This encyclopedia presents in a condensed and modified form that great body of Protestant learning called the Realencyklopädie für protestantische Theologie und Kirche, edited by Professor Albert Hauck, Ph.D., D.Th., D.Jur., the famous church historian of Germany. The German work is the third edition of that religious encyclopedia which was originally edited by the late Professor Johann Jakob Herzog and bore his name popularly as a convenient short title. The late Professor Philip Schaff was requested by his intimate friend Dr. Herzog to adapt the encyclopedia to the American public and this he did. To this combination of German and American scholarship the publishers gave the happy title of The Schaff-Herzog Encyclopædia of Religious Knowledge. This name has been familiar to thousands of the religious public on both sides of the sea for the past twenty-five years and so has been preserved as the title of this publication, with the prefix "New."
The history of this encyclopedia up to the present is this: In December, 1853, there appeared at Gotha the first part of the Realencyklopädie für protestantische Theologie und Kirche, which was the Protestant reply to the challenge of the Roman Catholic scholars engaged upon the Kirchenlexikon oder Encyklopädie der katholischen Theologie und ihrer Hülfswissenschaften, which had been appearing at Freiburg im Breisgau since 1846. The credit for suggesting the latter work must be given to Benjamin Herder (1818-88), one of the leading publishers of Germany. Its editors were Heinrich Joseph Wetzer (1801-53), professor of Oriental philology in the University of Freiburg im Breisgau, a layman, and Benedict Welte (1805-85), a priest and professor of theology in the University of Tübingen. The proposition to do as much for Protestant theology and research was mooted by a company of Protestant theologians, and Matthias Schneckenburger (1804-18), professor of theology in Bern, had been chosen editor of the projected work. But the political troubles of 1848 prevented the carrying out of the scheme and the death of Schneckenburger that year made it necessary to find another leader. At this juncture Friedrich August Tholuck (1799-1877), professor of theology in Halle, where Johann Jakob Herzog was professor from 1847 to 1854, was consulted and he named his colleague. It was an ideal choice, as Professor Herzog was a competent scholar, a friend of progress in theology, moderate in his views, and a persona grata to all parties among the Protestants. The publisher of the Protestant encyclopedia was Christian Friedrich Adolf Rost (1790-1856), who was carrying on the business of Johann Conrad Hinrichs, and under that name.
Both the Roman Catholic and Protestant religious encyclopedias were conspicuous successes and came to be called popularly, by the names of their editors, "Wetzer and Welte" and "Herzog" respectively. The former was finished in 1856 in twelve volumes, followed by an index volume in 1860; the latter in 1868 in twenty-two volumes including the index. In December, 1877, the Herders entrusted a new edition of "Wetzer and Welte" to Joseph Hergenröther (1824-80), at that time a professor of theology in Munich. On his elevation to the cardinalate in 1879 he transferred his editorial duties to Franz Philipp Kaulen (1827-1907), Roman Catholic professor of theology in Bonn, and under him the new edition was finished in 1901 in twelve volumes, each one much larger than those of the first edition. In September, 1903, the index volume appeared. In 1877 the first volume of the second edition of "Herzog" appeared, edited by Professor Herzog with the assistance of his colleague in the theological faculty in Erlangen, Gustav Leopold Plitt (1836-80). On Plitt's death Herzog called in another colleague, Albert Hauck (1845-), the professor of church history, who survived him and brought the work to its triumphant close in 1888 in eighteen volumes, including the index. In the spring of 1896 appeared the first part of the third edition of "Herzog" with Hauck, who meanwhile had gone to Leipsic as professor of church history, as sole editor. It is upon this third edition that the present work is based.
The idea of translating "Herzog" in a slightly condensed form occurred to John Henry Augustus Bomberger (1817-90), a minister of the German Reformed Church, and then president of Ursinus College, Collegeville, Pa., and in 1856 he brought out in Philadelphia the first volume, whose title-page reads thus: The Protestant Theological and Ecclesiastical Encyclopedia: Being a Condensed Translation of Herzog's Real Encyclopedia. With Additions from Other Sources. By Rev. J. H. A. Bomberger, D.D., Assisted by Distinguished Theologians of Various Denominations. Vol. 1. Philadelphia: Lindsay & Blakiston,
In 1877 Professor Philip Schaff (1819-93) was asked by Dr. Herzog himself to undertake an English reproduction of the second edition of his encyclopedia, and this work was fairly begun when, in the autumn of 1880, Clemens Petersen and Samuel Macauley Jackson were engaged to work daily on it in Dr. Schaff's study in the Bible House, New York City. The next year Dr. Schaff's son, the Rev. David Schley Schaff, now professor of church history in the Western Theological Seminary, Allegheny, Pa., joined the staff. The original publishers were S. S. Scranton & Company, Hartford, Conn., but a change was made before the issue of the first volume and the encyclopedia was issued by Funk & Wagnalls. The title-page read thus: A Religious Encyclopædia: or Dictionary of Biblical, Historical, Doctrinal, and Practical Theology. Based on the Real-Encyklopädie of Herzog, Plitt, and Hauck. Edited by Philip Schaff, D.D., LL.D., Professor in the Union Theological Seminary, New York. Associate editors: Rev. Samuel M. Jackson, M. A., and Rev. D. S. Schaff. Volume I. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, Publishers, 10 and 18 Dey Street. The first volume was issued Wednesday, November 1, 1882, the second Thursday, March 1, 1883, and the third Tuesday, March 4, 1884. Volume I. had pp. xix. 1-847; volume II. pp. xvii. 848-1714; and volume III. pp. xix. 1715-2631. In November, 1886, a revised edition was issued and at the same time the Encyclopedia of Living Divines and Christian Workers of All Denominations in Europe and America, Being a Supplement to Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge. Edited by Rev. Philip Schaff, D.D., LL.D., and Rev. Samuel Macauley Jackson, M. A. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, Publishers, 18 and 20 Astor Place, 1887. In 1891 the third edition of the encyclopedia was issued and with it was incorporated the Encyclopedia of Living Divines, with an appendix, largely the work of Rev. George William Gilmore, bringing the biographical and literary notices down to December, 1890. The entire work was repaged sufficiently to make it one of four volumes of about equal size, and it is this four-volume edition which is known to the public as the Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia, the volumes being respectively of pp. xlviii. 679 and four pages unnumbered; 680-1378; 1379-2086; iv. 2087-2629, viii. 296. As the German work at its base was overtaken by the time "S" had been reached, the "Schaff-Herzog" from that letter on was based on the first edition of "Herzog." Therefore much of its matter is now very old. Yet it has been a useful work, and in 1903 its publishers determined on a new edition based on the third edition of "Herzog" which had been appearing since 1896. But inasmuch as there was a space of ten years between the beginnings of the two works, it has been necessary to bring the matter from the German down to date. This end has been accomplished by two courses: first by securing from the German contributors to "Herzog" condensations of their contributions, in which way matter contributed to the German work has in many instances been brought down to date, and second by calling on department editors for supplementary matter.
