Nehemiah Chapter 10, Records The Covenant of Faith and Those Who Committed to Follow The Torah

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In this Chapter of Nehemiah we will read about all of those who by Faith chose to follow all of what The Torah Teaches. The Laws, that were neglected and they gave their pledge to walk in them and uphold all of them. The Spirit of Repentance(Teshuvah) follows with the resolve of Nehemiah The Governor, Zedekiah and The People, to Change their old ways of neglect, and Renew their Spiritual Connection to The Holy Land.

First there is a list of 83 signatories of The Covenant of Faith(The Bris Amanah) with a seal. The Temple tax is established as one-third shekel because of the economy, down from Exodus 20:13-14 of one-half shekel, which was the same later is in New Testament Times.

It brings up The Oath, Intermarriage and The Sabbath. The Mitzvos, The Wood Offerings, The Firstborn, The First of Your Dough(Challah) and The First Fruits(Terumah) and Tithing.

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Nehemiah 10:31, No Commerce Is To Be Done On The Sabbath Day

In our next verse of Nehemiah 10:31 we will see that we are to Honor G-d by avoiding any business transaction which involves writing receipts or accounting on The Sabbath. This is to not to be engaged in any form of commerce of buying from those who sell on The Sabbath in The Market place of Jerusalem and would involve the writing of a receipt.

Lets now read the next verse from Nehemiah 10:31, from The King James Bible,

V31 And [if] The People of The Land bring ware or any victuals(produce) on The Sabbath Day to sell, [that] we would not buy it of them on The Sabbath, or on The Holy Day: and [that] we would leave the seventh year, and the exaction of every debt.

What is being said in this 31th verse of Nehemiah 10, is to avoid The Biblical Transgression of writing receipts or keeping the accounts of commerce on The Sabbath Day. This was not to be done in order to keep The Sabbath Day Holy and free of doing any work, from Exodus 20:10, ...Do not do any work, you... ... and your animal...

What was happening was the produce was loaded before The Sabbath Day on their animals and causing their animals to do work on The Sabbath by carring the produce to The Market Place in Jerusalem. But they were keeping track of the accounting. Now Nehemiah is pointing this out to The Jewish Producers that this is not Honoring G-d by selling on The Sabbath Day which was also A Market Day as well at this time. From Jewish Scholar, Rambam and from Hil. Sabbos 21:1, Rashi, Metzudos and Ri Mitrani.

The Jewish Talmud also asserts this same prohibition of doing work/business on The Sabbath Day, from Beitzah 37a. This practice of doing business on The Sabbath Day is also warned about in Nehemiah 13:15.

The verse also points out the same thing should be kept on Holy Days as well as during The Seventh(Shemittah) Year. During this Seventh Year The Land Owners in Eretz Yisrael must allow free access to all produce that were grown on their property. From Jewish Scholar, Ralbag and Ramban, from Exodus 23:10-11, and Leviticus 25:1-7.

This Period of Rest entitled The Shemittah Year is found in Deuteronomy 15:1.

The last part of the verse is a reference to loans given by every hand in exchange for debt owed. This is about monetary loans which must be relinquished by the lender when The Shemittah(Seventh) Year has passed, from Rashi and from Deuteronomy 15:1-6.

This verse is bring out An Observance by The Jews that had not previously been kept properly as stated by The Prophet Jeremiah from 2 Chronicles 36:21, and from Jewish Scholar Ralbag.

Now The People felt it necessary to take The Oath from verse 30, to strengthen The Shemittah Observance. from Jewish Scholar, Malbim. The People are now voluntarily assuming the obligation in observance of The Shemittah Year during this, The Second Temple time period of Jewish History.

There is a dispute among Jewish Scholars over weather this event is fully Scriptural connected with Yovel which is observed when All of Israel is gathered and settled in The land Eretz Yisrael found in Archin 32b, because the majority of The People did not return from Babylon to The Holy Lands during The Second Temple period. So some say that Shemittah was not obligatory at this time. What is peing pointed out in Nehemiah Chapter 10 is The People swore to uphold The Shemittah Year and affirm that The Shemittah Year does not depend on Yovel.

The destruction of The First Temple was a punishment for the transgression of not observing The Shemittah Years in G-d's Law from The Torah. The seventy years spent in Babylon was G-d restoring The Land of Eretz Yisrael to being The Holy Land again. The seventy years of desecration is pointed out in Leviticus 26:34-35. from Jewish Scholar Rashi.

Yovel(Jubilee) is celebrated after the passage of fifty years or after Seven Shemittah cycles. Jubilee is also when all Land and property is restored to The Original Owners and slaves are set free. from Leviticus 25:8-13.