal II. recalled him to Rome, and in 1116 made him a cardinal. He accompanied Gelasius II. on his flight to France, and after his death took a-leading part in the elevation of Calixtus II., who made him legate to England and France in 1121, and, conjointly with Cardinal Gregory, who was to be his rival for the papacy, to France in 1122. It is.impossible to determine how far the description of him as an immoral and avaricious prelate is based on the enmity of his later opponents; but it is certain that even under Paschal II. he was already laying his plans to be made pope. On Feb. 14; 1130, he attained his aim so far as to be chosen by a majority of the cardinals, though not to be enthroned before nine of them had elected Gregorio Papareschi as Innocent II. Anacletus used both his own resources and those of the Church to win over the Romans, and Innocent was obliged to flee. In Sept., 1130, Anacletus allied himself with Roger of Sicily, and thus made a decided enemy of Lothair the Saxon, who was already inclined to support Innocent, and now, with England and
France, declared for him. In Oct., 1131, Innocent excommunicated Anacletus at Reims; in the following spring he set out for Italy; and in Apr., 1133, entering Rome in Lothair's company, he took possession of the Lateran, while Anacletus held the Vatican. Lothair pronounced the latter an outlaw and a criminal against both the divine and the royal majesty; but he was himself forced to leave Rome in June, and Anacletus forced Innocent once more to flee to Pisa. In the autumn of 1136 Lothair returned, and succeeded in compelling southern Italy to recognize Innocent. The end of the schism was, however, due less to him than to Bernard of Clairvaux, who succeeded in separating not only the city of Milan, but many of the principal Romans from Anacletus's party (see BERNARD, SAINT, OF CLAIRVAUX). [(see BERNARD OF CLAIRVAUX)] Negotiations were even opened with Roger of Sicily, his last supporter; but at this juncture Anacletus died, Jan. 25, 1138. His letters and privileges are in MPL, clxxix. 689-732, and in Jaffé, Regesta, i. 911-919. (A. HAUCK.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY:A. von Reumont, [A. Von Reumont] Geschichte der Stadt Rom, ii. 408, 3 vols., Berlin, 1867-70; [1867-1870;] P. Jaffé, Geschichte des deutschen Reichs unter Lothar, Berlin, 1843; Bower, Popes, ii. 484-470; W. Bernhardi, Lothar von Supplinburg, Leipsic, 1879; W. Martens, Die Besetzung des päpstlichen Stuhls, 323 sqq., Freiburg, 1886; Hefele, Conciliengeschichte, v. 406 sqq.; J. Langen, Geschichte der römischen Kirche, pp. 315 sqq., Bonn, 1893; Hauck, KD, iv. 128-138.
ANAGNOST. See LECTOR.
ANAMMELECH, a-nam'e'lec or a"nam"mê'lec: According to II Kings xvii. 31, a deity worshiped with child-sacrifice by the Sepharvites who were settled in Samaria by Sargon (see ADRAMMELECH). If Sepharvaim be sought in Babylonia, it is natural to refer the name "Anammelech " to the Babylonian god Anu (Anu-malik or Anu-malku, "King Anu"; cf. Jensen, pp. 272 sqq.; Schrader, p. 353; Bæthgen, pp. 254-255). If, however, as is more probable, Sepharvaim was a city of Syria, the Babylonian derivation is untenable. The name of a goddess Anath is found in a Greco-Phenician inscription (CIS, i. 95) of Lapithos in Cyprus belonging to the time of Ptolemy I. Soter (d. 283 BC). It occurs also on a Phenician coin with a picture of the goddess riding upon a lion, and a star above her head. The name "Anath" appears in the Old Testament towns Beth-anath (in Naphtali, Josh. xix. 38; Judges i. 33) and Beth-anoth (in Judah, Josh. xv. 59); also in the proper name " Anath " (Judges iii. 31, v. 6), and perhaps in the town Anathoth near Jerusalem. It is not impossible that the passage in II Kings is corrupt, and " Anammelech " may be merely a variant of " Adrammelech." It is wanting in Lucian's text of the Septuagint.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: P. Schols, Götzendienst und Zauberwesen bei den alten Hebräern und den benachbarten Völkern, pp. 405-407, Ratisbon, 1877; F. Baethgen, Beiträge zur semitischen Religionsgeschichte, Berlin. 1889; P. Jensen, Die Kosmologie der Babylonier, Strasburg, 1890; Schrader, KAT.
ANANIAS, an"-a-nai'as: The high priest in whose time the apostle Paul was imprisoned at Jerusalem (probably 58 AD; Acts xxiii. 2, xxiv. 1). In the Lucan description of the conflict between Paul and Palestinian Judaism (xxi.-xxvi.; cf. K. Schmidt, APostelgeschichte, i., Erlangen, 1882, pp. 240 sqq.), Ananias is represented as head of the Sadducaic hierarchical party which was dominant in the Sanhedrin, and confirmed its complete apostasy from the hope of Israel by persecution of the apostle of Christ, whereas tile apostle deposes and divests of its divine authority and dignity the leadership which had become faithless to its calling. According to Josephus (Ant., XX. v. 2, vi. 2, ix. 2-4; War, II. xii. 6, xvii. 6, 9), Ananias, son of Nebedæus, was appointed high priest about 47 AD by Herod of Chalcis (the twentieth in the succession of high priests from the accession of Herod the Great to the destruction of Jerusalem). In the year 52 he had to go to Rome to defend himself before Claudius against a charge made by the Samaritans against the Jews. He was not deposed at this time, how ever (cf. C. Wieseler, Chronologische Synopse der vier Evangelien, Hamburg, 1843, pp. 187-188), but held his office until Agrippa II. appointed Ishmael, son of Phabi, his successor, probably in 59 AD Ananias is the only high priest after Caiaphas who ruled for any length of time. He exercised considerable influence after leaving his office until he was murdered in the beginning of the Jewish war. (K. SCHMIDT.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Schürer, Geschichte, i. 584; -03, ii. 204, 219,221, Eng. transl., I. ii. 173, 188-189, II. i. 182, 200 sqq.
ANAPHORA, an-af'o-ra: Name used in the Eastern liturgies for the later or more sacred part of the eucharistic service, answering to the Missa fidelium of the early times, from which the catechumens were excluded, and in the main to the canon of the Roman mass. It begins with the kiss of peace and accompanying prayers, after the "greater entrance" or solemn oblation of the elements on the altar. (GEORG RIETSCHEL.)
ANASTASIUS: Of the many bearers of this name in the Eastern Church the following three are specially deserving of notice:
1. Anastasius I: Patriarch of Antioch, 559-599. He was a friend of Gregory I, and strongly opposed Justinian's later church policy, which favored the Aphthartodocetæ (see JULIAN OF HALICARNASSUS; JUSTINIAN; MONOPHYSITES). He was banished in 570 by Justin II, was recalled in 593 by Maurice, and died in 599. His day is Apr. 21. [April 21.] Of his writings there have been printed: (1) Five addresses on true dogmas; (2) four sermons (of doubtful genuineness); (3) "A Brief Exposition of the Orthodox Faith" (in Greek); (4) fragments; (5) an oration delivered Mar. 25, [March 25,] 593, when he resumed the patriarchal chair.
2. Anastasius II: Patriarch of Antioch, 599-609, in which year he was murdered by Antiochian Jews. His day is Dec. 21. [December 21.] He translated the Cura pastoradis of Gregory I.
3. Anastasius Sinaita: Priest, monk, and abbot of Mount Sinai; b. before 640; d. after 700. He defended ecclesiastical theology against hexetica and Jews, and composed various works which have not been fully collected and examined. They include: (1) A "Guide" in defense of the faith of the Church against the many forms of Monophysitiam; (2) "Questions and Answers by Different Persons on Different Topics"; (3) "A Discourse on the Holy
Acacias and was thus, according to the Roman view, a heretic. This seems to have aroused opposition among the Roman clergy, and a suspicion arose that the pope intended to reverse the decision against Acacias. In the Decretum of Gratian he is said to have been " repudiated by the Roman Church" (MPL, clxxxvii. 111), and hence ecclesiastical writers as late as the sixteenth century usually regard him se a heretic. The baptism of Clovis, king of the Franks, fell at the beginning of his pontificate, but the letter of congratulation which the pope is supposed to have written to him is a forgery. He died in November, 498.(A. HAUCK.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Liber pontificatis, ed. Duchesne, i. 258 eqq., Paris. 1888; Bower. Popes, i. 291-298; R. Bsamann, Die Politak der PBpste van Gregor 1. bia au/ Gregor VII., i. 20 eqq.. Elberfeld, 1888; J. Havet, Questions Mbro· vinpiannes, Paris, 1885; J. Langen, Geechichte der rGmi· achan Kirche bia Nicholas 1., pp. 214 aqq., Bonn, 1885.
Anastasius III.: Pope 911-913. He was a Roman by birth. His pontificate fell in the period during which Rome and its Church were under the domination of the noble factions, and consequently little is known of his acts. Nicholas, patriarch of Constantinople, protested to him against the toleration by the legates of his predecessor, Sergius III., of the fourth marriage of the Eastern emperor, Leo VI. Before Anastssius could answer this letter, he died, probably in August, 913. Two privileges ascribed to him, one genuine, one spurious, are in MPL, exxxi.(A. HAUCK.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Leer pond fioalia, ed. Duchesne, ii. 239. Paris, 1892; Bower, Popes, ii. $07-308; R. Baamann. Die Politik der P9pate, ii. 82. Elberfeld, 1888.Anastasius IV. (Conrad of Suburra): Pope 1153-54.- He had been a canon regular and abbot of St. Rufus in the diocese of Oridans, and was made cardinal-bishop of Sabina by Honorius II. After the contested election of 1130, he had taken his stand as one of the moat determined opponents of Anacletus II. He remained in Rome as the vicar of Innocent II. when the latter fled to France, and on the death of Eugenius III. (July 5, 1153), was elected to succeed him. In his short reign he ended the controversy with Frederick Bar barosea over the title to the archiepiscopal see of Magdeburg, recognizing Wichmann of Naumburg, which Eugenius III. had refused to do. The decision was looked upon in Germany as a victory for the emperor. Another long-standing dispute in Eng land was terminated by Anastasius's final recog nition of Archbishop William of York, who had been rejected by Innocent II. and Celestine IL, had been confirmed by Lucius IL, and had again been deposed by Eugenius III. He died Dec. 3, 1154, and was succeeded on the following day by the English cardinal Nicholas Breakspear as Adrian IV. His letters and privileges are in MPL, clxxsviii. (A. HAUCK.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Libor pontifieoLu, ed. Duchesne, ii. 281, 888. 449. Paris. 1892; Bower. Popes, ii. 48b-487: A. von Remnant, GesrAiehte der Btadt Rom ii. 442, 3 vole., Berlin. 1887-70: Hefele, Coaeilisnpuchiehte, v. 537; J. Lsngen. GeecAichts der rMaisebsn Kirehe von Gregor vll. bia Innocent Ill., p. 414, Bonn, 1893.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Libor pontificalie, ed. Duchesne, ii. 106 sqq., Paris, 1892; MPL, oxxviii., pp. 1331,1345; Bower, Popes, ii. (1845) 227-228; J. Langen, Geacb"lM der rthniechan %irche bia Nickoiaa 1., pp. 837, 844, Bonn, 1885; Hefele, Concaienpeechichte, iv. 178 sqq.ANASTASIUS BIBLIOTHECARIUS: One of the few important men among the Roman clergy in the middle of the ninth century; d. 879. He grew up in Rome, and inherited from his uncle Arsenius (whose visits to the Carolingian courts in 865 had such an important influence on the development of the papal power) close relations with both the spiritual and secular powers of the day. He was for some time abbot of what is now Santa Maria in Trastevere, and about the end of 867 Adrian II. made him librarian of the Roman church. In 869 Emperor Louis II. sent him to Constantinople to arrange the marriage of his daughter Irmengard with the eldest son of Basil the Macedonian. Here he attended the last session of the eighth ecumenical council; and when the acts of the council, entrusted to the Roman legates, were taken from them by pirates on the homeward journey, he supplied a copy of his own. He seems to have influenced John VIII. in favor of his friend Photius. Hinc mar of Reims begged his intercession, which was successful, with Adrian II. The references in Hinemar's writings seem to identify the librarian with the cardinal-priest of St. Mareellus who was the iconoclastic candidate for the papacy in 855, and was several times excommunicated. (On the question of his part in the compilation of the Lxzer Ponti ficalis see LiBER PONTIFICALIS.) His Chrolto graPh'a tripartite is important for its influence on THE NEW SCHAFF-HERZOG 11 7Z7, 7CMKW~-- 188
the study of general church history in the West. In a rough age, when East and West were drifting further asunder, he labored zealously to make the fruits of Eastern culture accessible to the Latins. Most of his works are in MPL, exxix.; the Chronographia tripartite is in Theophanis chranograPhia,ed. C. de Boor, Leipsic, 1883, pp. 31-345. (F. ARNOLD.)
BIHLIOO8AP8Y: J. Hergenr5ther, Phohua, ii. 228-241, Regensburg, 1888; P. A. Lapbtre, De Anaataaio biblwtkocario. Paris, 1884; Krumbacher, Geeehichte. pp. 122-124, 127: Libor Ponfificatie, ed. Duchesne, ii., pp. vi.. 188, Paris, 1892; Wattenbach, DGQ. 304. ii. 510.
ANATHEMA, a-nath'e-ma: Among the Greeks the word anathema denoted an object consecrated to a divinity; a use of the word which is explained by the custom of hanging or fastening (anatithesthai) such objects to trees, pillars, and the like. The weaker form anathema was originally used side by side with anathema in the same sense. The double form explains the frequent variations of manuscripts between the two, which later become confusing, since anathema took on a restricted signification and was used in a sense exactly opposite to anathema. This later usage arose partly from the use of anathema. in the Septuagint as an equivalent for the Hebrew herein, which is correct enough according to the root-idea of the Hebrew word; but the latter had acquired a special meaning in the religious law of the Old Testament, designating not only that which was dedicated to God and withdrawn from ordinary use as holy, but also and more especially that which was offered to God in expiation, to be destroyed. In like manner anathema came to denote not only what belonged irrevocably to God, but what was abandoned to him for punishment or annihilation. This double meaning is explicable by the interrelation of law and religion under the old covenant. The declaration of herein recognized God's right to exclusive possession of certain things and to the annihilation of whatever offended his majesty. Under this law booty taken in war was wholly or partly destroyed (Dent. xiii. 16; Josh. vi. 18, viii. 26), idolatrous peoples were put to death, and cities were razed, never to be rebuilt (Josh. vi. 26; I Kings xvi. 34). The same double sense of h,.erem, anathema, is found in the early Greek and Roman law, which has the same combination of religious and secular bearing; devotio in one aspect is the same as the Greek kathier8sis, in another as imPrecatio, maledictio, ezaecratio.
In postexilic Israel the here;m found a new use as a penal measure directed to the maintenance of the internal purity of the community. It then denoted the penalty . of exclusion or excommunication, sometimes with confiscation of property (Ezra x. 8). It was developed by the synagogue into two grades, ndddui. (Luke vi. 22; John ix. 22, xii. 42) and herein, which included the pronouncing of a curse. It was now an official act with a formal ritual. The connection between exclusion and cursing explains the use of anathema in the sense of simple cursing (Mark w. 71) or of binding by a solemn vow (Acts xxiii. 12). In the technical sense the word anathema occurs in four passages
ANATOLIUS, sin"a-tb'li-us, OF CONSTANTINOPLE: Patriarch of Constantinople; d. 458. He belonged to the Alexandrian school, was apocrisiarius at Constantinople of Dioscurus of Alexandria (q.v.), and succeeded Flavian as patriarch after the "Robber Synod" of Ephesus (449). It was a time of conflict, and Anatolius was more than once accused of heresy, ambition, and injustice. At the Council of Chalcedon (451) he succeeded in having reaffirmed a canon of the second general council (Constantinople, 381) which placed Constantinople on an equal footing with Rome. He crowned the emperor Leo I. in 457, which is said by Gibbon (chap. xxxvi.) to be the first instance of the performance of such a ceremony by an ecclesiastic. Anatolius is identified by John Mason Neale (Hymns of the Eastern Church, London, 1862) with the author of the hymns (in Neale's translation) Fierce was the wild biuow, and The day is past and over. Others think that Anatolius the hymn-writer lived at a later time.BIBLIOGRAPHY: DC$, i. 111; Julian, Hymnolopy, pp. 63, 1140.
ANATOLIUS OF LAODICEA : Bishop of Laodicea in the third century. He was a native of Alexandria, and excelled in rhetoric and philosophy, the natural sciences, and mathematics. His fellow citizens requested him toestablish a school of Aristotelian Philosophy- In 262 he left Alexandria, acted for a time as coadjutor of Bishop Theotecnus of Csesarea, and was made bishop of Laodiceain268or269. Eusebius(Hist.eccl., VII. xxxii. 14-20) gives a considerable extract from a work of his on the paschal festival, and mentions another, in ten books, on calculation. The Latin Lcber A natoli de ratione paschali probably belongs to the sixth century. It is in MPG, x., and in B. Krusch, Studien z tar mittelalterlichen C hrono logie, Leipsic, 1880, pp. 311-327; cf. ANF, vi . 146-153. G. KRtYGER.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: T. Zahn, Forachungen zur Geachichte den %anona, iii. 177-196, Leipsic, 1884; A. Anacombe, The Paschal Canon attributed to Anatolius o/ Laodicea, in English Historical Review, x. (1895) 515-535; Krt&r, History, p. 216.
ANCHIETA, dn"shf-6'ta, JOSL DE: The apostle of Brazil; b. at La Laguna, Teneriffe, Canary Islands, 1533; d. at Retirygba, Brazil, June 15, 1597. He joined the Jesuits in 1550, and three years later went to Brazil. In 1567 he was ordained priest, and thenceforth lived as missionary in the wild interior, laboring amid great hardships for the conversion of the savages. He became provincial before his death. Both the Indians and the Portuguese believed that he worked miracles. He wrote two catechisms in the native Brazilian tongue, a dictionary of the same, and a grammar (Ante de grammatica da lingoa mail usada na costs do Brash, Coimbra, 1595), which is the standard work on the subject. A treatise by him in Latin on the natural products of Brazil was published by the Academy of Sciences at Lisbon (1812).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: His life has been published in Spanish (Jerez de la Frontera, 1677), in Portuguese (Lisbon, 1672), in Latin (Cologne, 1617), and in English (London, 1849).AHCHORET (ANCHORITE, ANACHORITE)
A name applied to one of the class of early ascetics who withdrew from the world to devote themselves in solitude to the service of God and the care of their souls, practically synonymous with hermit. See AscETICIsm j MONABTICIBM.
ANCILLON, an-sf'yen: Name of an old Huguenot family of France, one of whose members resigned a high judicial position in the sixteenth century for the sake of his faith. His son, Georges Ancillon, was one of the founders of the Evangelical Church of Metz. Other members of the family were the following:
David Ancillon: Great-grandson of Georges Ancillon; b. at Metz Mar. 17, 1617; d. at Berlin Sept. 3, 1692. He attended the Jesuit college of his native city, studied theology at Geneva (1633-41), and was appointed preacher at Meaux (1641) and Metz (1653). In 1657 he held a conference on the traditions of the Church with Dr. Maciar, suffragan of the bishop of Metz; and, as a false report of this conference was spread by a monk, tie published his celebrated Traitd de la Tradition (Sedan, 1657). At the revocation of the edict of Nantes he went to Frankfort and became pastor at Hanau (1685), where he wrote an apology of Luther, Zwingli, Calvin, and Beza. Later he went to Berlin, where the Elector Frederick William appointed him preacher to the French congregation. The
vie de Farel, which appeared at Amsterdam in 1691 under his name, is a mutilated copy of a manuscript which he had not intended for publication.
Charles Ancillon: Eldest son of David Ancillon; b. at Metz July 28, 1659; d. in Berlin July 5, 1715. He was judge and director of the French colony in Brandenburg and historiographer to Frederick I. Of his writings the following have interest for the Church historian: R6flexion$ politiques (Cologne, 1685); Irrhoeabilit6 de l'Mit de Nantes (Amsterdam, 1688); Histoire de l'stablisaement des Frangais rsfugiz,s dans lee Bats de Brandebourg (Berlin, 1690). He published also M6lange critique de litt6rature (3 vols., Basel, 1698), based upon conversations with his father, and containing an account of his life.
Jean Pierre Fridiric Ancillon: Great-grandson of Charles Ancillon; b. in Berlin Apr. 30, 1767; d. there Apr. 19, 1837. He was teacher in the military academy of Berlin and preacher to the French congregation, his sermons attracting much attention. In 1806 he was appointed tutor to the crown prince, and in 1825 minister of state, which position he retained till his death. He published two volumes of sermons (Berlin, 1818).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: E. and It. Ham, La France Protestants, i. 8096, Paris, 1846; R. L. Poole, A History of the Huguenots of the Dispersion, pp. 144 sqq., London, 1880; G. de Felice, Hietoire des Protestants de France, pp. 377-378, Toulouse, 1895.
ANCYRA, an-sai'm, SYNOD OF: A council held at Ancyra (the modern Angora, 215 m. e.s.e. of Constantinople), a considerable town in the center of Galatia. The year is not stated, but it was probably soon after the downfall of Maximinus had freed the Eastern Church from persecution, presumably in 314. Nine canons of the synod deal with the treatment of the lapsed. The tenth permits deacons to marry if they have expressed such an intention at their ordination. The thirteenth forbids chorepiscopi to ordain priests and deacons. From the eighteenth canon it may be inferred that the episcopate of Asia Minor was inclined to appoint bishops without regard to the right of election on the part of the people, and that the latter frequently succeeded in opposing such appointments; it also provides that bishops named for any church but not received by it must remain members of the presbytery to which they had belonged, and not seek an opportunity to exercise episcopal jurisdiction elsewhere. (A. HAUCg.)BIBLIOGRAPHY: Hefele, Concilienpesehicku, i. 219-242, Eng. tranel., i. 199-222.