As appears from what has been said above, this encyclopedia is not entirely anew work. It is really an old work reconstructed. Its list of titles is largely the same and it follows the same general plan as in the old work. The points of identity are: (1) that at its base lies the Realencyklopädie für protestantische Theologie and Kirche, once associated with the name of Herzog, now with the name of Albert Hauck, professor of church history in the University of Leipsic, and the author of the authoritative history of the Church in Germany; (2) that it gives in condensed form the information in that work, and takes such matter directly from the German work in most instances, although occasionally while the topic is the same the treatment is independent of the German contributor's; (3) that it has much matter contributed by the editorial staff and specially secured contributors; (4) that in Biblical matters it limits its titles to those of the German base, so that it should not be considered as a Bible dictionary, although the Biblical department comprehends the principal articles of such a dictionary. The points of dissimilarity are these: (1) It contains much matter furnished directly by those contributors to the German work who have kindly consented to condense their articles and bring them within prescribed limits. These limits have often been narrow, but in no other way was it possible to utilize the German matter. (2) It contains hundreds of sketches of living persons derived in almost every instance from matter furnished by themselves. In writing these sketches much help has been received, principally in the suggestion of names, from the English and American Who's Who and from the German Wer ist's (which is a similar work for Germany), and we desire to acknowledge our indebtedness with thanks. But comparison between the sketches in this book and those given of the same individual in the books referred to will reveal many differences and be so many proofs of the
We here mention with gratitude the permission given by the publisher of the Realencyklopädie für protestantische Theologie und Kirche, Mr. HEINRICH ROST, the head of the great publishing house of J. C. HINRICHS of Leipsic, and by the editor of its third edition, Professor ALBERT HAUCK, Ph.D., D.Th., D.Jur., of the University of Leipsic, to use its contents in our discretion. Dr. Hauck has done far more than give permission. He has manifested a kindly interest in our work, has revised the condensations of his articles, and facilitated our efforts to secure from his contributors advance articles. This helpfulness is much appreciated, and we would fain give it prominent recognition.
Rev. DAVID SCHLEY SCHAFF, D.D., who holds the chair of church history in the Western Theological Seminary, Allegheny, Pa., whose father was the founder of this work and who was himself one of its original associate editors, felt unable on account of other duties to assume any editorial responsibility for the present work, as he had been asked to do by the publishers when the new edition was determined on, but he entered heartily into the arrangement whereby the sole responsibility of general editor should be lodged with his former associate editor, and has cooperated by bringing down to date almost all the articles which he and his father contributed to the first edition.
The labor of coordinating the material sent in by the many persons who have cooperated to bring out this work has fallen upon the managing editor, CHARLES COLEBROOK SHERMAN, who has discharged his difficult duties with conscientious fidelity and marked ability.
When the contributors to the Realencyklopädie have chosen not to condense their articles themselves, but have preferred that this work should be done by the editors of the New Schaff-Herzog, the fact is indicated by the use of parentheses enclosing the signature. Editorial addition's or changes in the body of signed articles for which the contributors should not be held responsible are indicated by brackets. A double signature indicates that an article originally prepared by the contributor whose name appears first (in parentheses) has been revised by the contributor whose name follows. The cross (+) following the name of a contributor indicates that he is dead.
|SEPTEMBER 15, 1907.||THE EDITOR.|
For purposes of research and definite information the student is constantly under the necessity of discovering not only lists of works on a given subject, but also initials or full names of authors and place and date of publication and often the exact form of the title of a book inaccurately or partially known. To furnish this information the work which will prove useful beyond all others is the British Museum Catalogue, which with its Supplement records the books received down to 1900; accessions beyond this date are also recorded in supplementary issues. Especially valuable to the theological student are the four parts devoted to the Bibles and Bible-works in the British Museum, though the large number of entries makes it hard to consult these parts. Some help is given by the tables of arrangement. A Subject Index for 1881-1905, ed. G. K. Fortescue, 4 vols., London, 1902-06, makes available a very considerable part of the late literature upon all subjects. Next to this, if indeed not equally valuable so far as it is finished, is the exhaustive work doing for the French National Library and for publications in French what the work just named does for the British. This is the Catalogue général . . . de la Bibiliotheque Nationale, now in course of publication, Paris, 1897 sqq., of which volume xxiv., the last received, carries the list through "Catzius." The value of these two publications will be more accurately estimated when it is recalled that the two institutions are stated repositories for copyrighted books in the two countries respectively. An important feature of the first volume of the French catalogue is a helpful account of previous catalogues of the French National Library. The English work is in folio, the French in octavo. Perhaps the next best general work is that of J. C. Brunet, Manuel du libraire, 3 vols., Paris, 1810, superseded by the 5th ed., 6 vols., 1860-65, with Supplement, 2 vols., 1878-80. After these two works come in point of usefulness what may be called the ,national catalogues, recording the books published in Germany, France, Great Britain, Italy, and America. For Germany the work was begun in the Allgemeines Bücher-Lexicon, by W. Heinsius, reedited and enlarged by O. A. Schulz, then by F. A. Schiller, covering the period 1700-1851 in 11 volumes, Leipsic, 1812-54, for
For publications in French there is the Catalogue général de la librairie française, covering the period 1840-99, 15 vols., Paris, 1867-1904, begun by O. Lorenz and continued by D. Jordell, with a Table des matieres or index published at irregular intervals, but exceedingly full and usable. The Table systématique de la bibliographie de la France is an annual list of copyrighted books classified according to subjects, published in Paris.
