The Book of Ezra, Chapter 2, The Jewish People Returned

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Most of Chapter 2 of Ezra gives The Family Name and the number returning to Judah.

"Usually" in Semitic culture, only the males are recorded in the number given. So we can probably figure that the number can be then multiplied by the average family size of the day and come somewhat close to the exact number of people going back to Judah.

"Women and children" were never counted in amount of numbers, but just referenced to. Some women never marry, and some do not have children.

Most Jewish Males were expected to marry and have children. Even those in Religious service were expected to have one wife. But that usually is not and exact Science.

Lee Ostrander, Group Manager, The Minor Prophets

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Ezra 2:64-65 The sum total, 42,360 Hebrew returning to Judah

One of the thing that we miss when we read the word of G-d by ourself, is the small things which G-d really wanted us to see, but we skip over because it's small stiff.

Lets read the next two verses of Ezra,

64 The whole assembly together [was] forty-two thousand three hundred [and] sixty,
65 besides their male and female servants, of whom [there were] seven thousand three hundred and thirty-seven; and they had two hundred men and women singers.

We are now finishing with the returning Jewish People to Judah. The total Assembly of returning is 42360 but that wasn't the total people.

Verse 65 says there are 7,337 servants, both men and women and 200 men and women singers.

Below is a quot from Davidson's Hermeneutics, Alting Commentary: Ezra's surplus added to the sum in Nehemiah, and Nehemiah's surplus to the number in Ezra, they will both become 31,583.
Subtracting this from 42,360, there will be a deficiency of 10,777.
These are omitted because they did not belong to Judah and Benjamin, or to the priests, but to the other tribes. The servants and singers, male and female, are reckoned separately (Ezr 2:65), so that putting all these items together, the number of all who went with Zerubbabel amounted to 50,000, with 8,000 beasts of burden.

According to this number, it is much larger than when Judah was taken off to Babylon and captivity over 70 years earlier.

Matthew Henry's Commentary says that Judah and Benjamin more than doubled in size. So as in Egypt so was their stay in Babylon, the time of their affliction was also a time of increase.