ANDERSON, CHARLES PALMERSTON: Protestant Episcopal bishop of Chicago; b. at Kemptville, Canada, Sept. 8, 1864. He was educated at Trinity College School, Port Hope, Oat., and Trinity University, Toronto (B.D., 1888). He was ordained priest in 1888 and was rector at Beachburg, Ont., in 1888-91, and at Grace Church, Oak Park, Chicago, in 1891-1900. In the latter year he was consecrated bishop coadjutor of Chicago, and on the death of Bishop William E. McLaren in 1905 he became bishop. He is a member of the committee of the Episcopal Church on Capital and
Labor and of the Sunday-School Commission, and is the author of The Christian Ministry (Milwaukee, 1902).
ANDERSON, GALUSHA: Baptist; b. at Clarendon, N. Y>, Mar. 7, 1832 He was educated at Rochester University (B.A., 1854) and Rochester Theological Seminary (1856). He was pastor of a Baptist church at Janesville, Wis., from 1856 to 1858 and of the Second Baptist Church, St. Louis, from 1858 to 1866, when he was appointed professor of homiletics, church polity, and pastoral theology in Newton Theological Institution, Newton Centre, Mass. In 1873 he resumed the ministry and was pastor of the Strong Place Baptist Church, Brooklyn, in 1873-76 and of the Second Baptist Church, Chicago, in 1876-78. From 1878 to 1885 he was president of Chicago University, and after a pastorate of two years at the First Baptist Church, Salem, Mass. (1885-87), he occupied a similar position at Denison University until 1890. In the latter year he was appointed professor in the Baptist Union Theological Seminary, Morgan Park, Ill., and from 1892 until his retirement as professor emeritus in 1904 was professor of practical theology in the Divinity School of the University of Chicago. In collaboration with E. J. Goodspeed he translated selected homilies of Asterius, under the title Ancient Sermons for Modern Times (New York, 1904).ANDERSON, JOSEPH: Congregationalist; b. at Broomtoro (a hamlet of Roesshire), Scotland, Dec. 16, 1836. He was educated at the College of the City of New York (B.A., 1854) and Union Theo logical Seminary (1857), and held successive pas torates at the First Congregational Church, Stam ford, Conn. (1858-81), the First Congregational Church, Norwalk, Conn. (1861-64), and the First Congregational Church, Waterbury, Conn. (1865 1905), of which he is now pastor emeritus. He was moderator of the General Association of Connec ticut in 1877 and 1890, and of the General Confer ence of Congregational Churches in 1878, and has been a member of the Yale Corporation since 1884. He was also president of the Connecticut Bible Society in 1884-1904 and a delegate to the Inter national Congregational Council held at London in 1891. He is vice-president of the American Social Science Association and of the Mattatuck Historical Society, as well as a corporate member of the Amer ican Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, a director of the Missionary Society of Connecticut since 1875, and a member of the American Anti quarian Society and the American Historical Association. Among his numerous works special mention may be made of The Town and City o f Waterbury (3 vole., Waterbury, Conn., 1896), which he edited and in great part wrote. ANDERSON, LABS. See ANDREX, LORENZ.
ANDERSON, MARTIN BREWER: American Baptist; b. at Brunswick, Me., Feb. 12, 1815; d. at Lake Helen, Fla., Feb. 26, 1890. He was graduated at Waterville College (Colby University), Me., 1840; studied at Newton Theological Institution 1840-41; was tutor in Latin, Greek, and mathematics in Waterville College 1841-43, and professor
of rhetoric 1843-50. He was editor-in-chief and joint proprietor, with the Rev. James S. Dickerson, of The New York Recorder, a Baptist weekly newspaper (later known as The Examiner), 1850-53, and first president of the University of Rochester, N. Y., 1853-88. He was president of the American Baptist Home Missionary Society 1864-66, of the American Baptist Missionary Union 1870-72, and member of the New York State Board of Charities 1868-72. A volume of selections from his Papers and Addresses, was edited by W. C. Morey (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1895).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. C. Kendrick and Florence Kendrick, Martin Brewer Anderson, a Biography, Philadelphia, 1895.
ANDERSON, RUFUS- American Congregationalist; b. at North Yarmouth, Me., Aug. 17, 1796; d. in Boston May 30, 1880. He was graduated at Bowdoin College 1818; studied at Andover Theological Seminary 1819-22; became assistant to the corresponding secretary of the American Board 1822, assistant secretary 1824, and foreign secretary 1832, which last position he filled till 1866, resigning then because he was convinced that the age of seventy years constitutes " a limit beyond which it would not be wise to remain in so arduous a position." He visited officially the missions of the Board in the Mediterranean 1828-29 and again in 1843-X14, in India 1854-55, and in the Sandwich Islands 1863. His published works include: Observations on the Peloponnesug and Greek Islands (Boston, 1830); Foreign Missions, their Relations and Claims (New York, 1869); A Heathen Nation [the Sandwich Islanders] Evangelized (1870); a history of the missions,of the American Board to the Oriental churches (2 vole., 1872) and in India (1874).
ANDERSON, WILLIAM FRANKLIN: Methodist Episcopalian; b. at Morgantown, W. Va., Apr. 22, 1860. He was educated at the State University of West Virginia, Morgantown, W. Va., Ohio Wesleyan University, Delaware, O. (B.A., 1884), Drew Theological Seminary (B.D., 1887), and New York University (M.A., 1897). He has held successive pastorates at the Mott Avenue Methodist Episcopal Church (1887-89), St. James's Church, Kingston, N. Y. (1890-94), Washington, Square, New York (1895-98), and Highland Avenue Church, Ossining, N. Y. (1899-1904). He was recording secretary of the Board of Education of the Methodist Episcopal Church from 1898 to 1904, when he was elected corresponding secretary. In 1898 he was made a member of the Board of Managers of the Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and was a member of the General Missionary Committee in 1901-02. In theology he is progressively conservative. He is the editor of The Christian Student, and in addition to numerous contributions to religious magazines has written The Compulsion of Love (Cincinnati, 1904).
ANDRADA, an-dra'da, ANTONIO DI: Jesuit missionary; b. at Villa de Oleiros, Alemtejo, Portugal, about 1580; d. at Goa Mar. 16 1634. He went to the missions in the East Indies, became superior of the missions of Mongolia, and made two journeys into Tibet, being one of the first Euro-
peans to penetrate that land. He published an account of his first journey (1624) under the title Now deacubrimtnta do Grad Catayo o dog Reynos de Tibet (Lisbon, 1626). His letter from Tibet for 1626 was published in Italian (Rome, 1626) and French (Paris, 1629).
ANDRADA, DIDACUS, did'a-cue (DIOGO) PAYVA D': Theologian; b. at Coimbra, Portugal, July 26, 1528; d. at Lisbon Dec. 1, 1575. He joined the Jesuits, taught theology at Coimbra, and was one of the Portuguese delegates to the Council of Trent. He replied to Martin Chemnitz's attack on the Jesuits (Theologtas Jesuitarum prteeipua capita, Leipsic, 1562), in his Explicationum orthodoxarum de controversw religionis capitibua libri decem (Venice and Cologne, 1564; the first book, De origins Societatis Jesu, was published separately at Louvain, 1566, and, in French at Lyons, 1565). Chemnitz then wrote his celebrated Examen concilii Tridentini quadripartitum (Frankfort, 1565-73). Andrada was prevented by death from finishing his reply, but what he had prepared was published under the title, Defensio Tridenlinee fidei catholicte quinque libri (Lisbon, 1578). See Csr,nuvrrz. He was a brother of the Augustinian monk known as Thomas a Jesu (q.v.). BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. Hurter, Nomsnelator literarius rsuntiroris thaoiopia catholica, i. 43 sqq., Innsbruck, 1892.
ANDREA, an'drA-a, JAKOB: Lutheran; b. at Waiblingen (7 m. n.e. of Stuttgart), Wurttemberg, Mar. 25, 1528; d. at Tiibingen Jan. 7, 1590. He was educated at the Paedagogium at Stuttgart, and studied theology at Tilbingen from 1541 to 1546. In the latter year he became deacon at Stuttgart, but had to leave in 1548, after the introduction of the Interim (q.v.), and went to Tiibingen, where he was appointed deacon at the Stiftskirche. In 1553 he took the degree of doctor of theology, was appointed city pastor and afterward superintendent-general at G6ppingen. He now developed activity in behalf of the Evangelical Church at large, helping to introduce the Reformation in many places. In 1557 he attended the diets of Frankfort and Regensburg, and was present at the Conference of Worms. In 1559 he attended the Diet of Augsburg; in 1560 he held a church-visitation in Lauingen; in 1561 he was at Erfurt; and in the fall of the same year, in company with the Tubingen chancellor Jakob Beurlin and the Stuttgart courtpreacher Balthasar Bidembach, he went to Paris to attend the religious colloquy in Poissy.
Beurlin having died at Paris, Andrea was appointed professor of theology, provost, and chancellor in Tiibingen. In 1563 he went to Strasburg to settle a dispute caused by Zanchi on the ina'l>Zidsa'bilitas gratice, in 1564 he attended the conference in Bebenhausen to examine the Heidelberg Catechism, and the colloquy in Maulbronn. In 1568 his prince sent him to Brunswick-Wolfenbiittel to assist in the introduction of the Reformation and in framing an Evangelical Church ordinance; at the same time also he joined with Chemnitz, Selnekker, and other theologians of northern Germany, in paving the way for a consensus of the Saxon and other Evangelical Churches. Therewith began
the most important period in Andrea's life, his activity in behalf of the Formula of Concord.
Andrea's first plan was to neutralize the differences by means of formulas so general that they could be accepted by all. Two years were spent in traveling, during which he visited every Evangelical Church, university, and city in northern and southern Germany, and conferred with all important theologians. But neither the Flacians nor the Philippists, the two extreme parties among the Lutherans, had full confidence in him; and in the convention at Zerbat, May, 1570, his attempt proved a failure. Andrea now changed his plan. There was to be no more attempt at compromise, but the line was to be sharply drawn between Lutherans and the adherents of Zwingli and Calvin; and thus the Philippists and all other individual shades of Lutheranism were to be destroyed. Andrea preached six sermons on the points in controversy in 1572 and published them in the two following years. Copies were sent to Duke Julius, Chemnitz, Chytraus, and others. He then sent an epitome of these sermons, with the approval of the Tiibingen faculty and the Stuttgart consistory, to the theologians 4 north Germany, for examination and criticism, who introduced some changes and produced the so-called Swabian-Saxon Concordia. A comparison of this Swabian-Saxon Concordia with Andrea's original Swabian Concordia and the Maulbronn Formula by a convention at Torgau, May 28, 1576, resulted in the Liber Torgensis, which was again revised by Andrea, Chemnitz, and Selnekker at the monastery of Bergen in March, 1577. Three further conferences were held at Bergen, May 1928, 1580, at which Chytraus, Musculus, and K6rner were present besides Andrea, Chemnitz, and Selnekker. The outcome was the Bergische Buch or Formula Concordia, which appeared June 25, 1580, and which btcame the symbolical book of the Lutheran Church (see FORMULA OF CONCORD). Andrea received much abuse-even Selnekker, Chytrios, and Chemnitz were dissatisfied-but he bore it patiently, convinced that he had worked for the truth and the peace of the Church. He continued his reformatory work, visited churches, and took part in controversies; at the request of Duke Frederick of Wdrttemberg he spoke against Beza at the colloquy of Mampelgart in March, 1586, discussing the Lord's Supper, the person of Christ, predestination, baptism, etc.
There is no collected edition of Andrea's writings, which numbered more than one hundred and fifty. Among the more noteworthy were: Refutatio criminationum Hosii (T4bingen, 1560); De dvabvs naturis in Christo (1565); Berieht von der Ubiquitm (1589); De instauratione studii theologici, De studio sacrarum literarum, published posthumously (1591 sqq.). His sermons have been often published (cf. Zwanzig Predigten von den Jahren 1567, 1569, 1660, ed. Schmoller, Gilteraloh, 1890). (T. KoLDE.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. V. Andrei, Fama Andreana reftoreaam, Strasburg, 1630 (an autobiography written in 1562, edited by his grandson, the main source for AndreB'e life); C. M. Fittbogen, Jacob Andred, der Ver/aeeer des Concordunbuchea. Sean Leben and seine #eologiwhe Bedeutung, Leipaic. 1881 (not altogether satisfactory); %L, I. 818-821.THE NEW SCHAFF-HERZOG 170 ANDDREA, JOHM VALENTIN: Theologian and satirist, grandson of Jakob Andrea; b. at Herrenberg, near T(ibingen, WIrttemberg, Aug. 17, 1586; d. at Stuttgart June 27, 1654. In 1601 he entered the University of Tiibingen, where his reading covered a vast range on the mathematical sciences, language, philosophy, theology, music, and art. After living for a number of years as tutor in noble families and traveling extensively in France, Switzerland, Austria, and Italy, he became deacon at Vaihingen, Wiirttemberg, in 1614. His duties gave him leisure for prolific authorship, and forty of his writings (numbering about 100 in all) were produced during his six years' sojourn in Vaihingen. In 1612 he published De christiani cosmoxeni genitura, a eulogy of early Christianity, and Die Chrestenburg, an epic allegory dealing with the struggles and ultimate triumph of the Christian soul. These were, followed by Turbo (1616), a comedy in which pedantry was wittily satirized, and Menippus (1618), of which worldly folly was the subject. In 1619 he published Reipublicle chriatianopolitante descriptio, an account of an ideal Christian state after the manner of More's Utopia and Campanella's City o f the Sun. In all of these Andrea appears as a foe of secta rianism and intolerance, and with wit and energy pleads for a union of denominations on the basis of the fundamental Christian teachings. In 1614 there appeared anonymously Fama f ratenaitatw Bosom Crucis, followed the next year by Confes8io fraternitatis Bosom Crucis, satires on the astro logical and mystic agitations of the time. Andrea, whose authorship of the two pamphlets is more than probable, though not established beyond doubt, later declared that the Order of the Rosi crucians (q.v.) was a myth and a product of his own brain; nevertheless he has been spoken of as the founder or restorer of that fraternity.
From 1620 to 1639 Andrea was superintendent at Calw, displaying in the unhappy days of the Thirty Years' war heroic devotion to duty. In 1634 Calw was sacked, and of its 4,000 inhabitants only 1,500 escaped the sword, while the plague carried off nearly one-half of the remainder. Andrea worked unceasingly among the dying, uniting in himself the duties of physician, minister, and grave-digger, and when the progress of the infection had been checked he set to work resolutely to restore law and order in the devastated city. In 1639 he was called to Stuttgart as court preacher with a seat in the Consistorium. Upon him fell the task of reorganizing the church system and the schools which had shared in the ruin that the war had brought. An admirer of the Genevan system of government, he attempted to introduce its principal features into the country, but failed because of the opposition of his fellow members in the Consistorium. He was partially successful, however, in establishing general and local conventions composed of government officials and members of the clergy for the enforcement of the church laws. The public regulation of private morals was a cardinal principle with him through life, and found expression in his Theophilus, written in1622 and published in 1649. This work contains
ANDREW OF CESAREA: Metropolitan of Caesarea in bappadocia, author of a commentary on the Apocalypse which has some importance in exegetical history. He has been variously thought to have flourished between the fifth and the ninth centuries. His time was certainly after the Persian persecutions and the strife between Arians and the orthodox " New Rome." A reference of the prophecy of Gog and Magog to the Scythian peoples of the extreme north, " whom we call Huns," has been thought to indicate the period before the rule of the Huns was broken; but the parallel in Arethas (MPG, cvi. 756) shows that " Huns " was used as a generic name for barbarian invaders. The only sure criterion by which the earliest possible date may be determined is Andrew's citation of authorities. The latest of these is the so-called Dionysius the Areopagite, whose writings are first certainly mentioned in 533; so that Andrew can not have written before the middle of the sixth century. He cites as witnesses to the inspiration of the Apocalypse, Papias, IrenEeus, Methodius, Hippolytus, Gregory Nazianzen, and Cyril of Alexandria. His striking omission of Origen is explicable, in the light of his dependence on the latter's bitter opponent Methodius, by the recrudescence of Origenistic controversy in the sixth century. Other authorities are Epiphanius, Basil, Eusebius, and Justin; of non-Christian writers, he once cites Josephus.Andrew's expository method is set forth in the introductory dedication to his brother and fellow worker Macarius The Apocalypse, he says, like any other inspired Scripture, is at once historical, tropological, and anagogical; but the last aspect is most prominent in it, and requires unfolding. The expositor must, however, observe his limits. God has made his revelation in Christ susceptible by the human intellect; and so history and mystery are not to be treated alike. But the explanation may at least console and edify the reader by show ing the transitoriness of all earthly things and by teaching him to long for the glories of the future. Andrew's exposition is accordingly characterized by the effort to arrive at a Christian interpretation of history, by an interest in its facts, and by a cau tious restraint in the elucidation of prophecy. But in spite of this, his conception that the Apoca lypse as a whole offers a clear revelation of the divine government of the world colors his exposition throughout. His style is usually glossarial, though here and there he adds an edifying excursus. Where necessary, he gives different views, leaving the reader to take his choice; but his commentary is much more than a mere catena, the quotations occupying a relatively small space. From the standpoint of textual criticism, as was first recog nized by Bengel, the commentary has an impor tance of its own. Matthwi noticed that the glosses of Andrew had not seldom crept into the manu scripts; and F. Delitzsch was inclined to attribute the uncertainty of the cursive texts of the Apoc alypse to the influence of the commentaries of Andrew and Arethas (q.v.). The commentary is in MPG, cvi. (G. HEINRICI.) BIBLIOGRAPBT: DCB, i. 154-155; KL, i. 830-832.
ANDREW OF CARNIOLA: Archbishop of Carniola (Krain) in the fifteenth century. He was a Slavonian, and became a Dominican monk. Through the favor of the Emperor Frederick III. he was made archbishop of Carniola with residence at Laibach. He assumed the title " Cardinal of San Sisto." In 1482 he went to Switzerland and tried to get a general council convened at Basel. On July 21 he nailed a formal arraignment of Pope Sixtus IV. to the doors of the cathedral, accompanying it with a demand for a council. The pope excommunicated him, and the local authorities put him in prison, where he was found dead on Nov. 13, 1484, probably having committed suicide. His secretary, Peter Numagen of Treves, thought him crazy.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Peter Numagen, Gaeta archiepiscopi Craynensia, in J. H. Hottinger, Histories eccleaiasticw Novi Testamenti, iv. 347-804, Zurich, 1654; J. Burckhardt, Erzbiacho/ Andreas von %rain and der letzfe Conzilaversuch in Basel, 1182-Sb, Basel, 1852; E. Frantz, Sixtus IV. and die Republik Flarens, pp. 433 eqq., Regensburg, 1880.
ANDREW OF CRETE: Archbishop of Crete; b. at Damascus; d. not earlier than 726. He became a monk at Jerusalem (whence he is sometimes called Andrew of Jerusalem), and was sent by the Patriarch Theodore to the sixth general council (Constantinople, 680). Later he was made archbishop. He was inclined to Monothelitism, but was able to restore his reputation for orthodoxy by zeal for image-worship. He is commemorated as a saint in the Greek Church on July 7. Among Greek hymn-writers he occupies a prominent place as the inventor of the so-called canons (see CANON). His penitential canon (" the great canon ") of 250 strophes is especially famous. It is still sung on the Thursday before Palm Sunday and on some other days of Lent. Andrew was also the author of many homilies, some of them very long.G. KRtYGNR.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Andrew's works are in MPG, acvii.; Antholopia Grow, ad. W. Christ and M. Paranikae, 147-161, Leipsic, 1871; narWtasq d·da~OKn, pp. 330-331, Athens, 1890; A. Papadopoulos-Kerameus, Avbaacra srX, i. 1-14, St. Petersburg, 1891; A. Maltzew, Andachtabuch der orthodox-katholisden Ruche des Morgenlandes, 178-277. Berlin, 1895. A few stanzas of the Great Canon, with two or three other hymns are translated in J. M. Neale's Hymns of the Eastern Church, pp. 73-84, London, 1876, where a brief sketch of his life is given. Copsult Fabricius-Harles, BIbbliadMw Grow, xi. 82-64, 68-75, Hamburg, 1808; Analecta sacra, ed. J. B. Pitra, i. 626627, Paris, 1876; A. Ehrhard, in Krumbseher's Gesshiehte, p. 165; F. Diekamp, Hippolytos von Thsben,.p. 108, Monster. 1898.ANDREW OF LUND (ANDERS SUNESOR):
Archbishop of Lund; b. at Knarthorp (3 m. n.w. of Copenhagen) about 1160; d. on the island of Iv6 (in Lake Ivd, near Lund) June 24, 1228. He came of the noble family of Hvide whose members filled the highest offices in Church and State. In 1182 he went to Paris, completed his studies there, and, returning in 1190, was made dean of the cathedral of Roeskilde, where his elder brother was bishop. Canute VI. made him at the same time courtchancellor. In 1194-96 he was on mission to Rome and Paris in regard to the repudiation, by Philip Augustus of France, of his wife Ingeborg, a sister of the Danish king. In 1201 Andrew succeeded172
Absalon as archbishop of Lund, an office which carried with it the dignities of primate and papal legate.
Andrew was zealous in the suppression of concubinage among the priesthood, active in raising the standard of learning among them, and an enemy to the sale of indulgences. In 1206 he preached a crusade against the heathen inhabitants of the island of Oesel off the coast of Esthonia. When Albert of Riga (q.v.) was compelled to seek the aid of the Danes against the Russians and Eathoniane in 1218, he agreed to place the bishopric of Esthonia under the authority of the archbishop of Lund, and in the following year Andrew was engaged in regulating the affairs of that see. In 1223 he resigned his office and retired to the island of Iv6 in the lake of the same name, achieving a reputation for wonder-working sanctity. He was the author of Lex Scandice protrincialia (ed. P. G. Thorsen, Copenhagen, 1853) and Hexaferon (ed. M. C. Gertz, ib. 1892), a dogmatic poem in twelve books, expository of the theology of Peter Lombard.(F. NINIsxN.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: P. E. Maller, Vita Andrew Sunonis, Archiopiacopi Lundensis Copenhagen 1830 F. Hammerieh. Enakoiaetiker op en Bibeltheolop fra Nordsn, ib. 1865.