For British publications the London Catalogue, London, 1846, now very hard to obtain, carries the list of books from 1800 to 1846 with Index to the same. This was continued by the English Catalogue, now complete down to 1905, 7 vols., London, 1864-1905. The three volumes for 1890-1905 are arranged by authors and subjects in one alphabet. For the period 1837-89 there is an Index of Subjects, 4 vols., London, 1858-93. A Yearly Catalogue is issued, which, like the French annuals and German semiannuals, is superseded by the volume covering a series of years.
For modern Italian works the authoritative source is the Catalogo generale della libreria Italians, 1847-99, compilato dal Prof. Attilio Pagliaini, 3 vols., Milan, 1901-05, a work singularly complete for the period it covers.
For American publications the period 1820-71 is inadequately covered by the Bibliotheca Americana, by O. A. Roorbach to 1861, and then by J. Kelly, a set of books rarely on the market. The American Catalogue continues this to the end of 1905 in 6 vols. folio, 2 vols. roy. 8vo, New York, 1880-1906. This was begun by F. Leypoldt and is continued by the Publishers' Weekly. In this series a Yearly Catalogue is issued, superseded like the other annuals by the larger volume. The whole is being supplemented by Charles Evans with the American Bibliography, a Chronological Dictionary of All . . . Publications . . ., 1689-1820. Of this magnificent work, vols. i.-iv. are issued, Chicago, 1903-07, bringing the titles down to 1773.
For earlier books a valuable set of volumes is L. Hain, Repertorium bibliographicum, 2 vols. in 4 parts and an Index, Stuttgart, 1826-91, giving a list of books printed from the invention of printing to 1500. To this W. A. Copinger has added a Supplement in 2 vols., 3 parts, London, 1895-1902, and Dietrich Reichling, Appendices, in course of preparation and publication, containing corrections and additions, Munich, 1905 sqq.
Valuable as selected and classified lists of general literature, including theology, are Sonnenschein's Best Books and Reader's Guide, London, 1891-95. The foregoing are all in the field of general literature and are not specifically theological.
Of specifically Theological Bibliographies, giving lists of literature in the various departments of the science, the older ones have principally a historic value. Some of the best are: J. G. Walch, Bibliotheca theologica selecta, 4 vols., Jena, 1757-65, arranged topically with an index of authors; G. B. Winer, Handbuch der theologischen Litteratur, 3d ed., 3 vols., Leipsic, 1837-42 (gives little literature in English); E. A. Zuchold, Bibliotheca theologica, 2 vols., Göttingen, 1864 (an alphabetical arrangement by authors of books in German issued 1830-62); W. Orme, Bibliotheca theologica, London, 1824 (contains critical notes). One of the older books, often referred to for its lists of editions of Scripture, is J. Le Long, Bibliotheca sacra, 2 vols., Paris, 1709, enlarged by A. G. Masch, 5 vols., Halle, 1778-90. T. H. Horne added to his Introduction a rich bibliography of the works issued before and in his time (also printed
Among the most useful guides to theological literature are the works on Introduction to Theology or on Theological Encyclopedia and Methodology, most of which give classified lists of literature. Schleiermacher's Kurze Darstellung des theologischen Studiums, Berlin, 1811, 1830, was followed by K. R. Hagenbach, Encyklopädie and Methodologie, Leipsic, 1833, revised by M. Reischle, 1889. This last, though not in its latest form, was practically reproduced by G. R. Crooks and J. F. Hurst, New York, 1884, rev. ed., 1894, with copious lists of literature, English and American, added. Better even than this is A. Cave, Introduction to Theology, 2d ed., Edinburgh, 1896, in which the lists of literature are especially valuable, though the lapse of a decade since the publication makes a new edition desirable. Of very high value for its citation of literature, including Continental, English, and American, is L. Emery, Introduction à l'étude de la théologie protestante, Paris, 1904.
In the way of Biblical and Theological Dictionaries and Encyclopedias the past decade has witnessed great progress. The two great Bible Dictionaries, superseding for English readers all others, are A Dictionary o f the Bible, by J. Hastings and J. A. Selbie, 4 vols. and extra volume, Edinburgh and New York, 1898-1904 (comprehensive and fully up to date in the Old Testament subjects, but conservative and often timid in dealing with the New Testament), and Encyclopædia Biblica, by T. K. Cheyne and J. S. Black, 4 vols., London and New York, 1899-1903 (also comprehensive, much more "advanced" in the Old Testament and admitting representation to the "Dutch School" in the New Testament parts, but handicapped by the Jerahmeel theory of Prof. Cheyne). F. Vigouroux, Dictionnaire de la Bible, Paris, 1891 sqq., still in course of publication, has reached "Palestine" with part xxix., and is an excellent specimen of the conservative type of French Biblical scholarship.
In Christian Archeology the work of W. Smith and S. Cheetham, Dictionary of Christian Antiquities, 2 vols., London, 1875-80, is still valuable, and there is no later work in English to take its place. Of high value is F. X. Kraus, Real-Encyklopädie der christlichen Alterthümer, 2 vols., Freiburg, 1881-86. The best work, which must supersede all others because of its extraordinary completeness and fulness, but which has been only recently begun and must take many years to complete under its present plan, is F. Cabrol, Dictionnaire d'archéiologie chrétienne et de liturgie, Paris, 1903 sqq. (parts i.-xii. are out, and bring the reader down to "Baptême"). In a different field, and worthy of high praise, is W. Smith and H. Wace, Dictionary of Christian Biography, Literature, Sects, and Doctrines, 4 vols., London 1877-87, representing the best English scholarship of its day, and, from the nature of its contents, not easily to be superseded. A help to this, particularly in the matter of early Christian writers, is W. Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, 3 vols., new edition, London, 1890.
