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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(2 Timothy: Chapter 1)

1:1 {According to the promise of the life which is in Christ
(\kat' epaggelian zōēs tēs en Christōi Iēsou\). "With a
view to the fulfilment of the promise." See Tit 1:1 for this
same use of \kata\. For \kat' epaggelian\ see Ga 3:29. See 1Ti
4:8 for the phrase "promise of life." Here or there "life that
in Christ Jesus" includes the present as well as the future.

1:2 {Beloved} (\agapētoi\). Instead of \gnēsiōi\ (genuine) in
1Ti 1:2. He had already called Timothy \agapēton\ (verbal
adjective of \agapaō\)
in 1Co 4:17, an incidental and strong
proof that it is Paul who is writing here. This argument applies
to each of the Pastorals for Paul is known by other sources (Acts
and previous Pauline Epistles)
to sustain precisely the
affectionate relation toward Timothy and Titus shown in the

1:3 {I thank} (\charin echō\). "I have gratitude." As in 1Ti
1:12. Robinson cites examples of this phrase from the papyri. It
occurs also in Lu 17:9; Ac 2:47. \Charis\ in doxologies Paul
uses (1Co 15:57; 2:14; 8:16; 9:15; Ro 6:17; 7:25). His usual
idiom is \eucharistō\ (1Co 1:4; Ro 1:8; Phm 1:4; Php 1:3) or
\eucharistoumen\ (1Th 1:2; Col 1:3) or \ou pauomai eucharistōn\
(Eph 1:16) or \eucharistein opheilomen\ (2Th 1:3). {Whom I
serve from my forefathers}
(\hōi latreuō apo progonōn\). The
relative \hōi\ is the dative case with \latreuō\ (see Ro 1:9
for this verb)
, progressive present (I have been serving). For
\progonōn\ (forefathers) see 1Ti 5:4. Paul claims a pious
ancestry as in Ac 24:14; Ac 26:5; Ga 2:14; Php 3:4-7. {In a
pure conscience}
(\en katharāi suneidēsei\). See 1Ti 1:5; Ac
23:1. {Unceasing} (\adialeipton\). Late and rare compound, in
N.T. only here and Ro 9:2 which see. The adverb \adialeiptōs\
is more frequent (in the papyri, literary _Koinē_, 1Th 1:2; Ro
. The adjective here is the predicate accusative, "how I
hold the memory concerning thee unceasing." The use of
\adialeiptōs\ (adverb) is a sort of epistolary formula (papyri,
1Th 1:2; 2:13; 5:17; Ro 1:9)
. {Remembrance} (\mneian\). Old
word, in N.T. only Pauline (seven times, 1Th 1:2; Ro 1:9; Php

1:4 {Night and day} (\nuktos kai hēmeras\). Genitive of time, "by
night and by day." As in 1Th 2:9; 3:10. {Longing}
(\epipothōn\). Present active participle of \epipotheō\, old
word, eight times in Paul (1Th 3:6; Php 1:8, etc.).
{Remembering thy tears} (\memnēmenos sou tōn dakruōn\). Perfect
middle participle of \mimnēskō\, old and common verb with the
genitive, only here in the Pastorals and elsewhere by Paul only
in 1Co 11:2. Probably an allusion to the scene at Miletus (Ac
. Cf. Ac 20:19. {That I may be filled with joy} (\hina
charas plērōthō\)
. Final clause with \hina\ and first aorist
passive subjunctive of \plēroō\ (with genitive case \charas\), a
verb common with Paul (Ro 8:4; 13:8).

1:5 {Having been reminded} (\hupomnēsin labōn\). "Having received
(second aorist active participle of \lambanō\) a reminder" (old
word from \hupomimnēskō\, to remind, in N.T. only here and 1Pe
. For the idiom see Ro 7:8,11. A reminder by another
while \anamnēsis\ remembrance (1Co 11:24f.) is rather a
recalling by oneself (Vincent). {Of the unfeigned faith} (\tēs
anupokritou pisteōs\)
. Late compound for which see 2Co 6:6; Ro
12:9. {Dwelt} (\enōikēsen\). First aorist active indicative of
\enoikeō\, old verb, in N.T. only in Paul (Ro 8:11; Col 3:16).
{First} (\prōton\). Adverb, not adjective (\prōtē\). {In thy
grandmother Lois}
(\en tēi mammēi Lōidi\). Old word, originally
the infantile word for \mētēr\ (mother), then extended by writers
to grandmother as here. Common for grandmother in the papyri.
Lois is the mother of Eunice, Timothy's mother, since Timothy's
father was a Greek (Ac 16:1). Probably both grandmother and
mother became Christians. {I am persuaded} (\pepeismai\). Perfect
passive indicative of \peithō\, "I stand persuaded." In the
Pastorals only here and verse 12, common in Paul's other
writings (Ro 8:38, etc.).