ANDREW AND PHILIP, BROTHERHOOD OF: An interdenominational religious society for men of all ages. The sole object, as declared by the constitution, is to spread Christ's kingdom among men. The brotherhood was founded by the Rev. Rufus Wilder Miller, of the Reformed Church, who organized the first local chapter at Reading, Pa., May 4, 1888. Other chapters were formed in the same denomination, conventions began to be held, and the Brotherhood Star, the monthly bulletin of the association was established. At the convention of Reformed chapters at Bethlehem, Pa., in 1890, the formation of brotherhood chapters in other denominations was recommended, the chapters in each denomination to be under the control of that denomination, and all to be united in a federation of brotherhoods. In this way the work .was extended, until to-day there are 921 chapters in the United States, Canada, Japan, Australia, India, and other lands, with about 40,000 members, representing some twenty-three denominations; there are also fifty-eight brotherhoods for boys.
Each local chapter is subjected to the supervision and control of the pastor and governing body of the congregation, and chapters of each denomination are associated in a denominational executive council. From these councils representatives are elected to a body known as the federal col4ncii of the brotherhood of Andrew and Philip. It is through this larger body that the literature of the association is issued. Denominational Councils are now organized in the Baptist, Congregational, Methodist Episcopal, Presbyterian, and Reformed Churches.
The distinctive characteristic of the brotherhood is the emphasis it places upon personal work. There are two rules of prayer and service. The rule of service is to make personal efforts to bring men and boys within the hearing of the Gospel,
votians of Bishop Andrewes, Grtace et Latine, ed. H. Veale, 1895; The Private Devotions of Lancelot Andrewes, ed. E. Venables, 1883).BIRLIOORAPRT: His works, with his life by H. Isaacson (first
published 1850) and other notices, are collected in the Library of Anplo-Catholic Theology, 11 vole., Oxford, 184154. There are many later memoirs and essays, as: A. T. Russell, Memoirs of the Life and Works of L. Andrews, London. 1863; St. James's Lectures, 2d sir., Lecture 3, ib. 1876; DNB, i. 401-405; R. L. Ottley, Lancelot Andrewes, ib. 1894; A. Whyte, Lancelot Andrews and his Private Devotions, Edinburgh, 1896.
ANDREWS, EDWARD GAYER: Methodist Episcopal bishop; b. at New Hartford, N. Y., Aug. 7, 1825. He was educated at Cazenovia Seminary, Cazenovia, N. Y., and Wesleyan University, Middletown, Conn. (B.A., 1847). He held various pastorates in Methodist Episcopal churches in Central New York from 1848 to 1854, when he was appointed teacher and principal in Cazenovia Seminary, where he remained until 1864. He was then pastor in Stamford, Conn., from 1864 to 1867 and in Brooklyn, N. Y., from 1867 to 1872. In the latter year he was elected bishop. He visited Methodist Episcopal missions in Europe and India in 1876-77, in Mexico in 1881, and in Japan, Korea, and China in 1889-90, while in 1894 he was a delegate to the British and Irish Methodist Conference. In theology he holds the faith of his denomination for essentials of doctrine, but with deference to the results of recent Biblical investigations.
ANDREWS, ELISHA BENJAMIN: Baptist; b. at Hinsdale, N. H., Jan. 10, 1844. He was educated at Brown University (B.A., 1870), Newton Theological Institution (1874), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1879-80), and also studied in the universities of Berlin and Munich (1882-83). He served in the Union army in the Civil War, being promoted from private to second lieutenant. He was principal of the Connecticut Literary Institute, Suffield, Conn., 1870-72, and pastor of the First Baptist Church, Beverly, Mass., 1874-75. In the latter year he was appointed president of Denison University, Granville, Ill., and held this position until 1879, when he accepted a call to Newton Theological Institution as professor of homiletics and practical theology. In 1882 he became professor of history and political economy at Brown University, and in 1888 of political economy and finance at Comell. In 1889 he was chosen president of Brown University, where he remained until 1898. He then became superintendent of the Chicago schools until 1900, when he was made chancellor of the University of Nebraska, at Lincoln, a position which he still occupies. He was a member of the United States delegation to the Brussels International Monetary Commission in 1892, and is also a member of the Grand Army of the Republic, the Loyal Legion, and the American Economic Association. In theology he is a liberal evangelical Baptist. His works include Brie/ Institutes of Conatitudional Hisfory, English and American (New York, 1886); Brief inatitutea of General History (1887); Institutes of Economics (1889); The Problem of Cosmology (1891); Eternal Words (1893; a volume of sermons); Wealth and
ANDREWS, SAMUEL JAMES: Catholic Apostolic Church; b. at Danbury, Conn., July 30, 1817; d. at Hartford Oct. 11, 1906. He was educated at Williams College (B.A., 1839), and studied law in Hartford, Boston, and New York, being admitted to the Connecticut bar in 1842 and to the Ohio bar in 1844. In the following year, however, he gave up law and studied theology at Lane Theological Seminary, Cincinnati. He was licensed as a Congregational clergyman in Connecticut in 1846, and two years later was ordained pastor of the Congregational church at East Windsor, Conn. Loss of voice compelled him to retire from the ministry in 1855, although he still preached occasionally. In 1865 he was appointed an instructor in Trinity College, Hartford, and three years later took charge of a Catholic Apostolic (Irvingite) church in the same city. In theology he was a consistent follower of the creed which he professed. His chief writings were: Life of Our Lord Upon the Earth (New York, 1862); God's Revelations o f Himself to Man (1885); Christianity and Anti-Christianity in Their Final Conflict (1898); The Church and its Organic Ministries (1899); William Watson Andrews, a Religious Biography (1900; life, letters, and writings of his brother, William Watson Andrews, q.v.); and Man and the Incarnation (1905).
ANDREWS, WILLIAM WATSON: Catholic Apostolic Church, brother of Samuel James Andrews; b. at Windham, Conn., July 26, 1810; d. at Wethersfield, Conn., Oct. 17, 1897. He was graduated at Yale in 1831. During this year his attention was drawn to the religious movement then going on in England which culminated in the Catholic Apostolic Church. The point that seems at first to have interested him most was whether the gifts of the Spirit as originally given were or were not to abide in the Church, and his study of the Scriptures led him to the conclusion that ,they are a permanent endowment, and, if not still possessed, it was because of unbelief. Closely connected with the work of the Spirit in the Church was another question: Was the return of the Lord to be desired, and the Church to be ever praying and looking for it? Believing this return to be an object of hope, he was led to ask if any preparation was needed; and, if so, might not the work in England be the preparation? In 1833 he was licensed to preach, and in May, 1834, was ordained pastor of a Congregational church in Kent, Conn. Here he continued fifteen years, declining invitations to go to larger spheres of labor, preferring his quiet country life, which gave him time for study and reflection. In 1842, partly for his health, and partly to learn from personal observation the progress of the religious movement174
which interested him, he went to England and became fully convinced that the movement was of God. He offered himself to its leaders as ready to take part in it, but was directed by them to return to his parish and continue his work there. This he did, but on the death of his wife in 1848, he was released from his charge by the North Association of Litchfield County, and soon entered the Apostolic communion. In 1849 he was appointed pastor of a small congregation at Potsdam, N. Y., and remained there for six years, doing some work elsewhere as an evangelist. In 1856 he left Potsdam and entered upon his evangelistic work in which he continued till his death. From 1858 his home was in Wethersfield, Conn.
The only book published by Mr. Andrews was The Miscellanies and Correspondence of Hon. John Cotton Smith (New York, 1847). Of his numerous addresses, articles, and pamphlets mention may be made of his sermon at Kent, May 1849, on withdrawing from the Congregational ministry; The True Constitution o f the Church, read before the North Association of Litchfield County, 1855; Review of Mrs. Oliphant's Life of Edward Irving, in The New Englander, 1863 (reprinted in Scotland, 1864 and 1900); Remarks on Dr. Bushnell's " Vicarious Sacrifice," published at the request of the Hartford Fourth Association, 1866; The Catholic Apostolic Church, in the Bibliotheca Sacra, 1866; The Catholic Apostolic Church, in Schaff's Creeds of Christendom, i., New York, 1884, 905-915; and an address at Kent, his old parish, on the sixtieth anniversary of his ordination, May 27, 1894,SAMUEL J. ANDREWBt.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: William Watson Andrews, a Religious Biography, with Extracts from his Letters and other Writings prepared by his Brother, Samuel J. Andrews, New York, 1900 (contains the sermon at Kent, May, 1849, and the address, 1894, mentioned above, pp. 206-265).
ARGARLiE: Certain taxes or services usually rendered on the Ember Days (q.v.), whence the name was transferred to the latter. Consult Du Cange, s.v.ANGEL. I. Biblical Conceptions. Angels are God's Servants (§ 1).
The New Testament Conception not Different from the Old (§ 2).Later Developments ($ 3).
Distinctions Among Angela. Cherubim and fieranhim. Fallen Angels (§ 4).II. Judaic, Notions. Names and Classes (¢ 1).
Functions, Duties, ate. (¢ 2). III. Development of the Scriptural Angelology.The Belief in Angela Common to All Antiquity (¢ 1). The Hexateuch (12). The Prophets (¢ 3). The New Testament (§ 4). Conclusion (15).
The name " Angel" as a designation for spiritual beings of the supernatural world, has come into modern languages with Christianity from the Greek angeloa (°° messenger "), which is itself a rendering of the Hebrew mal'akh. The latter, in form an abstract noun (" mission," " message "), occurs only as a concrete (" messenger "), and acquired a special meaning, particularly in the singular, as the designation of a supernatural bearer of a divine
revelation. The transition was then easy to the sense of a generic name for the beings of the heavenly world, from whom the God of Israel is called " Yahweh, God of Hosts," or " Yahweh of Hosts." To distinguish angels from men, they are called "sons of God" (Gen. vi. 2, 4; Job i. 6, ii. 1, xxxviii. 7) or " sons of the mighty " (Ps. xxix. 1, margin, lxxxix. 6). A special connection with God is always implied, as well as a certain superiority over men (I Sam. xxix. 9; II Sam. xiv. 17, 20). This connection is emphasized by the epithet "holy" (A. V., " saints "; Job v. 1, xv. 15; Ps. lxxxix. 5, 7; Dan. viii. 13; Zech. xiv. 5). In I Kings xxii. 19-24 and Acts xxiii. 9 a distinction is made between angels and spirits, and in the Talmud the latter name is used for demons only. With reference to their duties angels are called " watchers " in Dan. iv. 13, 17, 23.
r. Biblical Conceptions: As concerns their function, it is not the Biblical conception that angels are the indispensable means of r. Angels communication between the higher are God's and lower worlds, nor are they a perServants. sonification of nature powers. Yet they are consistently represented as serving God's purposes in revelation and salvation, and are his " ministering spirits " (Heb. i. 14) from the appointment of the cherubim to guard Eden (Gen. iii. 24) to their activity at the second coming and the end of the world (Matt. xiii. 41, xxiv. 2931; cf. Gen. xxiv. 7, 40, xlviii. 16; Ex. xiv. 19, xxiii. 20, 23; Luke xvi. 22). Sometimes they appear in companies (Gen. xxviii. 12, xxxii. 1-2; II Kings vi. 16-17; Matt. xxv. 31; Luke ii. 13; Rev. xix. 14), but usually it is one angel who executes God's command; he is called the " angel of God " or " angel of Yahweh " (Gen. xvi. 7, 9-11, xxi. 17; Ex. iii. 2, xiv. 19; Judges vi. 20; and often). The relation of the " angel of Yahweh " to Yahweh himself is a difficult question. One of the three who appear in Gen. xviii. 2, 22 (cf. xix. 1) is evidently Yahweh, and Yahweh and his angel are both called the guide of Israel (Ex. xiii. 21, xiv. 19). Similar identification apparently occurs elsewhere, while in Zech. i. 9, 12-14, and other passages there is a sharp distinction.
In the New Testament the angel of the Lord occurs only when an angel has been previously mentioned (Matt. i. 24; Luke i. 11, x. The New 13, ii. 9, 10, 13; Acts xii. 7, 11, vii.
Testament 30, 38, Gk. text). There is no thought Conception of an identification of the angel with not Differ- the Lord. That the conception is eat from different from that of the Old Testathe Old. ment can not be proved, and such an assumption is not in accord with Stephen's references (Acts vii. 30-35) to the appearance in the burning bush (Ex. iii.). But the distinction between the angel and Yahweh does not hinder from making the angel speak as Yahweh or from speaking of the angel as of Yahweh. It follows that the distinction can not be a product of later times. The angel is not the Logos, the second person of the Trinity, as assumed .by the Greek Fathers, the older Lutheran dogmaticians, and Hengatenberg; nor is he merely a theophany
(Vatke, De Wette, Wellhausen, Kosters, and others). The former view is not consistent with the New Testament revelation, which makes it impossible to find in the Old Testament a knowledge of the threefold character of God; and the latter falls because a " mission," not an " appearance," of God is always spoken of. The true Biblical conception of the "angel of Yahweh" is that of a created being (Neh. ix. 6), belonging to the heavenly hosts (Augustine, Jerome, Hofmann, Riehm), who represents God, but is in no way identified with God. The fact, that in the New Testament the angel of Yahweh recedes, does not justify the assumption that he is a type of Christ. A realization of God's presence through angels and the communication of his revelation by them was as necessary in the old covenant as the revelation and presence of God in Christ or in the Holy Spirit are in the new (cf. Acts vii. 38; Gal. iii. 19; Heb. ii. 2). The angel has no more place in the new covenant because the first has been made old and is " ready to vanish away " (Heb. Viii 13).
From the beginning the appearance of an angel is looked upon as a sign of God's favor (Gen. xxiv.7, 40, xlviii.16; Ex. xxiii. 20; II Kings 3. Later xix. 35; Isa. lxiii. 9), and the belief
Develop- that God's angels guard his servants meats. finds expression in the Psalms (Ps.
xxxiv. 7, xci. 11). From the unity of God arises the conception of a multiplicity of angels (Gen. xxviii. 12, xxxii. 2); and then it is only a step to that of Yahweh's hosts (Josh. v. 14-15), with which he comes to the help of Israel (Isa. xxxi. 4-5), which surround his throne, offering him praise and adoration (I Kings xxii. 19; Ps. cxlviii. 2), and constitute, in the language of the synagogue, " the family above." Apocalyptic literature develops the thought, depicting in symbolic narratives the part of the angels in the history of Israel (cf. the visions of Zechariah, Ezekiel, and Daniel). In the Book of Daniel (viii. 16, ix. 21, x. 13, xii. 1) two angels are named-Gabriel and Michael. The fact that names are given (cf. Judges xiii. 18) and the names themselves indicate Babylonian influence, which later tradition recognizes by ascribing the many angels' names which it knows to Babylon (Genesis, Rabbah xlviii.). What is said of these two angels does not contradict existing views, but is merely a development of them, influenced by contact with Babylonian and Persian ideas. The fantastic and bizarre conceptions of later Judaism, however, can not deny their origin from this heathenism (cf. Tobit iii. 17, v. 6, 21, vi. 4-17, viii. 2-3). That which is really new in the Book of Daniel concerns the participation of the angels in the sin of the world. In the New Testament the apocalyptic symbolism, appears in the Book of Revelation' only (cf. xii. 7 sqq.; Jude 9). All allusions to angels in New Testament history and in the Epistles can be explained as in full accord with Old Testament conceptions, and if new ideas are found by any it is only because of the desire to find them. It requires great art of eisegesis to ascribe to Paul (as does Everling) the angel doctrine of Jewish legend and rabbinic theology.
There are evidently distinctions among angels, based on differences of duties, not of rank. In this way passages like Dan. x. 13, 4. Distinc- xii. 1; I Thess. iv. 16; Jude 9 are to tions among be explained. The same observationAngels. holds with regard to the cherubim and Cherubim seraphim, who belong to the angels. and Sera- The signification of the latter name phim. Fal- (only in Isa. vi.) is not certain. From len Angels. comparison with the Arabic it has been thought to mean nobilds, whence the signification would be"angel-leader" (cf. Josh. v. 13-15; Dan. x. 13, xii. 1). Another derivation is from the Hebrew saraph, "to burn," and the name is then thought to be given to these beings because of their peculiar relation to the divine holiness, of which they are the heralds and guards. Whether the prophet coined the name with refer ence to the act attributed to the seraph in verses 6-7, or found it already in use, can not be deter mined. In any case it is the name only and not the representation that is new. The description of their form is different from that of the cherubim. In the latter case the description is symbolic, and the symbolism is more and more richly developed from the cherubim that guard Eden, in the figures of the Tabernacle (Ex. xxv. 17-22) and the Temple (I Kings vi. 23-28), and the visions of Ezekiel (Ezek. i. 4-14, iii. 12-14, ix. 3, x. 6-22, xi. 22, xli. 18), to the description of the Apocalypse (Rev. iv. 6-11). In that way they unite in themselves all excellencies, they typify the exaltation of God above every creature, as well as the purpose that every creature shall be a bearer of the majesty of God. Sin is found among the angels (Gen. vi. 1-4; II Pet. ii. 4; Jude 6), but not, as among men, as something affecting all. Since Satan appears among the " sons of God " (Job i. 6; cf. I Chron. xxi. 1; Zech. iii. 2), he is reckoned among the angels. The interest which he shows in the sin of men in these passages justifies the assumption (first in Wisdom, ii. 24; of. Rev. xii. 9, xx. 2) that he is the serpent of Gen. iii. He is therefore the first fallen, to whom the other fallen angels (or demons) join themselves as his angels (Matt. xxv. 41). " ° Evil angels " (Ps. lxxviii. 49) are angels who do ill at God's command, not wicked angels.
As concerns the origin of the Biblical conception of angels, the view that they represent the natural powers of old Semitic heathenism stands or falls with the representation of Deut. iv. 19 (also in Paul) that heathenism is an apostasy from the true God. It may be noted that angels never serve as an explanation of the events of nature, but appear only in connection with a divine revelation. The decision depends also on the question as to the reality of angels. That they, as well as Satan and the demons, actually exist is held to be indubitably proved by the words and conduct of Jesus. The upper world, to which we are striving, is full of life and needs not to be peopled by us, but is prepared for us with all that is proper to it, freed from the limitations of the present.(H. CsaMEat.)
11. Judaic Notions: To the two names known to Daniel the Book of Tobit (iii. 17) adds that ofRaphael, while the Book of Enoch :. Names (xxi.) knows seven archangels-Uriel, and Raphael, Raguel, Michael, Sariel, Classes. Gabriel, Jerahmeel-and seven classes
of angels (lxi. 10), namely, the cherubim, seraphim, ophanim, all the angels of power, principalities, the Elect One (Messiah), and the (elementary) powers of the earth and water. They have seven angelic virtues (Ixi. 11): the spirit of faith, of wisdom, of patience, of mercy, of judgment, of peace, and of goodness.
In the Slavonic Enoch and rabbinic literature, the further development of the heavenly hierarchy introduces the seven heavens, and tells of the food of angels, the hours at which they worship God, their language, and their knowledge. They mediate between God and man, carry prayers to the throne of God (Tobit xii. 12-15; Gk. Apoc. Baruch xi.), and accompany the dead on their departure from this world. Angels are also the guardians of the nations. In Enoch xxxix. 59 the seventy shepherds are the guardian angels of the seventy nations, over whom rules Michael, as Israel's angel-prince. With these God sits in council when holding judgment over the world, each angel pleading the cause of his nation.It was these angel-princes whom 2. Func- Jacob saw in his dream (Gen. Rabbah tions, Du- lxviii.). There is also a special angel- ties, etc. prince set over the world, Sar ha-
`olam (Talmud, Yebamot 16b; Hullin 60a; Sanhedrin 94a), who is said to have composed Ps. xxxvii. 25, civ. 31, and, partly, Is&. xxiv. 16. Besides the guardian angels of the nations, sixtythree angels are mentioned as janitors of the seven heavens, and at each of these heavens stand other angels as seal-bearers. The head and chief of all these is Asriel. Angels protect the pious and help them in their transactions. Every man has a special guardian angel, and there are accompanying angels. Thus two angels-one good and one evilaccompany man as he leaves the synagogue on Sabbath eve. Three good angels receive the souls of the pious, and three evil angels those of the wicked, who testify for them (Talmud, Shabbat 119a; Iketubot 104,). Great as is the number and influence of the angels, yet in many respects they are inferior to man. Enoch (xv. 2) intercedes on behalf of the angels, instead of having them intercede for him; and none of the angels could see what he saw of God's glory (xiv. 21), or learn the secrets of God as he knew them (Slavonic Epoch xxiv. 3; Awenaio Isaice ix. 27-38). Adam was to be worshiped by the angels as the image of God (Vita Ads et Erow, p. 14; Gen. Rabbah viii.); before his fall his place was within the precincts of God's own majesty, where the angels can not stay (Gen. Rabboh xxi.). They were inferior in intelligence to Adam, when names were given to all things (Pirdce Rabbi ElVezer xiii.). Adam reclined in Paradise, and the ministering angels roasted meat and strained wine for him (Talmud, Sanhodrin 59b). Every man that does not practise magic enters a department of heaven to which even
the ministering angels have no access (Talmud, Nedarim 32a).
The essence of the angels is fire; they sustain themselves in fire; their fiery breath consumes men, and no man can endure the sound of their voices (Talmud, Shabbat 88b; ,Hagigafe. 14b). Another theory is that they are half fire and half water, and that God makes peace between the opposing elements (Jerusalem Talmud, Rosh ha-Shtr nah ii. 58a). According to one tradition, each angel was one-third of a world in size; according to another, 2,000 parasangs, his hand reaching from heaven to earth. The angels, numbering either 496,000 or 499,000, are said to have been created either on the first day (Book of Jubilees ii. 2), the second day (Slavonic Enoch), or on the fifth day (Gen. Rabbah iii.). Their food is manna, of which Adam and Eve ate before they sinned (Vita Adce et Evce, p. 4).