In the general field of Historical and Doctrinal Theology must be mentioned on the Roman Catholic side the Kirchenlexikon of Wetzer and Welte, 2d ed., begun by Cardinal Hergenr&oum;ther, continued by F. Kaulen, 12 vols. and Register, Freiburg, 1880-1903. This work must be commended for its accurate scholarship, its admirable regard for proportion, and for the large range of subjects it treats with fairness and with only a suspicion of a tendency toward ultramontanism. Briefer is the Handlexikon der katholischen Theologie, begun by J. Schäfler (continued by J. Sax), 4 vols., Regensburg, 1880-1900. The new Kirchliches Handlexikon of M. Buchberger, Munich, 1904-06 (in progress), is not particularly valuable. The evangelical side of German scholarship is represented by the great work of J. J. Herzog, Realencyklopädie für protestantische Theologie and Kirche, 3d ed., revised under A. Hauck, Leipsic, 1896 sqq., 18 vols. issued to date. This is the great storehouse of German Protestant theology and the basis of the present work. The most ambitious work of American scholarship is J. McClintock and J. Strong, Cyclopædia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature, 10 vols., New York, 1867-1881, with two supplementary volumes, 1884-86 (claims to have over 50,000 titles; necessarily it is now in need of revision). Other works, each having its distinctive field, are: W. F. Hook, A Church Dictionary, 8th ed., London, 1859, reprinted Philadelphia, 1854; J. Eadie, The Ecclesiastical Cyclopedia, ib., 1861; J. H. Blunt, Dictionary of Doctrinal and Historical Theology, 2d ed:, ib., 1872; idem, Dictionary of Sects, Heresies, and Schools of Thought, ib., 1891 (both of considerable worth, representing "High Anglicanism"); W. E. Addis and T. Arnold, A Catholic Dictionary, London and New York, 6th ed., 1903; J. Hamburger, Real-Encyklopädie des Judenthums, 3 vols., 3d ed., Leipsic, 1891-1901 (deals with both Biblical and Talmudic subjects; "by a Jew for Jews"); The Jewish Encyclopedia, published under the direction of an editorial board of which I. K. Funk was chairman and Isidore Singer managing editor, 12 vols., New York, 1901-06; F. Lichtenberger, Encyclopédie des sciences religieuses, 13 vols., Paris, 1877-82 (for French Protestants). T. P. Hugh, Dictionary of Islam, London, 1885, is the only encyclopedic work on the subject, but defective and unreliable. In Hymnology there are: H. A. Daniel, Thesaurus hymnologicus, i. Latin hymns, ii. Latin sequences, iii. Greek hymns, iv.-v. supplement to vols. i.-ii., Leipsic, 1841-55 (a storehouse of material often inaccessible elsewhere, but ill digested, inaccurate, and perplexing to consult); E. E. Koch, Geschichte des Kirchenliedes and Kirchengesangs der christlichen . . . Kirche, 3d ed., partly posthumous, 8 vols. and index, 1866-77 (the greatest collection of biographies of hymnists, unfortunately not reliable); the one English cyclopedic work in hymnology is J. Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, London and New York, 1907. A work of immense erudition and alone in its field, which comprehends much that is theological, is J. M. Baldwin, Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, 3 vols., New York, 1901-06 (vol. iii. in 2 parts is devoted to the bibliography of the subject, duly classified).
While most of the Biblical Helps are noted under the appropriate titles in the text, the following are worthy of special mention here. For the Old Testament all the books except Exodus to Deuteronomy were published in handy form in the Hebrew by G. Baer and F. Delitzsch, Leipsic, 1869-95 (the text, though critical, does not concern itself with readings from the versions); the best ed. so far of the complete Hebrew text is C. D. Ginsburg's Hebrew Bible, 2 vols., London, 1894; the text alone was reprinted in 1906 (the Introduction to the Hebrew Bible by Ginsburg, London, 1897, is the one indispensable handbook to the text); yet a very excellent Biblia Hebraica has been published by R. Kittel with the assistance of Professors G. Beer, F. Buhl, G. Dalman, S. R. Driver, M. Löhr, W. Nowack, J. W. Rothstein, and V. Ryssel, in 2 parts, Leipsic, 1905-06, obtainable also in smaller sections. The new series entitled The Sacred Books of the Old Testament, ed. Paul Haupt, now in course of publication, Leipsic, London,
For New Testament texts the student will naturally turn either to the Editio octava critica major of Tischendorf, 2 vols., Leipsic, 1869-72, with Prolegomena by C. R. Gregory, 3 vols., ib., 1884-94 (containing the most complete collection of the variant readings with description of the sources from which they are derived); to the edition by B. F. Westcott and F. J. A. Hort, 2d ed., Cambridge, 1890; to R. F. Weymouth's Resultant Greek Testament, London, 1892; to E. Nestle's Novum Testamentum Græce, 3d ed., Stuttgart, 1901; or to O. von Gebhardt's ed., combining the readings of Tischendorf, Tregelles, and Westcott and Hort, 16th ed., Leipsic, 1900. Of lexicons the best for general purposes is J. H. Thayer, Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, New York, 1895; but notice must be taken of H. Cremer, Biblisch-theologisches Wörterbuch, 9th ed., Gotha, 1902, Eng. transl. of 2d ed., Edinburgh, 1886, with supplement (a work that aims to bring out especially the theological, philosophical, and psychological elements of the New Testament vocabulary, and is not a general lexicon). A choice is given in concordances between C. H. Bruder, Concordantiæ . . . Novi Testamenti, 5th ed., Göttingen, 1900, and W. F. Moulton and A. S. Geden, Concordance to the Greek Testament, Edinburgh and New York, 1897 (good for Westcott and Hort's text). For the English Bible the two concordances of value now are R. Young, Analytical Concordance to the Bible, 7th ed., Edinburgh and New York, 1899; and J. Strong, Exhaustive Concordance to the Bible, New York, 1896. The best grammar of the New Testament is F. Blass, Grammatik des neutestamentlichen Griechisch, Göttingen, 1902, Eng. transl. of 2d ed., London, 1905, along with which should be used E. D. Burton, Syntax of Moods and Tenses in New Testament Greek, Chicago, 1901 (the best work on the subject). Of H. J. Moulton's Grammar of New Testament Greek, only vol. i., Prolegomena, is published, Edinburgh, 1906. General Semitic and Oriental philology is treated in separate volumes on the individual languages in the Porta linguarum orientalium, ed. J. H. Petermann, H. L. Strack, and others, Berlin, 1884 sqq.