1:6 {For the which cause} (\di' hēn aitian\). "For which cause,"
stronger than \dio\. So in verse 12; Tit 1:13. Only example of
\aitia\ by Paul save in Ac 28:20. {I put thee in remembrance}
(\anamimnēskō\). Old compound to remind (1Co 4:17; 2Co 7:15).
{That thou stir up} (\se anazōpurein\). Present active infinitive
of \anazōpureō\, old double compound (\ana\ and \zōpuron\, live
coal, \zōos\ and \pur\, then the bellows for kindling)
, to
rekindle, to stir into flame, to keep blazing (continuous action,
present time)
, only here in N.T. See 1Th 5:19 for the figure of
fire concerning the Holy Spirit. See \anaptō\ in Lu 12:49. {The
gift of God}
(\to charisma tou theou\). See 1Ti 4:14. Here Paul
says \mou\ (my), there he mentions the presbytery. Paul felt a
deep personal interest in Timothy. See 1Co 7:7; Ro 6:23; 11:29
for the gift of God.

1:7 {A spirit of fearfulness} (\pneuma deilias\). Here \pneuma\
is the \charisma\ of verse 6, the human spirit as endowed by
the Holy Spirit (Ro 8:15). \Deilia\ is an old word (\deilos,
and always in a bad sense of cowardice, only here in N.T.
{Of power} (\dunameōs\). One of Paul's characteristic words (Ro
. {Of love} (\agapēs\). One of the gifts of the Spirit (Ga
. "Which drives out fear" (Lock) as in 1Jo 4:18. {Of
(\sōphronismou\). Late _Koinē_ word (from
\sōphronizō\, to control)
, self-control, here only in N.T. See
1Ti 2:9 for \sōphrosunē\.

1:8 {Be not ashamed of} (\mē epaischunthēis\). First aorist
(ingressive) passive subjunctive (in prohibition) of
\epaischunomai\, old word, to be ashamed. Again in verse 16
without augment (\epaischunthēn\), transitive use of the passive
voice as often in the _Koinē_ (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 818). See
Ro 1:16; 6:21. "Do not become ashamed" (as he had not). {The
testimony of our Lord}
(\to marturion tou kuriou\). For the old
word \marturion\ see 1Co 1:6; 2:1. Paul probably has in mind
the saying of Jesus preserved in Mr 8:38 (Lu 9:26). See also
2:12. {His prisoner} (\ton desmion autou\). As in Php 1:12;
Phm 1:1,9; Eph 3:1; 4:1 (the first Roman captivity). Paul is in
his last captivity and refers to it again in verse 16; 2:9.
{Suffer hardship with} (\sunkakopathēson\). First aorist active
imperative of the double compound \sunkakopatheō\, first known
use and in N.T. only here and 2:3 (in eccles. writers). But
\kakopatheō\, to suffer evil, is old verb (2:9; 4:5). Paul is
fond of compounds of \sun\. Paul challenges Timothy by this verb
which he apparently coins for the purpose to a joint (\sun\)
suffering with the Lord Jesus and Paul "for the gospel" (\tōi
euaggeliōi\, dative case rather than associative instrumental
. {According to the power of God} (\kata dunamin theou\).
Given by God (2Co 6:7).

1:9 {Called us with a holy calling} (\kalesantos klēsei hagiāi\).
Probably dative, "to a holy calling." \Klēsis\ here apparently
not the invitation, but the consecrated service, "the upward
calling" (Php 3:14). See 1Co 7:20; Eph 4:1,4 for the use of
\kaleō\ with \klēsis\. Paul often uses \kaleō\ of God's calling
men (1Th 2:12; 1Co 1:9; Ga 1:6; Ro 8:20; 9:11). {Purpose}
(\prothesin\). See Ro 9:11; Eph 1:11 for \prothesin\. {Which
was given}
(\tēn dotheisan\). First aorist passive articular
participle agreeing with \charis\ (grace), a thoroughly Pauline
expression (1Co 3:10; Ro 12:3,6, etc.), only here in Pastoral
Epistles. {Before times eternal} (\pro chronōn aiōniōn\). See
Tit 1:2.

1:10 {But hath now been manifested} (\phanerōtheisan de nun\).
First aorist passive participle of \phaneroō\ agreeing with
\charin\. See Tit 1:3; Col 1:26; 3:4 for \phaneroō\ and the
contrast made. {By the appearing} (\dia tēs epiphaneias\). Only
here of the Incarnation (except the verb, Tit 2:11; 3:4), but
for the second coming see Tit 2:13. {Who abolished death}
(\katargēsantos men ton thanaton\). First aorist active
participle of \katargeō\, the very phrase in 1Co 15:26; Heb
2:14. {Brought to light} (\phōtisantos de\). First aorist active
participle of \phōtizō\, literary _Koinē_ word for which see 1Co
4:5; Eph 1:18, to turn the light on. {Life and incorruption}
(\zōēn kai aphtharsian\). The opposite of \thanatos\, "life and
immortality" (unchangeable life).