As a rule, the angels are represented as good, and as not subject to evil impulses (Gen. Rabbah xlviii. 14); nevertheless, two were expelled from heaven for 138 years on account of prematurely disclosing the decree of Sodom's destruction (ib.). Two .narratives are given in Enoch vi.-xv., of the fall of the angels. According to one, Azazel was the leader of the rebellion, and the chief debaucher of women; according to the other, Samiaza, or Shamhazai, was the chief seducer. Each has ,ten chieftains and 100 angels at his command. They are punished at the hands of Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, and Uriel (Enoch ix. 1, xl. 2).B. Picg. III. Development of the Scriptural Aagelology
The nature of Holy Scripture forbids any attempt to build upon its text a systematic angelology. The Bible covers a wide field of time, and, for anything save its main purpose, it is a book of imperfect record. Moreover, its evidence on this question is less apt to be direct than indirect. An elaborate angelology can therefore be derived from the Bible only by doing violence to sound exegesis. Yet it is possible to detect a general movement of thought and to deduce a conclusion, touching the weight to be given to the scriptural doctrine of angels.
The belief in angels is not an original element in the Scriptures; the Bible holds it in common with all the men of antiquity, who lacked a unifying conception of law and made the poet r. The and the theologian one and the same
Belief in person. So the mind instinctively AngelsCom- peopled space with personal forces mon to All both good and evil. The field ofAntiquity. reality, being governed neither by' the scientific idea of law nor by the monotheistic idea of God, was inevitably broken up and parceled out by a kind of spiritual feudalism. The belief in angels being thus in stinctive, it follows that, so far as the Scrip-
tures are cones not a primary subordinate el
itself, the emph tion between tI: 12
Led, the doctrine in question is
ne; on the contrary, it is a
mt. To be true to the Bible
is must be put on the rela
belief in angels which the menRELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Angel
of the Bible inherited from antiquity and that saving knowledge of the divine unity which is the heart of God's word. The center of gravity and interest is not in angelology as such.
The central and controlling element in the Old Testament is the self-revelation of God in his holy and creative unity. The pith ofa. The prophecy is God's manifestation of
Hezateuch. himself in terms of the moral order in the experience of the chosen nation. It is significant, then, that in the Hexateuch the angels in their plurality play a small part (Gen. xix. 15, xxxii. 1). The "angel of Yahweh," " the angel of the presence," on the other hand, are constantly in evidence. The unity of God, dominating the religious consciousness, has given a monarchical turn to the angelology of antiquity.In the preexilic prophets the angels appear but twice. In both asses (Hoses xii. 4, Isa. xxxvii. 36) the usage is unitary. This fact, 3. The taken with the extreme rarity of the Prophets. term on the one hand, and, on the other hand, with the fact that the existence of heavenly hosts is taken for granted (Isa. vi. 1-6), gives a weighty piece of evidence. Even in exilic prophecy as a whole there is no emphasis. The " angel of the presence " appears once (Isa. Ixiii. 9). The angels in their plurality do not appear. The prophetic passion spends itself upon God's presence in the crises of the nation's history, and upon his power to guide it toward a supreme moral end (the day of Yahweh). Even in Ezekiel, in whom the apocalyptic tend ency begins to be strongly marked, the angels are not named.
But in Zechariah a new turn is taken. The angel of Yahweh appears incessantly. Moreover, the angels in their plurality appear (Zech. ii. 3). The apocalyptic tendency is becoming dominant. The moral passion of prophetism is declining. And from Zechariah's time on, there seems to be a steady increase in the amount of attention given to the angels. How far this is due to the influence of Parseeism and how far to the inherent tendency of Judaism, it may be impossible to determine with precision. But certain it is that as Judaism abounds in its own sense and its difference from prophetism develops, the angels play a larger and yet larger part. The climax is reached when the Essence impose upon those entering the order a terrible'oath not to betray the names of the angels (Josephus, War, II. viii. 7). At this point, Judaism comes close to Chaldean magic.
Davidson has said (DB, i., p. 97) that in the New Testament there is no advance. The statement is misleading. There is not nor can 4. The flew there be any advance beyond the Testament. Jewish angelology. The Jewish mystic knew a great deal about the angelic hosts, their hierarchical order, and their names. In truth, he knew more than there was to know. " Advance " in this direction would have meant a fuller exposition of unreality. But the New Testament is the literary product of a magnificent revival of Hebrew prophetiem. The
time a widow), to care for sick and reformed women. The members were to lead lives of angelic purity (whence the name) and self-denial, indicated by coarse clothing, a wooden cross on the breast, and a cord about the neck. The foundress placed them under the supervision of Antonia Maria Zaccaria, founder and director of the Barnabites (q.v.); and herself labored, under the monastic name of Paola Maria, as manager of the main convent of her society near Milan till her death (Oct. 29, 1569). The order was first confirmed by Paul III. (1534) with the rule of St. Augustine, with the provision that the Angelicals were to assist the Barnabites in their missionary work among women. The obligation to live in seclusion was adopted in 1557. Archbishop Borromeo of Milan subjected the statutes of the order to a stricter revision, which was confirmed by Urban VIII. (1625). The order never spread outside of Lombardy (especially Milan and Cremona) and was dissolved at the beginning of the nineteenth century. A branch, however, still exists, the Society of the Guastallinae founded by the same Countess Torelli, devoted to the education of girls of noble birth (the number being limited to 18); they occupy a building outside the Ports Romans at Milan, and are under the supervision of the Barnabites.O. Z6C%LERt. BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. G. Rosignoli, Vita a virtu della conteeaa di Guaatalla L. Torella, Milan, 1686; Helyot, Ordrea monaatiquea,i iv. 116-223; Heimbucher, Orden and Kon- grepationen, i. 519-520.
ANGELIS, an'je-lis, GIROLAMO, ji-roll-8m6: Jesuit missionary; b. at Castro Giovanni, Sicily, 1567; d. in Japan Dec. 24, 1623. He joined the Jesuits at the age of eighteen, and in 1602 went to Japan. When the Jesuits were expelled from the country in 1614, he assumed Japanese dress and remained for nine years without discovery. He was then imprisoned and burned alive with two other Jesuits and forty-two native Christians. He wrote Relazione del regno di lezo, printed with letters of other Jesuits at Rome in 1624, and separately the next year. He was canonized by Pius IX.
ANGELUS, an'je-lus: The ordinary name (taken from its opening word in Latin) of a Roman Catholic prayer, recited three times a day, when the church bells ring at 6 a.m., at noon, and at 6 p.m. It consists of three versicles and responses, each followed by a "Hail Mary 1" and a collect, which is the same as that for the Annunciation in the Anglican Prayer Book, the whole forming a devotion in honor of the incarnation of Christ. In its present form it dates from the middle of the sixteenth century, though the custom of ringing bells at certain times of the day to remind the
faithful of certain prayers is at least as old as the thirteenth.
ANGILBERT, an-gil'bert, or ENGELBERT (Fr. pron. dn"zhil-bar'), SAINT: Fiend and counselor of Charlemagne, whose daughter Bertha he is said to have married, and by her had two sons,
Harnid and Nithard (the historian); d. Feb. 19, 814. He enjoyed the confidence of Charlemagne till the end of the latter's life, and was employed
in many difficult negotiations. That he entered the monastery of Centula (the modern St. Riquier, about 25 m. n.w. of Amiens) in 790 is not probable; he was abbot of the monastery later, however, and rebuilt it with much splendor. He was named the " Homer " of the literary circle at Charlemagne's court, and a few Latin lyrics and a fragment of an epic ascribed to him are extant (in MPL, xcix. 82Frr854; MGH, Script., xv. 1, 1887, 173-181; Poeto Latini tevi cardini, i., 1881, 355-381).ANGILRAM, an"gil-rom (Fr. pron. an"zh1I-r4m')
Bishop of Metz 768, after 787 with the title of archbishop; d. 791. In 784 he was made court chaplain by Charlemagne, who obtained from the pope a dispensation freeing Angilram from the obligation of residing at the seat of his bishopric. Most codices of the pseudo-Isidorian decretals contain a minor collection of statutes, consisting of seventyone, seventy-two, or eighty chapters relating to suits against the clergy, especially bishops, and generally bearing the name Capitula Angilramni. In some manuscripts the superscription states that Angilram presented these edpitula to Pope Adrian; in others (the older and better) that the pope presented them to Angilram when he was in Rome in connection with his affair. In either version the story is improbable, and it is generally agreed that Angilram had nothing to do with these capitula. They were probably written by the author of the pseudo-Isidorian decretals (q.v.).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Rettberg, XD, i. 501 sqq.; Hinschius, Doadates Pseudo-laidoriana, Leipsic, 1863; Richter-Dove, Lehrbuch des Kirchenrechts, p. 87, ib. 1886.
ANGLICAN CHURCH or COMMUNION: A comprehensive name for the Reformation churches of English origin, including the Church of England and its branches in Ireland, Scotland, the colonies, and India, with the various missionary jurisdictions, and the Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States. The liturgy in all is the Book of Common Prayer with modifications (see COMMON PRAYER, BOOK OF), and the Thirty-nine Articles are accepted with changes necessary to fit local conditions (see THIRTY-NINE ARTICLES). All have episcopal organization and hold to the " historic episcopate " (see APosToLac SUCCESSION). The Lambeth Conference (q.v.) is a meeting of bishops of the Anglican communion intended to promote the unity and fellowship of its members. See ENGLAND, CHURCH OF; IRELAND; SCOTLAND; PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH.
ANGLO-SAXONS, CONVERSION OF THE: The Angles, Saxons, and kindred peoples who by the end of the sixth century were established in the east of Britain from the Forth southward and in the greater part of the south, in their Continental homes were all worshipers of WOden, whom they considered their ancestor. They dispossessed in England a fully Christianized people, but did not adopt their religion (see CELTIC CHURCH IN BRITAIN AND IRE LAND). The first Christiftn church among them was Prankish in origin and was established in Kent, whose king, Ethelbert (c. 560-816), married a Christian Princess, Bertha, daughter of Charibera king of Paris. She was granted full freedom of
religion in her new home, and brought with her to England a Christian chaplain, Liudhard by name. A ruined church near Canterbury, dating from Roman times (St. Martin's, three quarters of a mile east of the present cathedral), was repaired for her use. The real conversion of the AngloSaxons, however, is properly regarded as begun by
Pope Gregory the Great (590-$04). Gregory As the story goes (Bede, Hist. eccl., the Great ii. 1), while Gregory was still a deacon, Sends a either in 578 or 585, he saw one day Mission in the slave-market at Rome certain to gent. boys whose fair complexion, bright faces, and golden hair excited his admiration. Inquiring about them, he was told that they were Angles; whereupon he exclaimed " No wonder, for they have the faces of angels." Informed that they were heathen and from Deira, he remarked " From wrath [de ira] they must be saved and called to the mercy of Christ. Who is their king?" " Mlle," was the reply; and the pun-loving Italian concluded, " Alleluial the praises of God must be sung in those parts." Betaking himself to the pope, Gregory asked that he be allowed to go in person as missionary to the land of the captives, but the Romans would not permit him at that time to leave their city. When he became pope, Gregory remembered the beautiful captives. He tried to find English boys whom he could instruct at Reme and then send to their people; and in 596 he despatched a mission of monks to England under the lead of Augustine (see AUGUBTINE, SAINT, OF CANTERBURY). When Augustine died (604 or 605) Kent had been converted and the gospel had found entrance into Essex. Justus and Mellitus had been established as bishops at Rochester (for West Kent) and London (for the East-Saxons), respectively. With the consent of his witan, Ethelbert promulgated laws recognizing the Church as an institution and Christian obligations. A heathen reaction followed Ethelbert's death (616), which for a time checked further advances from Canterbury (see JUsTUs; LAURENCE; MELLITtTS).
AB in Kent, so in Northumbria the way for the introduction of Christianity was prepared by the
marriage (625) of the king, Edwin, Northum- with a Christian Princess, Ethelburga, bria and daughter of Ethelbert of Kent. SheWessex. was accompanied to the North by
Paulinus, who became first bishop of York and converted King Edwin and many of his people (see EDWIN; PAULINUS). The work was interrupted and many of its results destroyed in
633, when Penda, king of Aferoia, a heathen cham pion, in alliance with the Britons of Wales, overthrew and slew Edwin. It was resumed in 635 by Aidan supported by King Oswald, and was completed by their successors (see AIDAN, SALT;OSWALD, SAINT; Oswr). At the same time the
West-Saxons were gained for Christianity by Bus (q.v.). The church of Aidan and Oswald, however, had no connection with Canterbury or Rome, but was organized as a part of the old British or Celtic Church, and continued such till the synod of Whitby in 664.
A marriage between Peada, son of Penda and under-king of the Middle-Angles, with a Northumbrian princess, daughter of Oswy, led to his conversion. He was baptized by Finan, Aidan's successor at Lindisfarne, in 653. Finan also baptized (probably at the same time) Sigbert, king of Essex, which had relapsed into heathenism after the time of Augustine. Peada's conversion was
followed by that of his people. Four Mercia and priests of the Northumbrian Church,Essex. Cedd (q.v.), Adda, Betti, and Diuma,
settled in his kingdom, and even Penda did not restrict their preaching. Penda, the last powerful pagan ruler, was slain in battle with Oswy of Northumbria in 655, and the complete Christianization of Mercia soon followed. Diuma was consecrated bishop of Mercia by Finan, probably in 656. His see was at Lichfield. About ten years later Diuma's third successor, Jaruman, supported by Wulfhere, king of Mercia, and Penda's son, completed the conversion of Essex, a part of whose people had a second time relapsed into heathenism.
Christianity was introduced into East Anglia from Kent; but the only result was that the king,
Redwald, set up Christian and heathen East altars side by side. An obscure story Anglia connected with the conversion of
Edwin of Northumbria (Beds, Hist. ecel., ii. 12) has led to the conjecture that Paulinus (q.v.) may have been sent on a mission to East Anglia before 616. Eorpwald, Redwald's son, became a Christian through the influence of Edwin in 627 or 628, but in the same year he was killed by a heathen. After three years his brother, Sigbert, who had accepted Christianity in Gaul, gained the throne, and with the help of Felix (q.v.), who became bishop of Dunwich in 631, evangelized the land.
Sussex received the Gospel through the labors of Wilfrid of York (q.v.) between 681 and 686,
although its king, Ethelwalh, had Sussez. been baptized earlier in Mercia and
had made some unsuccessful efforts to introduce the Gospel. Its first bishop was Eadbert (709).
The Anglo-Saxon Church, like all churches of the early Middle Ages, had in many respects a
national character. The wishes of The Anglo- the kings determined the appointmentSaxon of bishops, if indeed the kings did not Church. directly name them. Princes and
rulers took part in synods, and bishops attended the councils of the rulers. Kings issued ecclesiastical orders. The Anglo-Saxon tongue was heard in divine service, and the baptismal formula also was Anglo-Saxon. The Old and New Testaments were read in Anglo-Saxon, and old homilies were translated into the vernactilar. Dioceses were formed according to political divisions and were named after peoples rather than towns.BIBLIOGRAPHY: Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, ed. B. Thorpe, in Rolls Series. No. 2:i, 2 vols., 1861; also ed. C. Plum- mer. Oxford, 1892; Bede, historical works, particu- larly Rist. seed., ed. C. Plummer, 2 vols., Oxford, 1896; Gildas. De excidio et conquests Britannia, ed. T. Mommsen, in MGH, Chronioa minors, iii. (1898) 1,85; also ad. H. Williams, with transl., London, 1899; the letters of Gregory the Great, ed. P. Ewald and L. M. Hartmann, in MGH, Epistold, i: ii.,1887-93; those rela ting to the mission to England, with other material per taining to St. Augustine, in The Mission of St. Augustine, ad. A. J. Mason, Cambridge, 1897; Haddan and Stubbs, Councils, vol. iii.; J. M. Lappenberg, Geschichte won Eng land, i., Hamburg, 1834, Eng. tranal., A History of Eng land, under the Anglo-Saxon Kings, 2 vols., London, 1845; B. Thorpe, Ancient Laws and Institutes of England, ib. 1840; R. Schmid, Die Gesetre der Angelaachaen, Leipsic, 1858; J. M. Kemble, The Saxons in England, ii. 342-498, London, 1876; J. It. Green, History of the English People, vol. i., book i., ib. 1877; idem, The Making of England, ib. 1882; W. Stubbs, The Constitutional History of Eng land, i.. ch. viii., Oxford, 1883; E. Winkelmann, Geschichte der Angelaachsen bis rum Tode Knnig Al/reda. Berlin, 1884; W. Bright, Early English Church History, Oxford, 1897; W. Hunt, The English Church from its Foundation to the Norman Conquest, London, 1899. ANGLUS, THOMAS. See Wa=, THOMAS. ANGOLA. See AFRICA, II. ANGUS, JOSEPH: English Baptist; b. at Bolam (15 m. n.w. of Newcastle), Northumberland, Jan. 16, 1816; d. at Hampstead, London, Aug. 28, 1902. He studied at King's College, London, at Stepney Baptist College, and at Edinburgh University (M.A., 1838), and became pastor of the New Park Street Baptist Church, Southwark, London (1838), cosecretary of the Baptist Missionary Society (1840), sole secretary (1842), and president of Stepney College (1849), which position he held till 1893. During his administration the College was removed to Regent's Park and affiliated with the University of London, its attendance doubled, its endowment was augmented by a professorial fund of £30,000, and scholarships were provided for missionary and other students. He was a member of the first London School Board, and of the New Testament Revision Company. He published:. The Voluntary System (London, 1839), a prize essay in, reply to the lectures of Dr. Chal mers on Church establishments; Christ our Life (1853), which won a prize for an essay on the life of Christ adapted to missionary purposes and suitable for translation into the languages of India; Christian Churches (1862); Lectures on Future Punishment (1870); Apostolic Missions (1871; new ed. 1892); Six Lectures on Regeneration (1897). He wrote the commentary on Hebrews for Schaff's International Commentary on the New Testament, New Ybrk and Edinburgh (1883); and for the Religious Tract Society he prepared: Handbooks o f the Bible (1854; partly rewritten by Samuel G. Green 1904), the English Tongue (1862), English Literature (1865); and Specimens o f English Litera ture (1866; new ed. 1880). For the same society he edited Butler's Analogy (1855), and Sermons (1882), and Wayland's Elements of Moral Science (1858).
ANHALT: Duchy of the German empire, surrounded, except for a short distance on the west, where it touches the duchy of Brunswick, by Prussian territory (government districts of Magdeburg, Potsdam, Merseburg). Its area is 906 square miles; population (1900), 316,000; capital, Dessau. Ninety-six per cent. of the people are Protestants; 31 per cent. are Roman Catholics; while the Jews
The Church is legally recognized as a distinct institution, independent of the secular government, and the management of its internal affairs is entrusted to the consistory, which reports directly to the duke. A synod, consisting of the superintendents of the five circles into which the land is divided, five members named by the duke, and twenty-nine members elected in the circles, meets every three years; it has a share in ecclesiastical legislation, considers church needs and conditions in general, and exercises a control over the funds under the administration and at the disposal of the consistory. Previous to 1874 the consistory had the chief direction and administration of the schools, but in that year a state board of education was created. The consistory, however, is represented in this board, and the local pastors are generally the inspectors of the lower schools. With very few exceptions the duke is patron of churches and livings.The number of livings in the duchy is 155 with eight secondary ones, and there are 212 parishes and 215 churches. A legally established pastors' association has three endowed libraries. Church music is promoted by an annual course in organ playing in Dessau. Seventy-nine parishes have Sunday-schools. The contributions for foreign missions average 14,000 marks yearly, and for the Gustav Adolf Verein (q.v.) 10,000 marks. The work of the Innere Mission (q.v.) is also well supported, and a deaconeases' house has been es tablished in Dessau. (H. DUNCKERf.) ANIICETUS, an-i-si'tos: Pope from about 154 to about 165. According to the Inter pond ficalis (ed. Duchesne, i. 58, 134), he was a Syrian by birth. Irenmus (Adversus hareses, III. iii. 3-4) mentions him as the successor of Pius I. and the Predecessor of Soter, and refers to the journey of Polycarp to Rome, which took place in Anicetus' pontificate. A fuller account of it is given in Irell*UH' letter to Victor, of which Eusebius has preserved a con siderable fragment (Hilt. eccl., V, xw. 12-17; gee POLYCARP). The dates of Anicetua are un- RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Atngmlo-8:_01113 nials certain. If Polycarp died in 155, the accession of Anicetus must be placed in 154, and the assign ment of eleven years to his pontificate would bring its termination to 165. He is called a martyr in the Roman martyrology, as well as by Rabanus Maurus, Florus, and others, and is commemorated on Apr. 17. (A. HAucx.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Liber pontihcalia, ed. Duchesne, i. 58, 134, Paris. 1886; Bower. Popes, i. 13-14; Jaffd, Regesta, i. 9; J. B. Lightfoot, Apostolic Fathers, i. 201 sqq., London, 1890; A. Harnsek.inSiaunpaberichteder Berliner Akademie, pp. 617-658. 1892; idem, Liueratur, ii. 1, pp. 70 sqq.
ANIMALS: I. Regulations Respecting Their Use. 1. For Food: According to the lists (Lev. xi. 1-31, 46-47; Deut. xiv.1-19), the clean animals (i.e., those whose flesh might be eaten) were ruminant quadrupeds which parted the hoof, were clovenfooted, and chewed the cud; aquatic animals that had fins and scales; all birds except the nineteen species specified, which were birds of prey or carrion; only those flying insects which, like the grasshopper, have two long legs for leaping. No vermin was clean, nor was the carcass of any clean animal, if it had died naturally, or been torn to death. Everything was unclean that touched the unclean; so was the kid seethed in its mother's milk, and the heathen sacrifices in all their parts. See DIETARY LAws OF THE HEBREWS.
2. For Sacrifice: The general rule was, that only the clean animals could be offered; this dates back to the pre-Mosaic period (Gen. viii. 20). Asses, camels, and horses were not offered by the Hebrews. But only the tame among even the clean animals could be sacrificed; therefore, no animal of the chase. Doves were not regarded as wild. Every animal offered must be without blemish (Lev. xxii. 20), at least seven days old (verse 27; Ex. xxii. 30), because too young flesh is disgusting, and therefore unclean. Nor must it be too old; for bovines three years, for small cattle one, was usual (Ex. xxix. 38; Lev. ix. 3; Num. xxviii. 9; Lev. i. 5, " bullock," a young ox). What man might not eat, it was profanation to sacrifice. See DEFILEMENT AND PURIFICATION, CEREMONIAL.