In the department of Church History the sources available to the student are growing exceedingly abundant. For a survey of early Christian literature the most detailed work is that of A. Harnack, Geschichte der altchristlichen Litteratur bis Eusebius, 2 vols. in 3 parts, Leipsic, 1893-1904 (a book of reference). A handbook of great value is G. Krüger, Geschichte der altchristlichen Litteratur in den drei ersten Jahrhunderten, Freiburg, 1895, 2d ed., 1898, Eng. transl., New York,1897 (a model of compression and succinctness, including short lives of the writers and good lists of literature). C. T. Cruttwell, Literary History of Early Christianity, 2 vols., London, 1893, is also a work of merit. A massive work, doing for the Byzantine and later writers of the Greek Church what Harnack does for the early period, is K. Krumbacher, Byzantinische Litteraturgeschichte, 527-1453, Munich, 1897. As a guide to the use of medieval literature, and as a help to the sources and an indicator of all that is best in those sources in modern works, there is no book which can be compared with A. Potthast, Bibliotheca historica medii avi, Berlin, 1896, quoted in this work as Potthast, Wegweiser. No student of ecclesiastical history can afford to be without this most complete guide to the MSS. and the editions of the sources of knowledge of the lives of the saints, notables, and writers down to 1500 A. D.
As a source for original investigation in Patristics, as well as in medieval theological writings, there is nothing so handy (because of its comprehensiveness) as the collection made under the direction of the Abbé Migne, Patrologiæ cursus completus, Series Latina, 221 vols., Paris, 1844-64; Series Græca, 162 vols., ib., 1857-66 (a set of works rarely on the market, costing about $1,200, but possessed by the principal general and theological libraries in the country; the drawback is that the text is often not critical and is very badly printed). Subsidiary to the use of Migne the following works are often quoted: J. A. Fabricius, Bibliotheca Græca, 14 vols., Hamburg, 1705-28, new ed., by G. C. Harles, 12 vols., 1790-1811, incomplete (quoted as Fabricius-Harles), which is a bibliographical and biographical directory to early patristic writings, and contains textual matter of great importance; J. S. Assemani, Bibliotheca orientalis Clementino-Vaticana, 3 vols., Rome, 1719-28 (a collection of Syriac, Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Hebrew, Samaritan,
Among collections of Sources the first place is easily held by the massive Monumenta Germaniæ historica, still in course of publication, of which over 60 volumes are already issued in folio and quarto, Hanover and Berlin. This series originated in the Gesellschaft für die altere deutsche Geschichtskunde in Frankfort, 1819. The work was put into the hands of Dr. G. H. Pertz, to whom the great comprehensiveness of the series and its consequent value is largely due. Dr. Pertz was editor and did much of the work till in 1875 it passed into the hands of Prof. G. Waitz, at whose death in 1886 Prof. W. Wattenbach took charge, and in 1888 Prof. E. Dümmler. Most of the German experts in the branches which the collected documents represent have collaborated. There are five sections, Scriptores, Leges, Diplomata, Epistolæ, Antiquitates, and many subsections. The documents in this royal series concern Christendom at large and not, as the title suggests, the German empire alone. There is a volume of Indices by O. Holder-Egger and K. Zeumer, Berlin, 1890, covering the volumes issued up to that time, and the table of contents is carried five years, farther along in the work of Potthast mentioned above.
Other collections of value to the historical student are: the Bibliotheca rerum Germanicarun,
ed, P. Jaffé, 6 vols., Berlin, 1864-73; M. Bouquet, Rerum Gallicarum et Francicarum
scriptores. Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de la France, 23 vols., Paris, 1738-1876 (begun
by the Benedictines of St. Maur and continued by the Academy. A new ed. was published
under L. Delisle, 1869-94. The record is carried down to 1328 A. D.); L. A. Muratori, Rerum
Italicarium scriptores, 25 vols. in 28, Milan, 1723-51 (covers the period 500-1500 A. D.; an
elaborate new ed. under the direction of Giosuè Carducci and Vittorio Fiorini is being published
by S. Lapi at Città di Castello, 1900 sqq.); Corpus scriptorum historiæ Byzantinæ, ed.
Niebuhr, Bekker, and others, 49 vols., Bonn, 1828-78 (not so good in workmanship as is
usual with German issues; a new ed. is in course of publication in 50 vols. at Bonn). In
connection with this series of Byzantine historians should be noticed E. A. Sophocles, Greek-English
Dictionary, Memorial edition, New York, 1887 (good for the Greek of the Roman
and Byzantine periods). Recueil des historiens des croisades, 13 vols., Paris, 1841-85 (published
under the care of the French Academy), is necessary for the study of the kingdoms
of Jerusalem, Cyprus, and Armenia. The Corpus Reformatorum, begun at Halle, 1834, with
the works of Melanchthon in 28 vols.; continued with Calvin's in 59; and now presenting
those of Zwingli, is the indispensable source for the student of those writers. Of some
value to the student, more particularly to the archeologist, are: Corpus inscriptionum Latinarum,
Berlin, 1863 sqq., and Corpus inscriptionum Græcarum, Berlin, 1825 sqq. A magnificent
series is in progress in the Corpus inscriptionum Semiticarum, Paris, 1881 sqq.
For those who have not access to large libraries a number of selections from historical documents have been printed. For church history to the time of Constantine, cf. H. M. Gwatkin, Selection from Early Writers, London and New York, 1893; for the medieval and modern periods one of the best is E. Reich, Select Documents Illustrating Mediæval and Modern History, London, 1905, with which may be compared the smaller collection by S. Mathews, Select Mediæval Documents, 764.-1254 A.D., Boston, 1892 (both give the selections in the original languages). For students of the medieval period O. J. Thatcher and E. H. McNeal have translated many important documents in A Source Book for Mediæval History, New York, 1905. Other works of this character are E. F. Henderson, Select Documents of the Middle Ages, London, 1892; D. C. Munro and G. C. Sellery, Medieval Civilization, New York, 1904 (consists of translations or condensations from European writers on important topics); J. H. Robinson, Readings in European History, 2 vols., Boston, 1904-06 (containing translations, condensations, and adaptations of selections, ranging from Seneca to J. A. Hobson, useful for illustration of European and American history, sacred and secular). The reader of German will receive efficient help in such publications as M. Schilling, Quellenbuch zur Geschichte der Neuzeit, 2d ed., Berlin, 1890; K. Noack, Kirchengeschichtliches Lesebuch, 2d ed., Berlin 1890; D. A. Ludwig, Quellenbuch zur Kirchengeschichte, Davos, 1891; P. Mehlhorn, Aus den Quellen der Kirchengeschichte, Berlin, 1894; C. Mirbt, Quellen zur Geschichte des Papsttums, 2d ed., Tübingen, 1901; H. Rinn and J. Jilngst, Kirchengeschichtliches Lesebuch, Tübingen, 1905.