1:11 {For which} (\eis ho\). For the gospel. See 1Ti 2:7 for
this verse.

1:12 {These things} (\tauta\). His imprisonment in Rome. {Yet I
am not ashamed}
(\all' ouk epaischunomai\). Plain reference to
the exhortation to Timothy in verse 8. {Him whom I have
(\hōi pepisteuka\). Dative case of the relative (\hōi\)
with the perfect active of \pisteuō\, the antecedent to the
relative not expressed. It is not an indirect question. Paul
knows Jesus Christ whom he has trusted. {I am persuaded}
(\pepeismai\). See verse 5. {To guard} (\phulaxai\). First
aorist active infinitive of \phulassō\, the very word used in
1Ti 6:20 with \parathēkēn\ as here, to guard against robbery or
any loss. {That which I have committed unto him} (\tēn parathēkēn
. Literally, "my deposit," as in a bank, the bank of heaven
which no burglar can break (Mt 6:19f.). See this word also in
verse 14. Some MSS. have the more common \parakatathēkē\ (a
sort of double deposit, \para\, beside, down, \kata\)
. {Against
that day}
(\eis ekeinēn tēn hēmeran\). The day of Christ's second
coming. See also 1:18; 4:8; 2Th 1:10, and often in the Gospels.
Elsewhere, the day of the Lord (1Th 5:2; 2Th 2:2; 1Co 1:8; 2Co
, the day of Christ or Jesus Christ (Php 1:6,10; 2:16),
the day (1Th 5:4; 1Co 3:13; Ro 13:12), the day of redemption
(Eph 4:20), the day of judgment (Ro 2:5,16).

1:13 {The pattern of sound words} (\hupotupōsin hugiainontōn
. See 1Ti 1:16 for \hupotupōsin\ and 1Ti 1:10 for
\hugiainō\. {Which} (\hōn\). Genitive plural with \ēkousas\
(didst hear) or attracted to case of \logōn\ (\akouō\ is used
either with the accusative or the genitive)

1:14 {That good thing which was committed unto thee} (\tēn kalēn
. Simply, "the good deposit." {Guard} (\phulaxon\).
As in 1Ti 6:20. God has also made an investment in Timothy (cf.
verse 12)
. Timothy must not let that fail. {Which dwelleth in
(\tou enoikountos en hēmin\). It is only through the Holy
Spirit that Timothy or any of us can guard God's deposit with us.

1:15 {Are turned away from me} (\apestraphēsan me\). Second
aorist passive (still transitive here with \me\) of \apostrephō\,
for which verb see Tit 1:14. For the accusative with these
passive deponents see Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 484. It is not
known to what incident Paul refers, whether the refusal of the
Christians in the Roman province of Asia to help Paul on his
arrest (or in response to an appeal from Rome) or whether the
Asian Christians in Rome deserted Paul in the first stage of the
trial (4:16). Two of these Asian deserters are mentioned by
name, perhaps for reasons known to Timothy. Nothing else is known
of Phygelus and Hermogenes except this shameful item.

1:16 {Grant mercy} (\dōiē eleos\). The phrase nowhere else in the
N.T. Second aorist active optative of \didōmi\, the usual form
being \doiē\. This is the usual construction in a wish about the
future. {Unto the house of Onesiphorus} (\tōi Onēsiphorou
. The same phrase in 4:19. Apparently Onesiphorus is now
dead as is implied by the wish in 1:18. {For he oft refreshed
(\hoti pollakis me anepsuxen\). First aorist active
indicative of \anapsuchō\, old verb, to cool again, in LXX and
_Koinē_ often, here only in N.T., but \anapsuxis\ in Ac 3:20.
In the first imprisonment or the second. If he lost his life for
coming to see Paul, it was probably recently during this
imprisonment. {Was not ashamed of my chain} (\halusin mou ouk
. Passive deponent again (first aorist indicative)
with accusative as in 1:8. For \halusin\ (chain) see Eph
6:20. Note absence of augment in \epaischunthē\.

1:17 {When he was in Rome} (\genomenos en Romēi\). Second aorist
middle participle of \ginomai\ (coming to Rome, happening in
. {He sought me diligently and found me} (\spoudaiōs
ezētēsen me kai heuren\)
. Effective aorists both of them (first
of \zēteō\, second of \heuriskō\)
. He did it at the risk of his
own life apparently.

1:18 {Grant to him to and mercy} (\dōiē autōi heurein eleos\).
Second aorist active optative in wish for the future again as in
verse 16. Find mercy from the Lord (Jesus) as he found me.
{Thou knowest very well} (\beltion su ginōskeis\). Literally,
"thou knowest better (than I)," for he did those things in
Ephesus where thou art. Only N.T. example of \beltion\, in D text
of Ac 10:28.

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(2 Timothy: Chapter 1)