II. The Emblematic Use of Animals: 1. the Old Testament: Locusts were used as the symbol of the divine judgments. The twelve oxen which bore the brazen sea in the court of the temple (I Kings vii. 25) were doubtless symbolic; the animal shapes which appeared in prophetic visions were also symbolic (Ezek. i. 5-14), and seem to be identified with the cherubim (Ezek. x. 1).
2. In the New Testament: Peter uses a lion as the emblem of Satan (I Pet. v. 8); on the other
hand, a lion is the emblem of Christ (Rev. v. 5). The ass symbolises peace (Matt. xxi. 5); the dove,
innocence and the Holy Ghost; the dog and swine, uncleanness and vulgarity (Matt. vii. 6; II Pet. ii. 22). But the emblematic use of beasts is much greater in Revelation than in all the other books of the Bible combined. Constant mention is made of the four living creatures (iv. 6, etc.) who were from the fifth century considered as symbolizing the four. evangelists. Christ is constantly called
the Lamb; the Devil, the dragon (xii. 3, etc.). There are, besides, a beast who comes out of the bottomless pit (xi. 7), horses (vi. 2, etc.), locusts (ix. 3), birds (xix. 17), and frogs (xvi. 13).
8. The Ecclesiastical Use of Animals: This was very varied. There was not only the lamb for Christ but also dolphins, hens, pelicans, apes, and centaurs. The old Gothic churches exhibit these fanciful and really heathen designs. Bernard of Clairvaux raised his voice against them. In the catacombs one finds the drawing of a fish to symbolize Christ, because the initials of the title of Christ (Gk. lesous Chri8tos Theou Uios Sow) spell the Greek word for °' fish " (ichthus) . See SYMBOLISM.
III. The Use of Emblematic Animals in Worship: Among the Hebrews there are two spoken of. The brazen serpent which Moses made, which was at last destroyed by Hezekiah, because it was worshiped (II Kings xviii. 4). The golden calf was not intended as a substitute for the Yahweh worship, but as an aid; but it became a snare to Israel in the wilderness before Sinai (Ex. xxxii.) and in the days of Jeroboam I. and his successors on the throne of Israel (I Kings xii. 28-30).
ANIMISM. See COMPARATIVE RELIGION, V., 1, a, §§ 1-4; HEATHENISM, §§ 2, 6.
ANNA: 1. Mother of the Virgin Mary. See ANNE, SAINT. 2. A "prophetess," mentioned in Luke ii. 36-38. See HANNAH.
ANNA COMNENA, cem-nf'na: A Byzantine princess of both literary and political importance, daughter of Alexius Comnenus (q.v.); b. Dec. 2, 1083; d. after 1148. Brought up in a circle of highly cultivated women, and betrothed in early youth to the heir-presumptive of the empire, the son of the last emperor of the house of Ducas, she seemed to have a brilliant future before her. But the prince died, and his place was taken later by Nicephorus Bryennius, the son of a conquered pretender. It became plain that the emperor intended to make Anna's brother John his heir, instead of his daughter or her husband. When Alexius died (1118), Anna was the soul of a conspiracy against John. It failed, and 'military rule suppressed the court cabals. Anna recovered her confiscated property; but on the death of her husband, ten years later, she fell gradually into disfavor at court and lived much alone, solacing herself by literary interests, her taste for which was the result of the brilliant literary epoch of which Michael Psellus was the chief representative. She wrote a remarkable history of her father's reign, with the title Aleziass, which professes to be a continuation of the unfinished history of the Comneni by her husband. Her style is typical of literary classicism, being full of quotations from standard authors, and affecting to despise the barbarisms of the living tongue. This affectation is carried so far that she apologizes for mentioning
barbarian names as for an offense against the customs of polite society. Allied to this is the haughty assertion of the primacy of Byzantium over all uncivilized foreigners, whether popes, Turks, or crusaders: Its strong personal bias,
its prejudice against the two successors of Alexius, and its constant revelation of the bitterness of disappointed ambition detract from the historical value of the work. Yet the wealth of information contained in it makes it the principal source for the history of Byzantium at the epoch of the first crusade. It is in MPG, cxxxi.; the best edition is by A. Reifferscheid, in the Bibliotheca Teubneriana (2 vols., Leipsic, 1884). (C. NEUMANN.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Gibbon, Decline and Fall, vols. v. and vi., passim (by the only thorough student of Byzantine literature as a whole); H. von Sybei, Geschichte des ersten Kreuzzuges, pp. 460-468, Leipsic, 1881 (on the chronology of Anna Comnena); C. Neumann, Griechische Geechichb achreiber im 12 Jahrhundert, Leipsie, 1888; T. A. Archer and C. L. Kingsford, The Crusadee, pp. 49, 52, 191-192, 358, New York, 1895; Dieter, Zur Glaubenswardigkeit der Anna Komnena, in Bgzantinische Zeitschrift, iii. (1894) 386-390; Krumbacher, Geschichte, pp.274-279.ANNAS (called Ananos by Josephus): Jewish high priest, son of Seth. He was appointed high priest in 7 A.D. by Quirinius, governor of Syria, and retained his office under three successive gov ernors, till he was deposed in the year 14 by Va lerius Gratus. His second successor in the high priesthood was his son Eleazar; the fourth, his son-in-law (John xviii. 13) Joseph, called Caiaphas (Matt. xxvi. 3 sqq.), who held the office from 18 to 36 A.D. Four other sons of Annas officiated as high priests; and as he was called happy for this reason, it may be inferred that he lived to see the installation of most of them. He was dead at the time of the siege of Jerusalem, and his tomb was then shown. According to the New Testament, Annas acted as high priest after his deposition; he occupied an influential position, and presided at the trial of Jesus. These statements are not to be rejected as unhistorical, since high priests who were no longer active retained not only their official title but also many of the prerogatives of office. That Annas was held in high repute beside the acting Caiaphas can be explained from the length of his life and from his family relations. The form of expression in Luke iii. 2 and Acts iv. 6, where Annas appears as an acting high priest, is some what incorrect. Like most members of the aris tocratic high-priestly line, he was a Sadducee (Acts iv. 1, 6, v. 17) and Josephus calls his son Annas the Younger, a rigid Sadducee. [ Josephus (with John xviii. 13) seems to show that Annas was the most influential man in Jerusalem for a generation.] F. SIEFFERT.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Josephus, Ant., XVIII. ii. 1-2, iv. 3, XX. ix. 1; Scharer, Geschichte, ii. 217, 221, Eng. transl. II. i. 182-183, 198, 202-204; DB, i. 99-100; EB, i. 171-172; JE, i. 610-611.
ANNATS (ANNATES). See TAXATION, ECCLESIASTICAL.
ANNE (ANNA), SAINT: Mother of the Virgin Mary. According to apocryphal tradition (Evongelium de natitritate Marite and Protevangelium Jacobi), she is said to have been born at Bethlehem, the daughter of the priest Matthan. She was married to the pious Joachim of the tribe of Judah, and for twenty years was childless. At her assiduous supplication, an angel foretold " that she should conceive and bring forth, and that her seed should be praised in the whole world." Joachim
A term designating broadly a large body of theories which unite in contending that human
beings pass, or are put, out of existr. Defini- ence altogether. These theories falltion and logically into three classes, according Classifica-as they hold that all souls, being
tion of mortal, actually cease to exist at Theories. death; or that, souls being naturally
mortal, only those persist in life to which immortality is given by God; or that, though souls are naturally immortal and persist in existence unless destroyed by a force working upon them from without, wicked souls are actually thus destroyed. These three classes of theories may be conveniently called respectively, (1) pure mortalism, (2) conditional immortality, and (3) annihilationism proper.
The common contention of the theories which form the first of these classes is that human life
is bound up with the organism, and s. Pure that therefore the entire man passes Mortaliem. out of being with the dissolution of
the organism. The usual basis of this contention is either materialistic or pantheistic or at least pantheizing (e.g., realistic); the soul being conceived in the former case as but a function of organized matter and necessarily ceasing to exist with the dissolution of the organism, in the latter case as but the individualized manifestation of a much more extensive entity, back into which it sinks with the dissolution of the organism in connection with which the individualization takes place. Rarely, however, the contention in question is based on the notion that the soul, although a spiritual entity distinct from the material body, is incapable of maintaining its existence separate from the body. The promise of eternal life is too essential an element of Christianity for theories like these to thrive in a Christian atmosphere. It is even admitted now by Stade, Oort, Schwally, and others that the Old Testament, even in its oldest strata, presupposes the persistence of life after death,-which used to be very commonly denied. Nevertheless, the materialists (e.g., Feuerbach, Vogt, Moleschott, Bilchner, Hukel), and pantheists (Spinoza, Fichte, Schelling, Hegel, Strauss; cf. S. Davidson, Doctrine of the Last Things, London, 1882, pp.132-133), still deny the possibility of immortality- and in exceedingly wide circles, even among those who would not wholly break with Christianity, men permit them. selves to cherish nothing more than a " hope °' of it (S. Hoekstra, De hoop der onstetfelijkheid, Amsterdam, 1867; L. W. E. Rauwenhoff, Wijabegeerte van den Godadienat, Leyden, 1887, p. 811; cf. the " Ingersoll Lectures ").
Already, however, in speaking of extinction we are passing beyond the limits of "conditionalism" pure and simple and entering the region 4. Annihila- of annihilationism proper. Whether wetionism think of this extinction as the result of Proper. the punishment or as the gradual dying out of the personality un der the enfeebling effects of sin, we are no longer looking at the soul as naturally mortal and re quiring a new gift of grace to keep it in existence, but as naturally immortal and suffering destruction at the hands of an inimical power. And this becomes even more apparent when the assumed mortalism of the soul is grounded not in its nature but in its sinfulness; so that the theory deals not with souls as such, but with sinful souls, and it is
a question of salvation by a gift of grace to everlasting life or of being left to the disintegrating effects of sin. The point of distinction between theories of this class and " conditionalism " is that these theories with more or less consistency or heartiness recognize what is called the " natural immortality of the soul," and are not tempted therefore to think of the soul as by nature passing out of being at death (or at any time), and yet teach that the actual punishment inflicted upon or suffered by the wicked results in extinction of being. They may differ among themselves, as to the time when this extinction takes place,whether at death, or at the general judgment,or as to the more or less extended or intense punishment accorded to the varying guilt of each soul. They may differ also as to the means by which the annihilation of the wicked soul is accomplished,whether by a mere act of divine power, cutting off the sinful life, or by the destructive fury of the punishment inflicted, or by the gradual enervating and sapping working of sin itself on the personality. They retain their common character as theories of annihilation proper so long as they conceive the extinction of the soul as an effect wrought on it to which it succumbs, rather than as the natural exit of the soul from a life which could be continued to it only by some operation upon it raising it to a higher than its natural potency.
It must be borne in mind that the adherents of these two classes of theories are not very careful to keep strictly within the logical limits of g. Mingling one of the classes. Convenient as it of Theories. is to approach their study with a definite schematization in hand, it is not always easy to assign individual writers with definiteness to one or the other of them. It has become usual, therefore, to speak of them all as annihilationists or of them all as conditionalists; annihilationists because they all agree that the souls of the wicked cease to exist; conditionalists because they all agree that therefore persistence in life is conditioned on a right relation to God. Perhaps the majority of those who call themselves conditionalists allow that the mortality of the soul, which is the prime postulate of the conditionalist theory, is in one way or another connected with sin; that the souls of the wicked persist in existence after death and even after the judgment, in order to receive the punishment due their sin; and that this punishment, whether it be conceived as infliction from without or as the simple consequence of sin, has much to do with their extinction. When so held, conditionalism certainly falls little short of annihilationism proper.
Some confusion has arisen, in tracing the history of the annihilationist theories, from confounding with them enunciations by the6. Early earlier Church Fathers of the essential History Christian doctrine that the soul is not of Annihila- self-existent, but owes, as its existence, tionistic so its continuance in being, to the Theories. will of God. The earliest appearance of a genuinely annihilationist theory in extant Christian literature is to be found apparently in the African apologist Arnobius, at
the opening of the fourth century (cf. Salmond, pp. 473-474; Falke, pp. 27-28). It seemed to him impossible that beings such as men could either owe their being directly to God or persist in being without a special gift of God; the unrighteous must therefore be gradually consumed in the fires of Gehenna. A somewhat similar idea was announced by the Socinians in the sixteenth century (0. Fock, Der Socinianismus, Kiel, 1847, pp. 714 sqq.). On the positive side, Faustus Socinus himself thought that man is mortal by nature and attains immortality only by grace. On the negative side, his followers (Crell, Schwaltz, and especially Ernst Sohner) taught explicitly that the second death consists in annihilation, which takes place, however, only after the general resurrection, at the final judgment. From the Socinians this general view passed over to England where it was adopted, not merely, as might have been anticipated, by men like Locke (Reasonableness of Chris tianity, § 1), Hobbes (Leviathan), and Whiston, but also by Churchmen like Hammond and Warburton, and was at least played with by non-conformist leaders like Isaac Watts. The most remarkable example of its utilization in this age, however, is supplied by the non-juror Henry Dodwell (1706). Insisting that the " soul is a principle naturally mortal," Dodwell refused to allow the benefit of this mortality to any but those who lived and died without the limits of the proclamation of the Gospel; no " adult person whatever," he insisted, " living where Christianity is professed, and the motives of its credibility are sufficiently proposed, can hope for the benefit of actual mortality." Those living in Christian lands are therefore all immortalized, but in two classes: some " by the pleasure of God to punishment," some " to reward by their union with the divine baptismal Spirit." It was part of his contention that " none have the power of giving this divine immortalizing Spirit since the apostles but the bishops only," so that his book was rather a blast against the antiprelatists than a plea for annihilationism; and it was replied to as such by Samuel Clarke (1706), Richard Baxter (1707), and Daniel Whitby (1707). During the eighteenth century the theory was advocated also on the continent of Europe (e.g., E. J. E. Walter, Priifung einiger wichtigen Lehrentheologischesundphilosophisches I nhadts,Berlin,1782), and almost found a martyr in the Neuchatel pastor, Ferdinand Olivier Petitpierre, commonly spoken of by the nickname of " No Eternity,, (cf. C. Berthoud, Les Quatre Petitpiemes, Neuchatel, 1875). In the first half of the nineteenth century also it found sporadic adherents, as e.g., C. H. Weisse in Germany (TSK, ix., 1836, 271-340) and H. H. Dobney in England (Notes of Lectures on Future Punishment, London, 1844; new ed,, On the Scripture Doctrine of Future Punishment, 1846).
The real extension of the theory belongs, however, only to the second half of the nineteenth century. During this period it attained, chiefly through the able advocacy of it by C. F. Hudson and E. White, something like a popular vogue in English-speaking' lands. In French-speaking countries, while never
becoming really popular, it has commanded the attention of an influential circle of theologians and philosophers (as J. Rognon, L'Immortalite native et l'enseignement biblique, Paris, 1894, p. 7; but cf. A. Gretillat, Expos4 de theologiesyst4~matique,
IV., 1892, p. 602). In Germany, on 7. Nine- the other hand, it has met with less acteenth Cen- ceptance, although it is precisely theretury that it has been most scientifically Theories. developed, and has received the adher-
ence of the most outstanding names. Before the opening of this half century in fact it had gained the great support of Richard Rothe's advocacy (Theologische Ethik, 2 vols., Wittenberg, 1845-47; 2d ed., 1867-72, §§ 470-472; Dogmatik, iii., Heidelberg, 1870, §§ 47-48, especially p. 158), and never since has it ceased to find adherents of mark, who base their acceptance of it sometimes on general grounds, but increasingly on the view that the Scriptures teach, not a doctrine of the immortality of the soul, but a reanimation by resurrection of God's people. The chief names in this series are C. H. Weisse (Philosophische Dogmatik, Leipsic, 1853-62, § 970); Hermann Schultz (Voraussetzungen der christlichen Lehre der Unsterblichkezt, Gottingen, 1861, p. 155; cf. Grundriss der evangelisehen Dogmatik, 1892, p. 154: " This condemnation of the second death may in itself, according to the Bible, be thought of as existence in torment, or as painful cessation of existence. Dogmatics without venturing to decide, will find the second conception the more probable, biblically and dogmatically "); H. Plitt (Evangeliaehe Glaubenslehre, Gotha, 1863); F. Brandes, (TSK, 1872, pp. 545, 550); A. SchAffer (Auf der Neige des Lebens, Gotha, 1884; Was ist Mick 9 1891, pp. 290-294); G. Runze (Unsterblichkeil and Auferstehung, i., Berlin, 1894, pp. 167, 204: " Christian Eschatology teaches not a natural immortality for the soul, but a reanimation by God's almighty power . . . . The Christian hope of reanimation makes the actualization of a future blessed existence depend entirely on faith in God "); L. Lemme (Endlosigkeit der Verddmmnis, Berlin; 1898, pp. 31-32, 60-61); cf. R. Kabisch (Die Eschatologie des Paulus, G6ttingen, 1893).
The same general standpoint has been occupied in Holland, e.g., by Jonker (Theologisehe Studien, i.). The first advocate of conditionalism in French was the Swiss pastor, E. Pdtavel-Olliff, whose first book, La. Fin du mal, appeared in 1872 (Paris), followed by many articles in the French theological journals and by Le ProbAme de l'immortalitk (1891; Eng. transl., London, 1892), and ThB EAiMion of Evil (Eng., 1889). In 1880 C. Byse issued a translation of E. White's chief book. The theory not only had already been presented by A. Bost, (LO Bart de- m&hants, 1861), but had been taken up by philosophers of such standing as C. Lambert (Systbme du monde moral 1862), P. Janet (RDM, 1863), and C. Renouvier (La Critiqw philaso,hique, 1878); and soon afterward Charles 8dcretan and C. Ribot (RT, 1885 no. 1) expressed their general adherence to it. Perhaps the more distinguished advocacy of it on French ground has come, however, from the two professors Sabatier, Auguste
and Armand, the one from the point of view of exegetical, the other from that of natural science. Says the one (L'Origine du pechk dans le syst&me thdologique de Paul, Paris, 1887, p. 38): " The impenitent sinner never emerges from the fleshly state, and consequently remains subject to the law of corruption and destruction, which rules fleshly beings; they perish and are as if they had never been." Says the other (Essai sur l'immortalitg au point de vue du naturalisme 6volutionniste, 2d ed., Pans, 1895, pp. 198, 229): "The immortality of man is not universal and necessary; it is subject to certain conditions, it is conditional, to use an established expression." " Ultratenrestrial immortality will be the exclusive lot of souls which have arrived at a sufficient degree of integrity and cohesion to escape absorption or disintegration."
The chief English advocate of conditional immortality has undoubtedly been Edward White whose Life in Christ was published first in 1846 (London), rewritten in 1875 (3d ed., 1878). His labors were seconded, however, not only by older works of similar tendency such as George Storrs's Are the Wicked Immortal? (21st ed., New York, 1852), but by later teaching from men of the standing of Archbishop Whately (Scripture Revelation Respecting the Future State, 8th ed., London, 1859), Bishop Hampden, J. B. Heard (The Tripartite Nature of Man, 5th ed., Edinburgh, 1852), Prebendary Constable (The Duration and Nature of Future Punishment, London, 1868), Prebendary Row (Future Retribution, London, 1887), J. M. Denniston (The Perishing Soul, 2d ed., London, 1874), S. Minton (The Glory of Christ, London,
1868), J. W. Barlow (Eternal Punish 8. English ment, Cambridge, 1865), and T. Davis Advocates. (Endless Suffering not the Doctrineo f Scripture, London, 1866). Less decisive but not less influential advocacy has been given to the theory also by men like Joseph Parker, R. W. Dale, and J. A. Beet (The Last Things, London, 1897). Mr. Beet (who quotes Clemance, Future Punishment, London, 1880, as much of his way of thinking) occupies essentially the position of Schultz. " The sacred writers," he says, " while apparently inclining sometimes to one and some times to the other, do not pronounce decisive judgment " between eternal punishment and annihilation (p. 216), while annihilation is free from speculative objections. In America C. F. Hudson's initial efforts (Debt and Grace, Boston, 1857, 5th ed., 1889; Christ Our Life, 1860) were ably seconded by W. R. Huntington (Conditional Immortality, New York, 1878.) and J. H. Pettingell (The Life Everlasting, Philadelphia, 1882, com bining two previously published tra,etates; The Unspeakable Gift, Yarmouth, Me., 1884). Views of much the same character have been expressed also by Horace Bushnell, L. W. Bacon, L. C. Baker, Lyman Abbott, and without much insistence on them by Henry C. Sheldon (System of Christian Doc trine, Cincinnati, 1903, pp. 573 sqq.).
There is a particular form of conditionalism requiring special mention which seeks to avoid the difficulties of annihi]ationism, by teaching, notTHE NEW SCHAFF-HERZOG
the total extinction of the souls of the wicked, but rather, as it is commonly phrased, their" transformation " into impersonal beings incapable of moral action, or indeed of any feeling. This is the form of conditionalism which is suggested by James Martineau (A Study of Religion, ii., Oxford, 1888, p. 114) and by Horace Bushnell (Forgiveness and law, New York, 1874, p. 147, notes 5 and 6).