To English Ecclesiastical Sources an excellent guide is C. Gross, Sources and Literature of English History to 1485, London, 1900. First among the collections of sources is to be mentioned A. W. Haddan and W. Stubbs, Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents relating to Great Britain and Ireland, 3 vols. (vol. ii. in 2 parts), London, 1869-78 (covering the period 200-870 A. D. a storehouse of original documents, unfortunately left incomplete through the death of Haddan). Of high value are David Wilkins, Concilia Magnæ Britanniæ . . . 446-1717, 4 vols., London, 1737; Monumenta historica Britannica. Materials for the History of Britain . . . to the End of the Reign of Henry VII. Notes by H. Petrie and J. Sharpe, Introduction by T. D. Hardy, vol. i. folio, London, 1848 (no more published; issued under the direction of the Record Commission); J. A. Giles, Patres ecclesiæ Anglicani ad annum 1800, 36 vols., Oxford, 1838-43 (the work not well done, but still useful). For the reader of English alone a large number of select sources are given in H. Gee and W. J. Hardy, Documents Illustrative of English Church History, London, 1896 (covers the period 314-1700). Known by the searcher after original sources
In the field of Biography a number of works should be known to students. A monumental work begun by J. S. Ersch and J. G. Gruber, continued by A. Leskien, is Allgemeine Encyklopädie der Wissenschaften und Künste in alphabetischer Folge, Leipsic, 1818-89 and still receiving additions. Already 100 volumes and more have been issued, and it is to be continued from time to time. The biographical interest is so pronounced in this production that it takes a front rank in this class of works. The biographical interest is also predominant in another work to which very frequent reference is made, L. S. Le Nain de Tillemont, Mémoires pour servir a l'histoire ecclésiastique des six premiers siècles, 2d ed., 16 vols., Paris, 1701-12, parts of it in an English translation by T. Deacon, 2 vols., London, 1721,1733-35. J. P. Niceron, Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire des hommes illustrés dans la republique des lettres, 43 vols., Paris, 1729-45, is a work of reference often used; mention is due also to the Biographie universelle, ancienne et moderne, 45 vols., Paris, 1843 sqq., and Nouvelle biographie universelle of J. C. F. Hoefer, 46 vols., Paris, 1852-56, both serviceable and sometimes the only available works. Of national biographical works, for Germany there is the Allgemeine deutsche Biographic, 50 vols., Leipsic, 1875-1905 (still in progress; it is under the auspices of the Historical Commission of the Royal Bavarian Academy of Sciences); for France, the Histoire littéraire de la France begun by the Benedictines of St. Maur, 12 vols., Paris, 1733-63, and continued by members of the Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-lettres to vol., xxxii., 1898 (a new edition is in progress, completed as far as vol. xvi.); for Protestant France may be consulted E. and E. Haag, La France protestante, 7 vols., Paris, 1846-59, 2d ed., enlarged by H. L. Bordier, vols. i.-vi., 1887-89; also belonging here is A. C. A. Agnew, Protestant Exiles from France, 2 vols., Edinburgh, 1886 (printed for private circulation only). The one work of note for Holland is A. J. Van der As, Biographisch Woordenboek van der Nederlanden, Haarlem, 1852 sqq. For England there is the noble Dictionary of National Biography, edited by Leslie Stephen and Sidney Lee, 63 vols., and 3 supplement vols., with one of errata, London and New York, 1885-1904 (contains much of interest to Americans, especially on the founders and notables of colonial times; a cheaper ed. is promised); F. Boase, Modern English Biography of Persons who have died since . . . 1850, 3 vols., Truro, 1892-1901; and J. Gillow, Bibliographical Dictionary of English Catholics, 1534-1886, 5 vols., London and New York, n.d. (the lists of works by the subjects of the entries are an exceedingly valuable feature, being very complete). The Danes have also a biographical dictionary like those mentioned, Dansk biografisk lexikon, tillige omfallende Norge for tidsrummet, 1537-1814. Udgivet af C. F. Brisk&, Copenhagen, 1887 sqq.
There is still needed an adequate work on American Biography which shall correspond to the English Dictionary of National Biography cited above. There are available the National Cyclopedia of American Biography, 13 vols., New York, 1892-1906 (the alphabetical order is abandoned and no consistent substitute adopted; an elaborate index volume appeared in 1906); and Appleton's Cyclopædia of American Biography by James Grant
As a propædeutic to the study of General Church History an indispensable work is E. Schürer, Geschichte des jüdischen Volkes im Zeitalter Jesu Christi, 3d ed., 3 vols. and Index, Leipsic, 1898-1901, Eng. transl. of 2d ed., 5 vols., New York, 1891. Of works on general Church History there is a wide range of choice. A. Neander, History of the Christian Religion and Church, 11th Am. ed., 5 vols., Boston, 1872 (coming down to 1517 A. D.), and Index volume, 1881, is the most philosophical work on the subject yet published, superseded in parts by the discoveries made since it was written, but as a whole by no means obsolete; with this should go J. K. L. Gieseler, whose Ecclesiastical History in the German was in 5 vols., Darmstadt, 1824-25, Eng. transl. began by S. Davidson and others, 5 vols., Edinburgh, 1848-56, edited and translation carried further by H. B. Smith, translation completed by Miss Mary A. Robinson, 5 vols., New York, 1857-81 (especially valuable for its citation of original documents); and J. H. Kurtz, a translation of which from the 9th German edition by J. Macpherson appeared in London, 1888-89 (condensed in form and very usable; new ed. of the German by N. Bonwetsch and P. Tschackert, 2 vols., Leipsic, 1906). P. Schaff, History of the Christian. Church, 7 vols., New York, 1882-92, coming down through the Reformation, but omitting vol. v. on the scholastic period, is perhaps the most readable. A very compact work is W. Moeller, History of the Christian Church, 3 vols., London, 1892-1900 (comes down to 1648; the 2d ed. of the German original by H. von Schubert, Tübingen, 1902). J. F. Hurst, History of the Christian Church, 2 vols., New York, 1897-1900, is also compact; it is conservative in treatment of its subject. A. H. Newman, Manual of Church History, 2 vols., Philadelphia, 1900-03, is, like Hurst, compact but less conservative in tone. The reader in Church History will find three works constantly referred to; viz., J. Bingham, Origines ecclesiasticæ, or the Antiquities of the Christian Church, 10 vols., London, 1708-22, often reprinted, unfortunately not seldom in abbreviated form (recognized by scholars as a work of "profound learning and unprejudiced inquiry" and remaining one of the standards in this department; best ed. in 8 vols. of his complete works in 10 vols., by R. Bingham, Jun., Oxford, 1855); A. J. Binterim, Die vorzüglichsten Denkwürdigkeiten der christ-katholischen Kirche, 2d ed., 7 vols., Mainz, 1837-41 (a treasury of important notes on "things worthy of remembrance"); and J. C. W. Augusti, Denkwürdigkeiten aus der christlichen Archäologie, 12 vols., Leipsic, 1817-31. Out of the number of works on the History of Dogma the one likely to be most useful, though by no means the most philosophical, is A. Harnack, Lehrbuch der Dogmengeschichte, 3d ed., 3 vols., Freiburg, 1894-97, Eng. transl., 7 vols., London, 1894-99, and Boston, 1895-1900. A work of the first rank frequently referred to for the history of Europe till the fall of Constantinople is E. Gibbon, History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, best edition by J. B. Bury, 7 vols., London, 1896-1900 (Gibbon is said to be the only student who worked over thoroughly the Byzantine Histories; formerly regarded as an opponent of Christianity, many of his positions are now taken by church historians).