It is also hinted by Henry Drummond 9. Modiflca- (Natural Law in the Spiritual World, tions of the London, 1874), when he supposesTheory. the lost soul to lose not salvation merely but the capacity for it and for God; so that what is left is no longer fit to be called a soul, but is a shrunken, useless organ ready to fall away like a rotten twig. The Alsa tian theologian A. Schiiffer (Was ist Gliick t, Gotha, 1891, pp. 290-294) similarly speaks of the wicked soul losing the light from heaven, the divine spark which gave it its value, and the human personality thereby becoming obliterated. " The forces out of which it arises break up and become at last again impersonal. They do not pass away, but they are transformed." One sees the conception here put forward at its highest level in such a view as that presented by Prof. O. A. Curtis (The Christian Faith, New York, 1905, p. 467), which thinks of the lost not, to be sure, as " crushed into mere thinghood " but as sunk into a condition " below the possibility of any moral action or moral con cern . . . like persons in this life whose personality is entirely overwhelmed by the base sense of what we call physical fear." There is no annihilation in Prof. Curtis's view; not even relief for the lost from suffering; but it may perhaps be looked at as marking the point where the theories of anni hilationism reach up to and melt at last into the doctrine of eternal punishment. BENJAMIN B. WARFIELD. BraLIOa6AFnrT: An exhaustive bibliography of the eubjeo up to 18&3 is given in Ezra Abbot's Appendix to W. R. Alger's History of as Doctrine of a Future Life, also pub lished separately, New York 1871; consult also W. Reid, Everlasting Punishment and Modern Speculation, pp.311 313, Boston, 1874. Special works on annihilationism are J. C. Hillam, AnnihilationiemExamined, Syracuse, 1859; 1. P. Warren, The Wicked not Annihilated, New York, 1867; N. D. George, Annihilationism not of the Bible, ib. 1874; J. B. Brown, Doetrine of Annihilation in the Light of the Gospel of Love, London, 1875; S. C. Bartlett, Life and Death Eternal. A Refutation of the Theory of Annihila tionism, Boston, 1878. The subject is treated in S. D. F. Salmond, Christian Doctrine of Immortality, pp. 473-499, Edinburgh, 1901; R. W. Landis, Immortality, pp. 422 eqq., New York, 1880; A. Hovey, State of as Impenitent Dead, pp. 93 sqq., Boston, 1875; C. M. Mead, The Soul Here and Hereafter Boston. 1879: G. Godet in Chritienne Svanp&que,1881-82; F. Godet, in Revue T
J. Fyfe, The Hereafter, Edinburgh, 188~Falke, Die Lehre von der euripen Verdamnias, pp. 25-38, Eisenaeh, 1892. On conditional immortality. consult W. R. Huntington, Conditional Immortality, New York, 1878; J. H. Pettingell, Theolopitai Tri-lemma, ib. 1878; idem, Life Everlasting. What is it I Whence is it t Who" is it f A Symposium, Philadelphia, 1882; E. White, Life and Death: A Reply to J. B Brown's Lectures on Conditional Immortality, London, 1877; idem, Life in Christ. A Study of the Scripture Doctrine on . . the Conditions of Human Immortality, New York, 1892. Further discussions may be found in the appropriate sections of most works on systematic theology and also in works on eschatology and future punishment See, besides the works mentioned in the text, the literature under lumORTALITt.
ANNIVERSARIUS (ac. dies), ANNIVERSARIUM: A day or service in memory of a deceased person. From the second century it was usual in Christian congregations to celebrate the death-days of their martyrs with divine service as they recurred annually. Families also used to commemorate their departed members on their death-days. From this custom arose the festivals of the martyrs and saints, as also those anniversaries for departed members of the congregations which are still held in the Roman Catholic Church, and consist in masses and alms provided for by special endowments.
ANNO: Archbishop of Cologne; b. probably 1010; d. at Cologne Dec. 4, 1075. He came of a noble Swabian family, received his education at Bamberg, and,-through the favor of Emperor Henry III., attained the dignities of dean of Goalar and archbishop of Cologne (1056). After the death of Henry III. (1056) and the accession of his infant son, Henry IV., under the regency of his mother Agnes of Poitou, Anno exercised considerable influence at court, and took part in the contest which broke out between the empire and Rome. The lack of capacity for the duties of government revealed by the queen-regent led to the formation of a conspiracy in 1062, under the leadership of Anno, who in the same year made himself master of the young king's person and thereby became virtual ruler of the empire. Desire for personal aggrandizement restrained him from making use of his power for the interests of Germany in the quarrel with the papacy, which now entered upon an acute phase. Upon the death of Pope Nicholas II. (1061) the party hostile to German influence, under the leadership of Hildebrand, had chosen as his successor Anselm of Lucca, who assumed the title of Alexander II. In opposition the imperial party had raised to the papal office Cadalus of Parma under the name of Honorius II. A synod at Augsburg, summoned in 1()62 to decide on the conflicting claims of the two candidates, rendered a temporary decision in favor of Alexander II.; and two years later a second synod, at Mantua, made formal acknowledgment of Alexander's rights. Anno, who was in complete control at Augsburg, was actuated in this course, so seemingly hostile to the welfare of the empire, by the desire to preserve in his hands the balance of power between the papal and imperial forces and thus to secure for himself the r81e of arbiter between the two. When the council of Mantua assembled, however, his influence had undergone serious diminution and he was unable to prevent the confirmation of the Italian pope. A strong rival for power now appeared in the person of Adalbert, archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen (see ADALBERT OF HAMBuRQ-BREMEN), With Whom AnnO Was compelled to share his authority over the young king (1063). Two years later the archbishop of Cologne found himself almost entirely superseded.
The fall of Adalbert in 1066 brought Anno once more to the front for a brief time, but he never again exercised the authority he had formerly possessed. The last years of his life were embittered by quarrels with Rome, by a rising of theAnnihilationiem Annunciation citizens of Cologne which he suppressed with ex treme severity, and by charges of treasonable correspondence with William I. of England, for which there seems to have been little foundation. There was not wanting in the worldly prelate a certain ascetic austerity which the misfortunes of his later years tended to accentuate, giving him a posthumous reputation of great holiness, and in 1183 he was canonized. (CARL MIRBT.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources for biography are: Vita aancti Annonia, by a monk of Siegburg (c. 1100), in MGH, Script., xi. (1854) 465-514 and in MPL, exhii.; Vita manor sandi Annonis by another monk (c. 1186), ed. F. W. E. Roth in 1VA, xii. (1887) 208-215; a poem by an unknown author ed. J. Kehrein, Frankfort, 1865. Consult T. Lindner. Anno II. der Heilige, Leipsic, 1869; E. Steindorff, Jahrbucher des deutachen Reicha unter Heinrich lll., 2 vols., ib. 1874-81; W. von Giesebrecht, Geschichte der deutachen Kaiaerzeit, vol. hi., ib.1890; G. Meyer von Knonau, Jahrbticher des deutachen Reicha unter Heinrich IV., 2 vols., ib. 1890-94; Wattenbach, DGQ, ii. 107-109, 137, 140, 146, 183; Hauck, KD, vol. iii.
ANNOTATED BIBLES. See BIBLES, ANNOTATED. ANNULUS PISCATORIS, an'yu-Ivs pis-ka-to'ris: The official ring worn by the popes. Every Roman Catholic bishop wears a ring, which symbolizes that he is wedded to his diocese. This custom dates from very early times, and is mentioned by Isidore of Seville, who calls the ring signum port tiicalis honoris. The ring worn by a pope is engraved with a representation of St. Peter fishingwhence its special name-and with the title of the pontiff. From the fifteenth century papal briefs have been sealed with this ring, and are accordingly said to be given " under the seal of the fisherman." At the present time, instead of this seal, an imprint of the same device in red ink is more commonly used. The ring is given to the newly elected pontiff in the conclave by the cardinal camerlingo, and is broken on the death of the pope.
ANNUNCIATION, FEAST OF THE: A festival celebrated in the Greek, Roman Catholic, and Anglican churches on Mar. 25, in commemoration of the beginning of the incarnation (Luke i. 26-38). Though Augustine mentions the date of the event as nine months before Christmas, the earliest indisputable evidence for the celebration of the feast is furnished by Proclus, patriarch of Constantinople, who died before the middle of the fifth century. The probable date of its origin is about the end of the fourth century. The Council of Toledo (656) ordered its observance on Dec. 18, objecting to its celebration in the mournful season of Lent; and the church of Milan kept it on the fourth Sunday in Advent; but the Roman date finally prevailed throughout the West. The ancient Roman year having commenced with March, on the twentyfifth of which month the vernal equinox fell in the Julian calendar, it was natural for Christian countries to date their years from the feast which com-
memorated the initial step in the work of redemption; in some parts of England and the United States this date is still the legal term from which leases, etc. are reckoned.
ANIIUNCIATION, ORDERS OF THE (ANMMCIADES) : Five Roman Catholic congregations, two for men and three for women, have their name from the annunciation to the Virgin Mary (Luke i.
26-38). (1) The highest knightly order of the house of Savoy (now the ruling house of Italy): As the spiritual order of the " Knights of the Collar " it was founded by Count Amadeus VI. in 1362, and was specially favored by Amadeus VIII. (Pope Felix V.; d. 1451). In 1518 under Charles III. it was dedicated to Santa Maria Annunziata. Later it became a secular order of merit and nobility. (2) The " Archbrothers of the Annunciation ": Founded about 1460 by Cardinal Johannes de Turrecremata (Juan de Torquemada) in the Church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva at Rome; it had importance only for that church. (3) The " Annunciades of Santa Marcellina " (or of St. Ambrose): Founded in Genoa in 1408 for the care of the sick and the performance of like deeds of charity. Their most famous member was the ascetic and mystical writer Catharina Fieschi-Adorno who died in 1510 (see CATHARINE, SAINT, OF GENOA). (4) The " Blue Annunciades " (Annun tiatce colestes ; Italian, Turchine, from turchina, " turquoise"; so called from the color of their cloak): Founded in 1604 by the pious Maria Vittoria Fornari, a widow of Genoa. In the seventeenth century they had more than fifty convents, mostly in upper Italy. (5) The Religieuses Annonciades (known also as the " Order of the Ten Virtues of the Holy Virgin"): Founded about 1498 by Jeanne de Valois, Queen of France, and her confessor, Gilbert Nicolai. At one time they had forty-five convents in France and Belgium. The order was destroyed by the French Revolution.0. ZocgLERt. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Helyot, Ordres monastiques, iv. 82-63, 297-309, vii. 239-250, viii. 322-325, Paris, 1715; Heim- bucher, Orden and Kongregationen, i. 521-523.
ANNUS CARENTIE, au'us kd-ren'shi-i: The term during which a canon or other prebendary must renounce part of his revenues to the pope, the bishop, the church buildings or furniture, or for some other ecclesiastical purpose. In some countries a certain percentage is annually paid to an ecclesiastical fund.
ANNUS CLAUSTRALIS, cles-tralis: The first year in which a canon holds his benefice, and during which he is bound to be in strictest residence.
ANNUS DECRETORIUS, dec"re-to'ri-us: The year 1624, which by the peace of Westphalia (1648) was taken as the basis for the division between the Roman Catholic and the Protestant churches in German territory.
ANNUS DESERVITUS, des-er-vi'tvs, or ANNUS GRATL?E, gre'shi-i or -6: The term, varying in length in different countries, during which the heirs of an ecclesiastic are entitled to enjoy his revenues after his death.
ANNUS LUCTUS : The year of mourning, in some countries an obstacle to marriage (q.v.).ANOINTING. See OINTMENT; SACRAMENTALB.
ANOMOIOS, ANOmOIANS (ANOM(EANS). See ARIAmIBM.
ANRICH, GUSTAV ADOLF: German Lutheran; b. at Runzenheim (a village of Lower Alsace) Dec. 2, 1867. He was educated at the universities of Strasburg, Marburg, and Berlin, and in 1894
became privat docent at Strasburg. He was pastor at Lingolsheim, Lower Alsace, from 1896 to 1901, when he became director. of the Theologischer Studienstift, Strasburg. Since 1903 he has been associate professor of church history at Strasburg. He has written Das antike Mysterientuesen in seinem Verhaltniss zum Christentum (Gottingen, 1894); Clemens and Origenes al4 Begriinder der Lehre vom Fege/euer (Tiibingen, 1902); and has edited Die Anfdnge des Heiligenkttlts in der christlichen Kirche of E. Lucius (1904).
ANSEGIS, an-s6'jis (abbreviated form of Ansegisil): 1. The Elder Ansegis: Abbot of Fontanella (St. Wandrille,15 m. n.n.w. of Rouen); b. in the latter part of the eighth century; d. at Fontanella July 20, 833. He received his first instruction in a cloister-school in the diocese of Lyons, became a monk in the monastery of Fontanella, and was made abbot of St. Germain de Flay, in the diocese of Beauvais, in 807. His energy and good management attracted the notice of Charlemagne, who called him to his court of Aix-laChapelle, and put him with Einhard in charge of his building operations. Louis the Pious also held him in great favor, and endowed him in 817 with the abbey of Luxeuil, and in 823 with that of Fontanella. Here he published his collection of Frankish laws, Libri, iv. eapitularium regum Francorum, which in 829 obtained official authority. Most of these capitularia can be compared with the original documents, and the comparison shows that Ansegis altered very little in the text; but Benedict of Mainz (Benedictus Levita), who, twenty years later, continued the work, made arbitrary, not to say fraudulent, alterations. In the ninth century the work was translated into German, and up to the thirteenth century the German kings took an oath on the book as containing the rights of the realm.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources are: Vita Sancri,Answisi, by an unknown contemporary, in MPL, cv.; of the Capitularium collertio the best edition is by A. Boretius in MGH, Leg., ii., Capitularia Regum Franeorum., i. (1883) 382-450. Consult H. Brunner, Deutacha Rechtepeschichte, i. 382-384, Leipsic, 1887.2. The Younger Ansegis became archbishop of Sens in 872; d. Nov. 25, 882. In 876 he was appointed papal vicar in Gaul and Germany, with the right to convoke synods and to act as the representative of the pope in all affairs of the Church. At the synod of Ponthion (876), however, a num ber of the Frankish bishops refused to acknowl edge his authority, and nothing is heard of a real activity on his part as papal vicar. In 877 he seems to have lost the confidence of the pope, and in the following year another papal vicar was appointed. On his tombstone he is called Primus Gallorum Papa, and up to the fifteenth century the Arch bishop of Sens was styled Gallite et Germanorum Primas. (P. HINsCHIUBt.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: E. L. DOmmler, Geschichte des oat/rBBksecken Reichs i. 748, 767, 795, 837, 845 eqq , ii 40, 70, 81 122, Leipsic, 1862-65; P. Hineehius, KirchenrecAt, i. 597, Berlin, 1869.
ANSELM, SAINT, OF CANTERBURY: The father of medieval scholasticism and one of the most eminent of English prelates; b. at Aosta.
scholasticism, and has been called " the second Augustine." His mind was keen and logical, and his writings display profundity, originality, and masterly grasp of intellect. Of the two theological tendencies occupying the field in his timethe one, more free and rational, represented by Berengar of Tours; the other, confining itself more closely to the tradition of the Church, and represented by Lanfranc-he chose the latter; and he defines the object of scholastic theology to be the logical development and dialectic demonstration of the doctrines of the Church as handed down through the Fathers. The dogmas of the Church are .to him identical with revelation itself; and their truth surpasses the conceptions of reason so far that it is mere vanity to doubt a dogma on account of its unintelligibility. Credo ut intelligam, non qucero intelligere ut credam, is the principle on which he proceeds; and after him it has become the principle of all orthodox theology. As a metaphysician Anselm was a realist, and one of his earliest works, De fide Trinitatis, was an attack on the doctrine of the Trinity as expounded by the nominalist Roscelin. His most celebrated works are the Monologium and Proslogium, both aiming to prove the existence and nature of God; and the Cur deus homo, in which he develops views of atonement and satisfaction which are still held by orthodox theologians. The two first-named were written at Bee; the last was begun in England " in great tribulation of heart," and finished at Schiavi, a mountain village of Apulia, where Anselm enjoyed a few months of 'rest in 1098. His meditations and prayers are edifying and often highly impressive.
[In the Monotogium he argues that from the idea of being there follows the idea of a highest and absolute, i.e. self-existent Being, from which all other being derives its existencg-a revival of the ancient cosmological argument. In the Pros logium the idea of the perfect being-"than which nothing greater can be thought "-can not be separated from its reality as existing. For if the idea of the perfect Being, thus present in consciousness, lacked existence, a still more perfect Being could be thought, of which existence would be a necessary metaphysical predicate, and thus the most perfect Being would be the absolutely Real. The argument is significant, ,partly as showing the profound influence of Realism over Anselm's thought, and partly as revealing him to be the first to enter upon the perilous transcendent pathway of the ontological argument, to be followed by Descartes (Meditationes), Hegel and his school, and especially J. Caird (Philosophy of Religion, New York, 1881, pp. 153-159. For criticism of the ontological argument, cf. Kant, Critique of the Pure Reason, New York, 1881, pp. 500 sqq., Ueberweg, History of Philosophy, i., New York, 1873, pp. 383386).
The key to Anselm's theory of the Atonement (see·ATONEMENT) was the idea of "satisfaction." In justice .to himself and to the creation, God, whose honor had suffered injury by man's sin, must react against it either by punishing men, or, since he was merciful, by an equivalent satis-
how, transl. by $. N. Deane, with introduction,, bibliography, etc., Chicago, 1903.
The sources for Anselm's life are the Hietoria novorum and Vita Anselmi of his chaplain and friend, Eadmer, printed in Gerberon and Migne, ut sup, and edited for the Rolls Series by M. Rule, London, 1884; the Vita alia by John of Salisbury, in MPL, excix., and the Vita bravior, ib. clviii. Of modern works the following may be mentioned: R. W. Church, The Life of St. Anselm, London, 1870 (" masterly, accurate, vigorous "); F. R. Hasse, Anselm von Canterbury, 2 parts, part i., Leben, Leipsie, 1843, part ii., Lehre, ib. 1852, abridged Eng. tranel. by W . Turner, London; 1850: C. de Rdmusat, St. Anselme de Cantorbdry. Paris, 1868 (contains able criticism of Anselm's philosophy, with which cf. E. Baisset in Mdange d'hiatoire, de morale, et de critique, Paris, 1859); M. Rule, Life and Times of St. Anselm, 2 vols., London, 1883 (the result of long study, but marred by prejudice); DNB, ii. 10-30; P. Ragey, Hietoire de St. Anselme, Paris, 1889; J. M. W. Rigg, St. Aneelm of Canterbury, a Chapter in the His$. of Religion, London, 1896; A. C. Welch, Anaelm and his Work, London, 1901; E. A. Freeman, History of the Norman Conquest, passim; idem, History of the Reign of William Rufus, vol. i., chap. iv., and vol. ii., chap. vii. (valuable for references to authorities).
ANSELM OF HAVELBERG: Bishop of Havelberg, later archbishop of Ravenna; d. 1158. He took an active part in ecclesiastical and still more in political affairs under the emperors from Lothair III. to Frederick I. Having joined the Premonstrants he went to Magdeburg, probably influenced by Norbert, who consecrated him in 1129 bishop of Havelberg. As such he labored zealously for the order, to whose duties especially belonged the organization of the church in the Wendic countries, and founded a Premonstrant chapter in Havelberg. In 1135 Lothair III. sent him as ambassador to Constantinople in the hope of effecting a union against Roger of Sicily. He held a friendly conference on the principal points of controversy between the Eastern and the Western Churches, with the archbishop of Nicomedia, and afterward at the request of Pope Eugenius III. wrote three " Dialogues," descriptive of it. In 1147 he took part as papal legate in the crusade againAt the Wends, and then devoted several years to the affairs of his bishopric. The Emperox Frederick 1. employed him again on political missions; he sent him to Constantinople in 1154, when he wished to secure a Greek princess for his wife, and in 1155 caused him to be chosen archbishop of Ravenna. In the same year Anselm was successful in mediating between Frederick and the Pope (Giesebrecht, v.' 59, 64). His writings, besides the one mentioned above, treat especially of the relation between canons and monks, which was much discussed in his time. They are in MPL, clxxxviii.S. M. DEUTSCH.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: $pieker, Anaelm von Havelberg, in ZHT, vol.x.,part ii. (1840) 1-94; W. von Giesebrecht,Geerdichle der deutachen Kaiaerzeit, iv.-v., Brunswick, 1874; Hauck. KD, vol. iv. passim.
ANSELM OF LAON (Lat. Latulunensis; called also Scholasticua): Archdeacon of Laon; b. at
Laon about the middle of the eleventh century; d. there July 15, 1117. He enjoyed the instruction
of Anselm of Canterbury at Bee, and from 1076 was teacher of scholastic theology at Paris, where he gathered around him a number of prominent pupils. With the most notable of them, the genial William of Champeaux (q.v.), he laid the foundation of the later University of Paris. To-
faction, viz., the death of the God-man, which will more than compensate for the injury to his honor, on the ground of which he forgives sin. Incidental features of his theory are-sin as a violation of a private relation between God and man, the interaction of the divine righteousness and grace, and the necessity of a representative suffering. In the Reformed doctrine, sin and the Atonement took on more of a public character, the active obedience of Christ was also emphasized, and the representative relation of Christ to the law brought to the front. In the seventeenth century the forensic and penal justice of God came into prominence; Christ was conceived of as suffering the punishment of our sin,-a complete equivalent of the punishment which we must have suffered,-on the ground of which our guilt and punishment are pardoned. In the following century, Owen (Works, ix. 253-254) held that the sufferings of Christ for sinners were not tantidem but idem. In more recent discussions along this line, Hodge (Systematic Theology, ii. 480-495) maintains that Christ suffered neither the kind nor degree of that which sinners must have suffered, but any kind and degree of suffering which is judicially inflicted in satisfaction of justice and law. There has indeed been no theory of the work of Christ which has not conceived of it as a satisfaction; even the so-called moral influence theories center in this idea (cf . W. N. Clarke, Outline of Christian Theology, New York, 1898, pp. 348, 349). It is therefore evident how fundamental is the idea of satisfaction presented by Anselm. Only it must be observed first that in the evolution of the Christian doctrine of salvation the particular way in which the satisfaction was realized has been differently conceived; and secondly, if the forgiveness of sin in Jesus Christ takes place only when the ethical nature of God is satisfied, the special form in which the satisfaction is accomplished is of subordinate importance. In one class of views-the representative or juridical-the satisfaction was conditioned on a unique and isolated divine-human deed-the death or the life and death of Christ; in the other theories, the satisfaction is threefoldin the expression of the divine good-will, through the life and death of Christ, in the initial response of sinners to forgiving grace, and in the final bringing of all souls to perfect union with the Father. Cf. C. A. Beckwith, Realities of Christian Theology, Boston, 1906, pp. 226-229. For criticism of Anselxn on the Atonement, cf. Harnack, Dogmengeschichte, iii., Freiburg, 1890, pp. 351-358, Eng.transl., vi. 67-78.] C. A. BECKWITH.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The best edition of Anselm'a works is by G. Gerberon, a monk of the Congregation of Bt. Maur, Paris, 1675 (2d ed., 1721; reprinted at Venice, 1744, and, with corrections and additions, in MPL, elviii.-elix.). The Monologium and Proalogium were published by C. Haas, Tdbingen, 1863· the Cur dew how, by H. L&mmer, Berlin, 1857, and by O. F. Fritzsche (3d ed., Zurich, 1893). The Monologium and Proslogium were translated into French by H. Bouehitt_, Le Rationalieme chrEtien, Paris, 1842; the Cur dew homo, into German by B. 8chirlitz, Quedlinburg, 1861. In English are: The Cur deus how, with selections from his letters, London, 1889; his Book of Meditations and Prayers, with preface by Cardinal Manning, 1872; and the Proelogium, Monolopium, and Cur deua
Matilda, by Bardo, a priest who had been his close associate, is in MPL, exlviii. and, with extracts from some of his works, ed. R. Wilmans, in MGH, Script., xu. (1856) 1-35. Consult A. Overmann, Die vita Anselmi Lucansis epieeopi des Rangerius, in NA, vol. xxi., 1896; W. von Giesebreeht, Geschichte der deutachen Kaiserseit, vol. iii., Leipsic, 1890; J. Langen, G eschichte der r6mischen Kirche von Gregor VII. bit Innocent 111., Bonn, 1893; C. Mirbt, Die Publisietik im ZeitalterGregora VII., Leipsie, 1894; W. Martens, Gregor VII., 2 vols., ib. 1894; G. Meyer von Knonau, Jahrbacher des deutachen Reichs unter Heinrich IV. and Heinrich V., vol. ii., ib. 1894; Wattenbach, DGQ, ii. (1894).