For the Church History of Germany three works with the same title, Kirchengeschichte Deutschlands, are of supereminent worth and are generally used as works of reference: A. Hauck, vol. i., 4th ed., Leipsic, 1904, vol. ii., 2d ed., 1900, vol. iii., 3d ed., 1906, vol. iv., 2d ed., 1903 (contains rich bibliography); F. W. Rettberg, 2 vols., Göttingen, 1846-48 (especially good for origins); and J. Friedrich, 2 vols., Bamberg, 1867-69 (like Hauck, good in history of the dioceses). A handy help to the early sources of German Church History is W. Wattenbach, Deutschlands Gesehichtquellen . . . bis zum Mittel des. 13. Jahrhunderts, 5th ed., 2 vols., Berlin, 1885, 6th ed., 1893-94 (the changes are so great that both editions are frequently quoted side by side). A work of genius, learning, and attractiveness, but
For the Church History of France a bibliography is furnished by A. Molinier, Les Sources de l'histoire de France, 2 vols., Paris, 1901-02. Besides Bouquet, already mentioned, there are available for early sources: F. Guizot, Collection des mémoires relatifs a l'histoire de France, 31 vols., Paris, 1823-35; and Gallia christiana, 16 vols., ib., 1715-1865. An important work is J. N. Jager, Histoire de l'Eglise catholique en France, 20 vols., ib., 1862-78. In English there are: W. H. Jervis, The Gallican Church, 2 vols., London, 1872; H. M. Baird, Rise of the Huguenots, 2 vols., New York, 1883; idem, The Huguenots and Henry of Navarre, 2 vols. ib., 1886-87; idem, The Huguenots and the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, 2 vols., ib., 1895.
A fair survey of the course of the Church in England is obtained by combining W. Bright, Chapters in Early English Church History, Oxford, 1906, with the series edited by W. R. W. Stephens and W. Hunt, 7 vols., London, 1899-1906, as follows: W. Hunt, The English Church 597-1066 (1899); W. R. W. Stephens, The English Church 1066-1272 (1901); W. W. Capes, The English Church in the 14th and 16th Centuries (1900); J. Gairdner, The English Church in the 16th Century (1903); W. H. Frere, The English Church in the Reigns of Elizabeth and James I. (1904); W. H. Hutton, The English Church from the Accession of Charles I. to the Death of Anne (1903); J. H. Overton and B. Felton, The Church of England 1714-1800 (1906).
For the Church History of Ireland and Scotland the following are valuable: J. Colgan, Acta sanctorum veteris et majoris Scotiæ seu Hiberniæ sanctorum insulæ . . . 2 vols., Louvain, 1645-47; H. M. Luckock, The Church in Scotland, London, 1893; J. Lanigan, An Ecclesiastical History of Ireland . . . to the 18th Century, 2d ed., 4 vols., Dublin, 1829 (a very important and essential work); J. O'Hanlon, Lives of the Irish Saints, 7 vols., Dublin, 1875-1877; J. Healy, Insula sanctorum et doctorum, or Ireland's Ancient Schools and Scholars, Dublin, 1890; and T. Olden, The Church of Ireland, London, 1892. Consult particularly the list of literature under CELTIC CHURCH IN BRITAIN AND IRELAND.
American Church History as a whole is treated in the American Church History Series, 13 vols., New York, 1893-97, issued under the auspices of the American Society of Church History. The principal denominations receive extended treatment by some of their own specialists; for the minor denominations the provision made is only that given in vol. i. by H. K. Carroll, The Religious Forces of the United States, new ed., 1896. It is in respect to the minor sects that most difficulty is experienced in obtaining data. Another series of a more popular character The Story of the Churches, New York, 1904 sqq.
For the history of the Papacy an indispensable work is C. Mirbt, Quellen zur Geschichte des Papsttums, 2d ed., Tübingen, 1901 (a guide to the history, giving citations from original sources and a conspectus of the weightiest literature). The only work which covers nearly the entire history of the popes is that of A. Bower, History of the Popes to 1768, 7 vols., London, 1748-61, with Introduction and Continuation by S. H. Cox, 3 vols., Philadelphia, 1847 (the latter is the ed. cited in this work; the character of the History is poor, as was that of the author). H. H. Milman, History of Latin Christianity, 9 vols., new ed., London, 1883, is excellent and brings the history down to 1455; for its period (590-795, 858-891) a worthy work is R. C. Mann, Lives of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages, vol. i., 2 parts, London, 1902; vol. iii., 1906; of great value is L. Pastor, Geschichte der Päpste seit dem Ausgang des Mittelalters, 4 vols., 4th ed., Freiburg, 1901-07, Eng. transl., 6 vols., London, 1891-1902 (a most industrious and honest work, based on research in the original archives, covers the
A number of collections and discussions of the Decrees and Proceedings of the Councils has been made. Those most cited are P. Labbe and G. Cossart, Sacrosancta concilia, 17 vols. in 18, Paris, 1672; J. Harduin, Conciliorum collectio regia maxima, 12 vols., Paris, 1715; J. D. Mansi, Sacrorum conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio, 31 vols., Venice, 1759-1798 (of the older collections the one most cited); C. J. von Hefele, Conciliengeschichte, 7 vols., Freiburg, 1855-74 (coming down to 1433; a 2d ed. was begun by the author and carried on by Cardinal Hergenröther to 1536, 9 vols. in all, 1863-90; apparently vol. vii. of the 2d ed. never appeared); the Eng. transl. of Hefele by W. R. Clark includes only vols. i.-iii. of the German, down to 787 A. D., 5 vols., 1883-96. Of all these Hefele is the most accessible and now the oftenest cited.