ANSGAR or ANSKAR (Aasgejr, Osgejr, " God's Spear"; the modern Oscar): The apostle of Scandinavia, first archbishop of Hamburg (8318fi5); b. of prominent Frankish parents near the monastery of Corbie (9 m. e. of Amiens), probably in 801; d. at Bremen Feb. 3, 865. After his mother's early death he was brought up at Corbie, and made rapid progress in the learning of the time. In 822 he was one of a colony sent to found the abbey of Corvey (New Corbie) in Westphalia, and became there a teacher and preacher. When, four years later, Harold, king of Denmark, made an alliance with the Franks which included the acceptance of their religion, Ansgar was among those chosen to accompany the king to Denmark to evangelize the people. He and his companion Autbert founded a school at Harold's court after the Frankish model, but their work had to be abandoned on account of the downfall of Harold (827) and the illness and death of Autbert. In the autumn of 829, probably, Swedish ambassadors appeared at the imperial court and asked that Christian missionaries be sent to their country. Again Ansgar was selected, and with him, Witmar, his former colleague in the abbey-school at Corvey. After a perilous journey, they reached Sweden and were allowed to preach freely, with considerable success, at Bj6rk6 (Birka) on an island in Lake Mglar.
Anagar spent two years in Sweden, returning home in 831 to report to the emperor. The time was now ripe for the accomplishment of a plan of great importance for the northern missions, which Charlemagne had had in mind, and for which his son had now found the right man, viz., the establishment of a bishopric of Hamburg. Besides a diocese formed from those of Bremen and Verden, the new metropolitan was to have the right to send missions into all the northern lands and to consecrate bishops for them. Ansgar was consecrated in Nov., 831, and, the arrangements having been at once approved by Gregory IV., went to Rome to receive the pallium directly at the hands of the pope and to be named legate for the northern lands. This commission had previously been bestowed upon Ebo, archbishop of Reims; but an amicable agreement was reached by which the jurisdiction was divided, Ebo retaining Sweden for himself. For a time Ansgar devoted himself to the needs of his own diocese, which was still missionary territory with but a few churches. He founded in Hamburg a monastery and a school; the latter was to serve the Danish mission, but accomplished little.
After the death of Louis le DSbonnaire (840), Ansgar lost the abbey of Turholt, which had been given as an endownient for his work, and in 845
ANTHONISTS. See ANTHONY, SAINT, ORDERS OF.
ANTHONY, ALFRED WILLIAMS: Free Baptist; b. at Providence, R. I., Jan. 13, 1860. He was educated at Brown University (B.A., 1883), Cobb Divinity School (1883-86), and the University of Berlin (1888-90), and was pastor of the Essex Street Free Baptist Church, Bangor, Me., from 1885 to 1888. On his return from Germany he was appointed professor of New Testament exegesis at Cobb Divinity School, a position which he still holds. He is also a member of the conference board of the General Conference of Free Baptists, the chairman of the Free Baptist committee of conference on union with other bodies, a member of the Interdenominational Commission of Maine Since its organization in 1891 and secretary since 1904, trustee and secretary of the board of the Maine Industrial School for Girls since 1899, and member of the school committee of Lewiston since 1906. Among the societies to which he belongs are the American Philological Association, the American Institute of Sacred Literature, the Society of Biblical Literature and Exegesis, and the Maine Academy of Medicine and Science. In theology he is a moderate progressive. He has written: An Introduction to the Life of Jesus (New York, 1896); The Method of Jesus (1899); The SundaySchool-Its Progress in Method and Scope (1899); and The Higher Criticism in the New Testament (1901); and has edited Preachers and Preaching (1900), and New Wine Skins (1901).
ANTHONY, SAINT, THE HERMIT. See MONASTICISM.
ANTHONY, SAINT, ORDERS OF: The oldest and most important of the religious orders named after St. Anthony, the father of monasticism, is that of the Hospitalers of St. Anthony, founded about the time of the first crusade (1095-99) by a nobleman of St. Didier la Mothe in Dauphin, Gaston by name. According to the traditions of the order, Gaston's son, Gu6rin, was cured of the disease known as St. Anthony's fire (morbus sacer), whereupon the father founded a hospital for those suffering from this and similar maladies, near the great church of St. Didier, and, with his son and eight knightly comrades, undertook the part of nurses in the institution. St. Anthony appeared to the founder, gave him his staff (shaped like the letter " T "), and encouraged him in the work. Urban II. is said to have confirmed the order at the synod at Clermont in 1095. Calixtus II. in 1118 dedicated the church belonging to the Benedictine monastery Mons Major at St. Didier to St. Anthony, and so made it the chief sanctuary of the order, which was subject to the Benedictines. From the end of the twelfth century the order spread through the foundation of many houses (as at Rome in 1194; at Acco in 1208; and many in central and north Germany), and it acquired considerable wealth through the persistent zeal of its almsgatherers. They wore a black robe
BIRmOGRAPRY: Heimbucher, Orden and Kongrepationen, i. 401-402; Helyot, Ordres monastiques ii. 108-114; Seifart, Die Tonnesherm and der ehrsame Rat in Hildesheim, in Zeitschrift ftir deutsche Culturpeschichte, 1872, pp. 121, 384; G. Uhlhorn, Die chriatliche LieUsA3tigkeit im fib telalter, pp. 178, 432, 478, Stuttgart, 1884.
ANTHONY, SAINT, OF PADUA: The most celebrated of the followers of St. Francis of Assisi; b. at Lisbon, of a distinguished, knightly family, about 1195; d. at Padua June 13, 1231. When fifteen years of age he joined the Augustinian canons at Lisbon. Afterward he went to Coimbra and by zealous study made himself master of the theology of his time. The translation of the bones of the first martyred Franciscans from Morocco to Coimbra awakened in Anthony a desire for martyrdom; to accomplish his purpose in 1220 he joined the Minorites and sailed to Africa; being confined to his bed by sickness throughout the winter, he resolved to return home. On the way he was driven to Messina and with the brethren there went to the chapter at Assisi in 1221, where he was taken to a hermitage in the Romagna. By accident his oratorical gifts became known when he was ordained priest at Forli; and he was made preacher of the order. Of his public activity, which now commenced, very little is known. For a time he acted as lector to the Minorites at Bologna, although Francis of Assisi, influenced by Elias of Cortona, who wished to introduce scientific study into the order, gave his permission very reluctantly. Anthony next went to France, and was guardian at Puy and custos in Limousin. As in the Romagna, he showed himself an indefatigable persecutor of heretics in the struggle with the Cathari. At Rimini he converted some of them by his persuasive powers, and he united the converts at Padua into a brotherhood of penitents. Finally he was made provincial, and in 1229 went to Padua.
In 1230 Anthony took part in the general chapter at Assisi, and he was released from his office as provincial in order that he might devote himself entirely to preaching. He, however, took a prominent part in the controversy of the parties which developed among the Minorites. He sided with Elias and was among the delegates sent to Rome to have the differences decided by the pope, who accordingly issued the bull Quo elongati, Sept. 28, 1230 (see FRANCIS, SAINT, OF Assisi, AND THE FRANCISCAN ORDER). L-13Anthony's fame rests solely upon his ability as a preacher, which produced a great impression, especially in the district of Treviso. The Latin sketches of his sermons convey little impression of his manner, but they show him to have been a strict preacher of repentance and of contempt of the world, who urged indefatigably the use of the means of grace provided by the Church. It is said that 30,000 auditors listened to him in an open field at Padua. His restless activity wore him out, and, suffering from dropsy, he vainly sought relief by retiring to solitude, taking up his abode in a tree. He was canonized for political reasons by Gregory IX., May 30, 1232. [There is a curious story that on one occasion, disgusted with the in difference of hiss audience, Anthony betook himself to the seashore and addressed his discourse to the fishes, which came in shoals to listen. Joseph Ad dison, Remarks on Italy, at the end of " Brescia, Verona and Paiua," gives the Italian text and an English translation.] E. LEMPP.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Of the works ascribed to Anthony only the sermons preserved at Padua are certainly genuine. Those which r have been published will be found in A. Pagi, Sermottes S. Antonii Paduani de Sauctis, Avignon, 1684; A. Joss. Legenda seu vita et miracula S. Antonii de Padua, Bologna, 1883; idem, Sermonea, Padua, 1885. The edition (Padua,-1895 sqq.) begun by A. M. Locatelli (d. 1902) does not state what MSS. are followed. Other collections are not genuine or very doubtful. The sources and most important literature for Anthony are gathered in Leon de Kerval, S. Antonii de Padua vitd duos, etc., in Collection d'etudea et des documents sur l'histoire religieuae et litleraire du moyen doe, vol. v., Paris. 1904. For his life: E. de Asevedo, Vita del qlorioso taumaturgo portophew sant' Antonio di Padova, Bologna, 1790, last ed., Venice, 1865; H. J. Coleridge, S. J., The Chronicle of St. Antony of Padua, London, 1876; E. Lempp, in ZKG, xi. (1890) 177-211, 503-538, xii. (1891), 414-451, xiii. (1892) 1-46; J. Rigauld, La Vie de Saint Antoine de Padua .... publi6e pour la premillre foil avec une introduction tur Us sources . . . par Ferdinand-Marie d'Amules, Bordeaux, 1899; Mrs. A. Bell, Saint Antony of Padua; Seven fullpage Reproductions from Old Masters of Scenes in the Lafe of St. Antony, London, 1900; A. Lepitre, Antoine de Padoue (in the Joly series), Paris. 1901, Eng. transl. by Edith Guest, London, 1902.ANTHROPOLOGY. See THEOLOGY.
ANTHROPOMORPHISM and ANTHROPOPATHISM (Gk. anthrbpos, " man," + m orphe, " form," and pathos, " passion, suffering"): Terms designating views of God which represent him as possessed of a human form or members, human attributes, or human passions. Such views arise from the natural tendency or necessity of man to conceive of higher beings by analogy with himself, and are incidental to all religions at a certain stage of their development. Many passages of the Bible easily lend themselves to an anthropomorphic interpretation. The Audians (q.v.) of the fourth and fifth centuries taught that all references to God's hands, ears, eyes, etc., are to be interpreted literally. Some philosophers believe the conception of God as a personal spirit to be anthropomorphic. Scholars who accept the compilatory theory of the origin of the Pentateuch consider anthropomorphism a marked characteristic of the Elohist, usually cited as E. Others maintain that the Scriptures, rightly interpreted, lend no support to such views. See COMPARATIVE RELIGION, VI., 1, a,§3.
Anthropomorphism is inseparable from any conception of supernatural powers or God. This fact has received two interpretations. (1) Religion never outgrows the essential characteristics of its origin, whether this is conceived of as mythological (Comte), animistic (Tylor), or through dreams (Spencer). In the lower stages of religion, the gods are only larger men. According to Feuerbach, following Xenophanes and Lucretius (De rerun nalura, v. 121), man creates God in his own image (cf. Feuerbach, Wesen des Christenthums, chap. 1, § 2). In the progress from polytheism to monotheism, the human qualities are indefinitely enlarged, concentrated, and united in one being, but the being is still human. Between the mode of human intelligence and omniscience, the human will and omnipotence, between human goodness and divine perfection, between personality and the Infinite is not only an immeasurable but an irreconcilable difference. The result for thought is either that there is no God (Comte), or, if such a being exists, we are compelled to distrust all anthropomorphic notions and take refuge in the Unknown and the Unknowable (Spencer, First Principles, New York, 1892, pp. 108-123). The latter alternative leaves room for the religious sentiments, but only in the form of awe. To rid the idea of God of every trace of anthropomorphism, however, simply abolishes the idea itself. (2) According to the second view-which is met with under many variations-religious ideas are not only incurably anthropomorphic, but they share this property with all other ideas. They contain objective truth, even if this is lacking in scientific accuracy of expression. Either rational and moral qualities are to be ascribed to God, on the ground that these are essential to the perfection of personality (S. Harris, The Self-Revelation of God, New York, 1887, pp. 433-440), or, since they are derived from the human consciousness and the region of the finite, they may be interpreted only analogically and symbolically; e.g., force, cause, energy, the eternal, the infinite, the power not ourselves that makes for righteousness, even personality and fatherhood have a real meaning for religious feeling and thought, although their full significance transcends both definition and comprehension. The Scriptures, which are marked by definite stages of anthropomorphic representations of God, contain a corrective for an undue reliance on this mode of conception. C. A. BECKWrrH.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: John Fiske, Outlines of Cosmic Philosophy, part 1, chap. vii., part 3, chap ii., Boston, 1891; idem,ldea of God, pp. 111-118, Boston, 1886; F. Paulsen, Einleitunp in die Philoaophie, pp. 275-281, Berlin, 1895, Eng. tranal., pp. 252-256, New York, 1898.ANTICHRIST.
The Idea Possibly of Babylonian Origin (1 1). Old Testament Conceptions (1 2).
Later Hellenistic Jewish Literature (¢ 3). In the New Testament (§ 4).In Post-Christian Judaism and in the Church (§ 5).
The name "Antichrist" is first found in the Epistles of John (I. ii. 18, 22, iv. 3; II. 7). The idea, however, is in earlier New Testament writings, and its roots are in the Old Testament. According to a modern supposition they are
even to be sought in the Babylonian chaos-myth,a native myth of the springtime, which narrates how Tiamat, the ruler over the deeps of dark-
ness and the waters, aided by her r. The Idea powers, rebelled against the upper Possibly of gods, but was overcome by Marduk, Babylonian the son of the gods, who had beenOrigin. elevated to the throne and then
created the heavenly lights. It has been supposed that the Old Testament writings indicate that this myth migrated to Canaan in very ancient times, was transferred by the Israelites to the latter end of the world, and was applied in various forms also to political enemies of the people; and herein is sought the origin of the Old Testament idea of a rise and conquest of evil powers, which preceded the establishment of the kingdom of God (Gunkel, Schop fang tend Chaos, G6ttingen, 1895, pp. 221 sqq.). But influence of old Oriental thoughts upon the figurative style of Biblical writings can be admitted only in a very limited degree.
Neither the sources of the eschatological ideas which meet in the notion of Antichrist, nor the
characteristic features of their devela. Old Tes- opment can be traced back to extratament Biblical elements. The belief in theConcep- election of Israel as a people of God, tions. sanctified unto him and blessed by him, received a rude shock by the ex perience of a reality apparently opposed to such choice. Hence arose the prophecy, that, because of its faithlessness Israel is given over to heathen powers, but that it shall be delivered from them, their presumption being punished for exceeding their divine commission as God's scourges. Thus the opinion was formed that before the kingdom of God is completed it is to be attacked by the godless world. As the representative of the latter, Ezekiel (xxxviii. 2, xxxix. 1-6) mentions Magog, the land of King Gog, a comprehensive designation of the nations of the north. Zechariah (xii-xiv.) describes more minutely the oppres sion of the people of God by hostile powers. When Antiochus IV. Epiphanes of Syria under took with cruel severity to supplant the religion of Israel by Greek heathenism, these ideas found a further development. The heathen world-power then appeared not as an instrument of punish ment in the hand of God, but as his adversary, attacking with destructive purpose the very cen ter of his kingdom. The history of the godless world-kingdom, which reaches its climax in the person of the proud king, is thus represented in the Book of Daniel.
Gradually the last enemy of the kingdom of God came to be thought of as the antitype of the Messiah;
at least such is the representation of 3. Later the later Hellenistic Jewish literature Hellenistic (cf. Num. xxiv. 7, LXX.; Sibyllines, Jewish iii. 652 sqq.). In the extant pre-Literature. Christian Palestinian literature no indication is found of a personal an titype of the Messiah. In the older portions of the Book of Enoch the appearance of the Messiah is spoken of as taking place at the end of all struggles
persons, according to the clear statement of the epistles (I John ii. 22; II John 7), the idea and the character of the Antichrist are realized.In post-Christian Judaism the early national conception was enhanced. The name " Anti christ," borrowed from Christianity, does not become current until late (e.g., in Abrabanel). But in the first Christian centuries there is found in Jewish literature the notion of a 5. In Post- perpetrator of outrages upon the Christian Jewish people in the last days. Spo- Judaism radically, the figure of a powerful
and in the woman after the manner of Cleopatra Church. appears (,Sibyllines, iii. 77, v. 18, viii. 200); oftener that of an imperial Roman anti-Messiah. In later times Antichrist was represented in Jewish theology as victor over the suffering Messiah, and was called Romulus, also Armfflus. In the Christian Church of the first centuries the main types of the Biblical Antichrist reappear. Origen identified the notion in an abstract sense with that of false doctrine. Certain contemporaneous representatives of heretical teaching were called by the name, without thereby excluding the expectation of an Antichrist as a future individual (cf. Didache, xvi.). Very often the latter was thought of as a false Jewish Messiah -hence circumcised and compelling circumcisionand it was expected that he would come from the tribe of Dan and from the East. The connection of Antichrist with Nero in the Apocalypse of John was also developed by representing .him as the resuscitated Nero (Lactantius, De mortibus persecutorum, ii.; Jerome, on Dan, xi. 17; Augustine, De civitate Dei, xx. 13). Both conceptions were strangely fused (Victorinus, Comment. ad Apoc.) or outwardly connected with each other into.the notion of a double Antichrist, a Western (Roman) and an Eastern, appearing in Jerusalem. In relation to Satan, the Antichrist was thought of as a man working his will, as his son, and even as his incarnation.The idea receded in the Middle Ages, and when it again appeared it was mostly applied to phe nomena of the present. It has often been applied to the papacy, an interpretation which was adopted by Luther (Adversus execrabilem Antichristi bullam) and other Reformers, and taken into the symbolical books of the Lutheran Church (Art. Schmal., ii. 4; Tract: de pot. Papce). On the other hand, Roman Catholics have referred the Antichrist to Luther and Protestantism. F. SIEFFERT.
As Boussbt (Antichrist) has so convincingly shown, a tradition was evidently current in Jewish thought which underlay the teaching both of Paul and the Apocalypse concerning the Antichrist. The tradition appears to have contained the following features. The coming of Antichrist was prevented by the Roman power. When this power shouid fall, the Antichrist, not of foreign birth but a Jewish false Messiah, would establish himself in the temple at Jerusalem and require men to worship him. His reign would last for three and one-half years. By means of his miraculous power he would convert the world to .his side. Later, his real character would be exposed; the
BIBLIOGRAPHY: McClintock and Strong, Cyclopradia, i. 254281 (able historical review, but omits survey of the Pseudepigrapha, a lack supplied in R. F. Charles, Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future Life, London, 1899); J. G. Welch, Bibliotheca theolopua, ii. 217 sqq., 4 vole., Jena, 1757-88 (gives bibliography of controversy between Protestants and Catholics); T. Malvenda, De Antichristo, Rome, 1604; J. H. Newman, The Protestant ldea,of Anti-Christ, in his Critical and Historical Es says, ii. 112-185, London, 1871; DCB, i.120-122; S. Huntingford, The Apocalypse . . . and as Antichrist of St. Paul and St. John, London, 1881; Computation of 666 . the Coming of Anti-Christ, ib. 1891; w. Bousset, Der
Antichrist in der Ueberlieferung des Judenthuma, des Neuen Testaments and der alten Kirche, GSttingen, 1895, Eng. transl., London, 1898; H. Gunkel, Schnpfung and Chaos, Gottingen, 1895; E. Wadstein, Antichrist, in ZWT, xxxviii.-xxxix. (new series, iii.-iv., 1895-98), 79-157, 251293; M. Friedliinder, Der Antichrist in den vorehriatlichen iiidiechen Quellen, Gbttingen, 1901.ANTIDICOMARIANITES, an"ti-dic"o-mb'n-an aits: A name applied by Epiphanius (Hwr., lxxviii.) to opponents of the belief in the perpetual virginity of Mary, the mother of Christ. The New Testament speaks of the " brethren " of Jesus; and in Tertullian's time the opinion was still prev alent that Mary's marriage with Joseph was a true marriage. Thus he writes (De monogamia, viii.): " Truly it was a virgin who bore Christ, but after doing so she married, in order that the last title of sanctity might be checked off in the inventory of Christ; a mother who was both a virgin and a once married woman." But by the fourth century it was considered as established that there had not been a real marriage. The older belief had not, however, altogether disappeared. Epiphanius found the opinion current in Arabia that Mary, after the birth of Christ, had lived with Joseph as his wife and had children by him. He classed the adherents of this view as a sect, bestowed upon them a name of his own composition, meaning " opponents of Mary," and controverted their belief in a lengthy treatise, which he gives in the passage cited above. (A. HAUCK.) ANTILEGOMENA. See CANON OF SCRIPTURE.
ANTIMENSIUM, an"ti-men'si-um: A name applied in the Greek Church to a linen cloth spread upon the altar before the beginning of the eucharistic service, and considered as making it an altar ready for the sacrifice. Since the Greek Church, like the Roman Catholic, holds that the eucharistic sacrifice may be offered only on a consecrated altar, and since this consecration can be performed only by the bishop (taking place usually at thetime of the consecration of the church), the mass could not be celebrated in churches not yet conse crated, if the use of this consecrated cloth-in the Roman Catholic Church, of a portable altar-stone (see ALTAR)-were not held to supply the de ficiency. GEORG RIETSCHEL.) ANTINOMIANISM AND ANTZNOMIAN CONTROVERSIES. I. Antinomianism in General. New Testament Antinomianism (§ 1). Gnostic Antinomianism (§ 2). Antinomianism of the Middle Ages (§ 3). Of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries (§ 4). In England (§ 5). The Renters (§ 6). Later Phases of Antinomianism (§ 7). II. Antinomian Controversies. 1. Of the German Reformation. Luther's Earlier Teachings About the Law (§ 1). Agricola's Controversy with Melanchthon, 1527 (§ 2). Agricola's Controversy with Luther, 1537 sqq. (§ 3). Jakob Schenk (§ 4). Later Controversies (§ 5). Settlement of the Controversy (§ 8). 2. The Antinomian Controversy in New England.
L Antinomianism in General: The name antinomianism is a comparatively modern designation of several types of ethical thought in which hostility to the Mosaic law (including the decalogue) and to the principles therein embodied has led to immoral teaching and practise. Traces of such thought are evident in the New Testament. The spiritualization of the law into the one precept of love to God taught and exemplified by Jesus encouraged some overenthusiastic devotees to believe that they had been exalted to such a height of spirituality and such an overmastering love to God that they needed to have no regard to moral precepts or to outward conduct; i. New Tes- while Paul's insistence on the goodness,
tament holiness, and spirituality of the law Antino- did not suffice to convince all of thosemianism. who considered themselves his dis ciples that, as being utterly ineffectual for human salvation and as occasioning and inci ting to sin, it was not itself sin and worthy to be treated with abhorrence. Paul's sharp conflict with Judaizers in regard to the observance of Jewish ceremonies could hardly fail to convince his more radical anti-Judaistic followers that the effort to keep the law perfectly was not only vain but involved the setting at naught of the gospel of free grace in Christ Jesus. Some such perversion of Paul's teaching was probably in the mind of the writer of II Pet. iii. 16. The members of the Corinthian Church who were puffed up and did not mourn over the incestuous person, as well as the parties guilty of the abominable union (I Cor. v. 1-6), were probably antinomian, and of like tend ency were doubtless the Nicolaitans (Rev. ii. 2, 15; see NIcoLAITANs), those that held the teaching of Balaam (Rev. ii. 14), and those that suffered the woman Jezebel (Rev. ii. 20).
Many Gnostics objected to the Mosaic law as being too formal and not sufficiently spiritual, on the one hand, and as giving too much place to carnal indulgence, on the other (see GNosmclsm). Holding the flesh in contempt as an evil product of the
petuated in some of the parties of the Reformation time.
The pantheistic sect of the " Libertines," who appeared in the Netherlands about 1525 and thence spread into France and were combated by Calvin (see LIBERTINES, 3; LoisTs) were Antinomians. They disregarded the Mosaic law and law in general as inapplicable to the spiritual man and felt free to lie, steal, and indulge the passions. David Joris (q.v.), the mystic, was accused by his opponents of antinomian teachings, but
apparently without sufficient reason. 4. Of the It would be easy to point out anti-
Siateenth nomian tendencies in a number of and Seven- continental parties of the sixteenthteenth and seventeenth centuries not com Centuries. monly reckoned among Antinomians.
The hyper-Calvinistic (supralapsariap) teaching of men like Piscator (d. 1625) and Gomar (d. 1641) in the Netherlands, as that " sins take place, God procuring and himself willing that they take place, nay, absolutely so willing " and that in giving the law and commanding its observance He made its observance absolutely impossible, really struck at the root of human responsibility and discouraged any effort to control the natural impulses. So, too, the Jesuit casuists of the more reckless type in substituting for the Mosaic law the Canon Law and in making the violation of the latter easy by their doctrines of " philosophical sin," " direction of attention," " mental reservation," and " probabilism," etc., were constructively antinomian. Mystics of the later time, so far as they pantheistically identified themselves with God and supposed that by virtue of such spiritual exaltation they were subject to no ordinances human or divine, were antinomian in the sense in which the Brethren of the Free Spirit were.
Of special importance in this connection, because of the wide-spread influence exerted by his teachings on English and American thought and life, is Hendrik Niklaes, founder of the Familists (q.v.). In 1577 several of his works were published in English and called forth a considerable body of polemical literature. At this time there are said to have been one thousand Familists in England,
and they were making an active and g. In successful propaganda. To counterEngland. act their influence the privy council
issued a form of abjuration to be applied to members of the party arraigned for heresy. Their principles were too nearly identical with those of the Brethren of the Free Spirit not to be subversive of morality as well as of Scriptural authority and historical Christianity, and their errors were all the more insidious because of the fact that they allowed themselves to conform outwardly to any required ecclesiastical or civil usages, and by the use of ambiguous language to profess the acceptance of any doctrine.
During the Civil War and Commonwealth times almost every imaginable type of religious propagandise went forward with astonishing zeal and success. Familism (with other important influ ences) produced a relatively pure and evangelical mysticism in the Society of Friends and a grosser
1. That the Moral Law is of no use at all to a believer, nor a rule for him to walk in, nor to examine his life by, and that Christians are free from the mandatory power of it: whence one of them [Antinomians] cried out in the pulpit, " Away with the Law, which cuts off a mans !egs and then bids him walk." 2. That it is as possible for Christ to stn as for a child of God to sin. 3. That the child of God need not nor ought not to ask pardon for sin, and that it is no less than blasphemy for him so to do. 4. That God doth not chasten any of his children for sin, nor is it for the sins of God's people that the land is punished. 5. That if a man know himself to be in a state of grace, though he be drunk, or commit murder, God sees no sin in him. 6. That when Abraham denied his wife, and in outward appearance seemed to lie in his distrust, lying, dissembling, and equivocating that his wife was his sister, yea, then all his thoughts, words, and deeds were perfectly holy and righteous from all spot of sin in the eyes of God.
By far the most unattractive of the sectaries of this time are the Ranters, who seem to have been almost identical in doctrine and
6. The practise with the Brethren of the Ranters. Free Spirit and who, by ~ their enthusiastic propagandism, seduced multitudes from the fellowship of the evangelical denominations. According to Samuel Fisher (Baby Baptism Mere Babism, London, 1653), " Some Ranters are not ashamed to say that they are Christ and God, and there is no other God than they, and what's in them, and such like blasphemies." They denied the existence of the devil, heaven, and hell. Moses they declared to be a conjurer and Christ a deceiver of the people. Prayer is useless. Preaching and lying are all one. The Scriptures they regarded as cast-off fables, and when they condescended to use them at all they practised the most absurd allegorizing. They claimed that nothing is sin but what a man thinks to be so. Their practise is represented as corresponding with their immoral teaching.
A large proportion of the Particular Baptists of England during the latter half of the eighteenth century, by way of reaction against Socinianism and the missionary movement, became
involved in a hyper-Calvinistic (supralapsarian) type of thought that involved making God responsible for evil, complete denial of
7. Later human initiative or part in salvation Phases of and conduct, renunciation of the law Antinomi- as a rule of life, and the disowning ofanism. human agency and responsibility in the extension of the kingdom of Christ. This Baptist antinomianism was com bated in England by Andrew Fuller, John Ryland, and others. A still more virulent type of anti nomianism appeared among American Baptists in the nineteenth century by way of reaction against the missionary and educational work of the denomi nation. Here as in England leaders and led were illiterate and deeply prejudiced against human institutions and agencies, which they regarded as an impertinent interference with God's sovereignty. These antinomian Baptist parties are still extant. See BAPTIST$, I., 4, §§ 4-5; IL, 3, §§ 3, 4. A. H. NEWMAN. II. Antinomian Controversies:
1. Of the German Reformation: Antinomian doctrines were vigorously discussed in Germany during the Reformation period until the Formula of Concord made a final adjustment of the matter in 1577. Luther had held that the Mosaic law, as an ancient code devised under special conditions for a particular people, was superseded by the civil law of modern states, and no longer possessed for Christians a juridical or ceremonial force.' Furthermore, the whole law, even the decalogue included, was in no wise to be employed by Christians in the spirit of justification by I. Luther's works, since that involved a super-
Earlier ficial and mercenary idea of divine Teachings justice. There was, however, need to about the preach the law from a spiritual stand-Law. point, emphasizing a realization of sin by which the conscience should be humbled before the divine wrath; though the preaching of the law exclusively led to
I In combating the legalistic element in medieval Roman Catholic teaching and in the radical religious parties of the early Reformation time, Luther allowed himself to use language in disparagement of the Mosaic law so strong and unqualified as to give great encouragement to those that were eager for fleshly freedom. A few sentences should be quoted: " Christ is not harsh, severe, biting as Moses . . . . Therefore, away with Moses forever, who shall not terrify deluded hearts." Again: " The gospel is heavenly and divine, the law earthly and human; the righteousness of the gospel is just as distinct from that of the law as heaven from earth, as light from darkness. The gospel is light ana day, the law darkness and night." In his polemic " against the Heavenly Prophets " (En. ed., xxix. 150) he says: " We will take our stand on the right ground and say that these sin-teachers and Mosaic prophets shall leave us unconfounded by Moses; we will neither see nor hear Moses. How does this please you, dear revolutionists 7 And we say further that all such Mosaic. teachers [i.e., the Zwickau prophets, q.v.] deny the gospel, banish Christ, and overthrow the whole New Testament. I speak now as a Christian and for Christians, since Moses was given to the Jewish people alone and has nothing to do with us Gentiles and Christians. We have our gospel and New Tests ment; if they will prove from this that pictures are to be done away with, we will gladly follow them. But if they wish by means of Moses to make Jews of us, we will not suffer it." Of course, he did not mean utterly to repudiate Moses, but rather by a tour de force to repudiate what heconsidered an unauthorised use of Moses. (A. a. N.)
either hypocrisy or despair. In his emphasis on justification by faith, Luther asserted that true repentance proceeded from a realizing sense of the work of Christ. The preaching of faith was to take precedence of all else, since, faith having been attained, contrition and consolation spontaneously followed. Nevertheless, more frequently and in entire consistency with the formal definition of his position in 1520, the process of salvation was described by him as beginning with the operation of the law upon the soul, which in repentance casts about for aid and is met with the promise of remission of sins through Christ.
The antinomian controversy was preluded by the complaints preferred in Bohemia in 1524 against one Dominicus Beyer, who strictly adhered to Luther's doctrine, but was accused by some of reversion to the Roman view in preaching, as it was said, the approach to faith through works of merit. Luther, Melanchthon, and Bugenhagen completely exonerated Beyer and clearly enunciated the Wittenberg position. Later Melanch-
thon's Articuli de quibus egerunt per z. Agricola's visitdtores (1527; CR, xxvi. 7 sqq.) Controversy placed the preaching of the law at
with Me- the portal of Christian instruction, lanchthon, asserting that it led to repentance,1527. which was the antecedent of faith,
and without which the preaching of the gospel was unintelligible. Johann Agricola, who had eagerly emphasized Luther's earlier statements of repentance as a consequence of the gospel of divine grace, chose to regard Melanchthon's declaration as a personal affront. After addressing to Luther several memorials on the subject, he made specific complaints and circulated in manuscript a censure of Melanchthon's teaching. In a conference at Torgau (Nov. 26-28, 1527) an adjustment was finally effected by Luther, who distinguished between faith in the general sense (fides generalis), as indeed antedating repentance, and the justifying faith which, impelled by conscience, apprehends divine grace.
Agricola, though professing satisfaction, nevertheless continued in his antinomian position; repentance, consciousness of sin, and the fear of God were to be based upon the gospel and not upon the law. He began even to gather a party about himself as the Paul of the Reformation, who must set right Peter (Luther). Reports to this effect having gained currency, three published discourses of his were examined and found to contain antinomian views. In July, 1537, and again in Septem-ber, Luther preached against such error,
3. Agric- though without mention of Agricola, ola's Con- declaring in the latter instance that troversy the gospel could no more be preached with Luther, independently of the law than could=537 sqq. the law independently of the gospel. At the close of October, Agricola came to an agreement with Luther whereby unanimity was recognized in the substance of doctrine. But now Agricola undertook to publish his Summarien fiber die Evangelien, the imprimatur of the rector being dispensed with on the ground that Luther had already seen and approved of the work. Luther
thereupon forbade its completion, and determined upon an unsparing conflict. He published some antinomian theses of Agricola which had been privately circulated, and on Dec. 18 held his first disputation against them.' Agricola did not put in an appearance, and Luther accordingly challenged him to a second disputation (Jan. 12, 1538), at which a solemn reconciliation took place. Agricola even authorized Luther to draw up a retraction in his name, which the latter did in damaging fashion in a letter to Caspar Gfittel of Eisleben. The conflict seemed over, and in Feb., 1539, Agricola was appointed to the Wittenberg consistory. The dispute was, however, revived through reflections made against Luther by Agricola in a disputation at the University. Luther responded, and proceeded to vigorous attacks on the antinomians. He considered even the excommunication of Agricola. The latter, on his side, thought himself calumniated and collected material for his justification. In Mar., 1540, he submitted his complaints to the Elector. To these complaints Luther responded that what Agricola termed calumnies were but conclusions inevitably to be drawn from the latter's propositions. The Elector instituted formal proceedings against Agricola, who, though under pledge not to leave Wittenberg, withdrew
I The more important of Agricola's eighteen propositions are: i. Repentance is to be taught not from the decalogue or any law of Moses, but from the suffering and death of the Son through the gospel. ii. For Christ says in the last chapter of Luke: " Thus it behooved Christ to die and in this manner to enter into his glory, that repentance and remission of sins might be preached in his name." iii. And Christ, in John, says that the Spirit, not the law, convicts the world of sin. iv. The last discourse of Christ teaches the same thing: ' Go, preach the gospel to every creature." vii. Without anything whatever the Holy Spirit is given and men are justified: this thing [the law] is not necessary to be taught either for the beginning, the middle, or the end of justification. viii. But the Holy Spirit having been given of old is also given perpetually, and men are justified without the law through the gospel ecncerning Christ alone. xiii. Wherefore, for conserving purity of doctrine we must resist those who teach that the gospel is not to be preached except to those who have been crushed and made contrite through the law. xvi. The law only convicts of sin and that, too, without the Holy Spirit; therefore it convicts unto damnation. xvii. But there is need of a doctrine that not only with great efficacy condemns, but also at the same time saves: but that is the gospel, which teaches conjointly repentance and remission of sins. xviii. For the gospel of Christ teaches the wrath from heaven and at the same time the justice of God, Rom. i. For it is the preaching of repentance joined to a promise which reason does not naturally apprehend, but which comes through divine revelation.
Luther added to these acknowledged articles of Agricola several other statements of doubtful authenticity which Agricola was supposed to have made: The law is not worthy to be called the word of God. Art thou a harlot, a knave, an adulterer, or any other sort of sinner if thou believest thou art in the way of salvation. The decalogue belongs to the town hall, and not to the pulpit. All who go about with Moses must go to the devil. To the gallows with Moses 1 To hear the word and live accordingly is the consequence of the law. To hear the word and feel it in the heart is the proper consequence of the gospel. Peter knew nothing about Christian freedom. His declaration " making your calling sure through good works " is good for nothing. As soon as thou thinkest it must go thus and so in Christendom, everybody is to be refined, honorable, discreet, holy. and chaste, thou hast already prostituted the gospel. Agricola disowned the most manifestly immoral of these propositions, and there is no reason to believe that he praotised or approved of the immorality that seems involved inhis teachings. s. e. rt.
After Agricola it was especially Jakob Schenk, court-preacher of Duke Henry and the Reformer of Freiberg, who came under suspicion of Antinomianism; he is said to have declared that " all who preached the law were possessed with the devil; . . . do what you will, if you only believe, you are saved," and "to the gallows with Moses !" An inquiry instituted against him (June, 1538)
ended in his being called by the Elector 4· Jakob to Weimar as court-preacher. In 1541Schenk, Duke Henry summoned him to Leipsic
as preacher and university lecturer, but council, clergy, and theological faculty were all strongly opposed to him. Objection was made to the publication of his sermons, and they were found in several points to be at variance with the Augsburg Confession. In the indictment appears the old charge of antinomian doctrine, resting, indeed, on very slight foundations. In 1543 he finally left the duchy. The contents of his published writings furnish no adequate basis for calling him an Antinomian. But there is no doubt that his sermons erred repeatedly in that direction.
In connection with the Majoristic dispute over the necessity of good works, Luther's pupils, Andreas Poach of Erfurt and Anton Otho (Otto) of Nordhausen denied that the law had any
significance whatever for believers, 5. Later and thus arose the dispute de tertioContro- usu legis. Otho directed his conten- versies. tion immediately against Melanch-
thon, though the latter had merely repeated Luther's statements. Against Otho and those of similar views arose several leaders, in particular MBrhn and Wigand. On the other hand, Melanchthon and his more immediate school was accused of antinomian doctrine in declaring the gospel to be the proclamation of repentance.
The Formula of Concord fixed the terminology of the whole matter by deciding that the law was a
special revelation teaching what is 6. Settle- just and pleasing in the sight of God,
ment of the and refuting whatever is opposed to Controversy. the divine will; while the gospel, onthe other hand, taught what it was necessary to believe, especially the doctrine of forgiveness of sin through Christ. All that per tained to the punishment of sin belonged to the preaching of the law, though it was conceded that it might be said the gospel discoursed of repentance and the remission of sin, if gospel were understood to mean the sum of Christian doctrine. The preaching of the law became effective to a con sciousness of sin only when the law was spiritually expounded by Christ. (G. KAWEnAU.)
2. The Antinomian Controversy in New England: The Puritans of New England, following in the footsteps of Calvin and Knox, were theocratic in their ideas of Christianity and were in-THE NEW SCHAFF-HERZOG 200
clined to make the legalistic system of the Old Testament their model. The enforcement of rigorous regulations pertaining to every department of life (strict observance of Sunday as Sabbath, regular attendance at church, avoidance of every form of frivolity in dress or demeanor) provoked reaction here as it had done in Geneva. Mrs. Anne (Marbury) Hutchinson (b. in Lincolnshire 1590 or 1591; married about 1612 to William Hutchinson of Alford, Lincolnshire), who had been under the ministry of John Cotton (q.v.) at Boston, Lincolnshire, had imbibed antinomian views, probably from Familists, and, on her arrival in New England (whither she followed her eldest son, Edward, arriving in Sept., 1634), while she continued to enjoy the ministrations of Cotton, now pastor of the Boston (Mass.) church, soon began to express in strong language her aversion to the preaching of a " covenant of works " in contradistinction to a " covenant of grace," by most of the Massachusetts preachers. She regarded Cotton as a preacher of a " covenant of grace," and he was no doubt considerably influenced by her views; when the agitation of the question seemed likely to wreck the colony, he found difficulty in convincing the dominant party of the soundness of his opinions. Rev. John Wheelwright, Mrs. Hutchinson's brotherin-law, a Cambridge graduate (arrived in New England May, 1636), accepted her views. Sir Henry Vane (arrived Oct., 1635; chosen governor May, 1636; see VANE, Sig HExay) became a zealous advocate of the " covenant of grace." Mrs. Hutchinson expounded her views to large gatherings of women, who twice a week resorted to her house, and thus propagated them widely. She claimed that after a year of prayer it had been revealed to her that she had trusted in a covenant of works; under like divine impulse she had come to New England, there being no one in England that she durst hear. She was the daughter of an English clergyman and combined considerable theological information and argumentative effectiveness with a steadfastness and persistence worthy of a better cause. Like most religious reformers of the time she had wrought herself into the conviction that the few dogmas she held represented the whole truth and that all other teaching was diabolical and abominable. The chief opponents of Mrs. Hutchinson were John Wilson, pastor of the Charlestown church, Hugh Peters, pastor of the Salem church, and John Winthrop (qq.v.). In Dec., 1636, the ministers censured Vane as responsible for the hurtful agitation, and sought to convince Mrs. Hutchinson of her errors. The Boston church of which Vane was a member undertook to censure Wilson, but could not secure the required unanimity, and Cotton was content publicly to admonish him. In Jan., 1637, Wheelwright, in a sermon, denounced the " covenant of works " people as " antichrists " and thus added fuel to the flames. In March the Court by a majority vote censured Wheelwright, and, in the gubernatorial election in May, Vane was defeated and Winthrop was elected. Coercive measures soon removed the disturbing element from Massachusetts. Vane returned to England. Wheelwright founded the town of
Geeetzea and z ur Geachichts des eptiteren Antinomismus, Rostoek, 1887; T. Kolde, Martin Luther, ii. 463 sqq., Gotha, 1893; F. Loofs, Dogmengeachichte, Halle, 1893; J. KSetlin, Martin Luther, if. 125, 134, 413, 438, 448-452 et passim, Berlin, 1903.
On the later English and American Antinomlanism consult: Story of the Rise, Reign, and Ruins of the Antinomiana, Pamilists and Libertines that infected the Churches of New England, London, 1644; Tobias Crisp, Works, ib. 1690; John Fletcher, Checks to Antinomianism, in Works, vole. ii.-vi., 8 vols., ib. 1803; D. Bogus, History of Dissenters, 4 vols., ib. 18(18-12; W. Orme, Life o/ Baxter, ii. 232 and chap. ix., ib. 1830; D. Neal, History of Puritans, 2 vole., New York, 1848; C. F. Adams, Three Episodes of Massachusetts . . History, . . . the Antinomian Controversy, Boston, 1892; B. Adams, The Emancipation of Massachusetts, ib. 1887 (on Puritanism and the various conflicts of New England); and further the works of Wesley and Andrew Fuller.
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