On the subject of Monasticism all students are most deeply indebted to C. F. de T. Montalembert, Les Moines d'occident, 5 vols., Paris, 1860-67, authorized Eng. transl., 7 vols., London, 1861-79. For the history of religious orders the old standard, rich in erudition, is P. Helyot, Histoire des ordres monastiques, religieux et militaires et des, congrégations séculaires de l'un et de l'autre sexe, 8 vols., Paris, 1714-19; the best modern work is M. Heimbucher, Die Orden and Kongregationen der katholischen Kirche, 2 vols., Paderborn, 1896-97, 2d and enlarged ed., 3 vols., 1907, utilized from Vol. IV. on; the one work in English to be cited, which, however, leaves much to be desired, is C. W. Currier, History of Religious Orders, New York, 1896.
On the history of the separate Orders in the Roman Catholic Church the most important are the following: for the Jesuits, A. and A. de Backer, Bibliothèque des écrivains de la société de Jésus, 7 vols., Liege, 1853-61, new ed. by C. Sommervogel, Paris, 1891 sqq.; the Historiæ societatis Jesu, by a number of hands, 6 parts in 8 vols., Rome, 1615-1759 ; J. A. M. Cretineau-Joly, Histoire religieuse, politique et littéraire de la compagnie de Jésus, 6 vols., Paris, 1844-46; for the Benedictines, J. Mabillon, Acta ordinis sancti Benedictii, 9 vols., Paris, 1668-1702, and his Annales ordinis . . . Benedicti, 6 vols., Paris, 1703-39; for the Carmelites, J. B. de Lezana, Annales sacri prophetici et Eliani ordinis . . . de Monte Carmelo, 4 vols., Rome, 1651-66; for the Dominicans, Monumenta ordinis fratrum prædicatomm, in course of publication at Louvain since 1896 (the earlier works, now being superseded, are: A. Touron, Histoire des hommes illustres de Saint-Dominique, 6 vols., Paris, 1743-49, and T. M. Mamachi, Annales ordinis
Somewhat akin to the foregoing is the subject of Hagiology, in which two works stand out as preeminent. The one is the Acta sanctorum of J. Bolland, the issue of which was begun in 1643, continued till the dispersion of the Jesuits compelled suspension of the work from 1794 (when vol. liii. was issued) till 1845. In all 63 vols. have been published, and a new ed. has appeared, Paris, 1863-94 (see ACTA MARTYRUM, ACTA SANCTORUM). This is supplemented by the Analecta Bollandiana, edited by a number of Jesuits, Paris and Brussels, 1882 sqq. (still in progress; it includes documents unused or passed by in the Acta, newly discovered material, variant accounts, notes on the old accounts, and description of manuscripts). The other important work is the Acta sanctorum ordinis S. Benedicti of J. Mabillon and T. Ruinart, 9 vols., Paris, 1668-1701, and Venice, 1733-40. Mention may be made of the Acta sanctorum Belgii of J. Ghesquiere and others, 6 vols., Brussels, 1783-94. J. Colgan's work on Scottish and Irish saints is noted above (p. xviii.). The plan of arrangement in these compilations is that of the Roman calendar, the substance is the lives and legends concerning the saints, and the value of the material varies greatly. A very large amount of the material is derived from contemporary sources and is therefore useful when sifted by the critical processes.
In the comparatively new and certainly interesting region of the Comparison and History of Religions the series of first importance, making available to readers of English many of the Bibles and Commentaries of the great religions, is that of the Sacred Books of the East, under the editorship of F. Max Müller, 48 vols., Oxford, 1879-1904. A valuable set of historical expositions of the historical religions is found in the Darstellungen am dem Gebiete der nichtchristlichen Religionsgeschichte, 15 vols., Münster, 1890-1903. The Annales du Musée Guimet, Paris, 1880 sqq., combine the features of the Sacred Books of the East (translations of native sources) and of the Hibbert Lectures (discussions of particular religions). The Hibbert Lectures (q.v.) are a number of series, each series amounting to a treatise on some individual religion or phase of religion, delivered in Great Britain between 1878 and 1902 by specialists of eminence. A corresponding series, known as the American Lectures on the History of Religion (q.v.), has been in progress since 1895 and is planned ahead as far as 1910. A valuable set is found in the Handbooks on the History of Religions edited by M. Jastrow, of which the following have appeared, Boston, 1895-1905: E. W. Hopkins, Religion of India, 1895; M. Jastrow, Religion of Babylonia and Assyria, 1895; P. D. Chantepie de la Saussaye, Religion of the Ancient Teutons, 1896; A. Wiedemann, Religion of the Ancient Egyptians, 1897; M. Jastrow, Study of Religion, 1901; and G. Steindorff, Religion of the Ancient Egyptians, 1905. The best individual work on the whole subject is P. D. Chantepie de la Saussaye, Lehrbuch der Religionsgeschichte, 3d ed., 2 vols., Tübingen, 1905 (in which the author had the cooperation of numerous scholars). Next to this is C. P. Tiele, Inleiding tot de godsdienstwetenschap, 2d ed., Amsterdam, 1900. Other important volumes are E. B. Tylor, Primitive Culture, 4th ed:, 2 vols., London, 1903; J. G. Frazer, The Golden Bough, 2d ed., 3 vols., ib., 1900; F. B. Jevons, introduction to the History of Religion, ib., 1896 (all dealing with primitive religion).
GEO. W. GILMORE.
Calvin College. Last modified on 10/03/03. Contact the CCEL.