The Book of Ezra, Chapter 2, The Jewish People Returned

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Most of Chapter 2 of Ezra gives The Family Name and the number returning to Judah.

"Usually" in Semitic culture, only the males are recorded in the number given. So we can probably figure that the number can be then multiplied by the average family size of the day and come somewhat close to the exact number of people going back to Judah.

"Women and children" were never counted in amount of numbers, but just referenced to. Some women never marry, and some do not have children.

Most Jewish Males were expected to marry and have children. Even those in Religious service were expected to have one wife. But that usually is not and exact Science.

Lee Ostrander, Group Manager, The Minor Prophets

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Ezra 2:36-39, The Priests

The Priests were most important in rebuilding the Altar.

Jeshua was the descendant of Jozadak, the last High Priest serving in The Temple in Jerusalem, before he was exiled to Babylon by Nubchadnezzar. This connection to the pre-exile priesthood authorized him to re-establish it. So lets read the names of the Priests who are returning to Judah and get the count.

Ezra 2:36-39,
36 The priests: the sons of Jedaiah, of the house of Jeshua, nine hundred and seventy-three;
37 the sons of Immer, one thousand and fifty-two;
38 the sons of Pashhur, one thousand two hundred and forty-seven;
39 the sons of Harim, one thousand and seventeen.

This is a very large number of priest returning to Jerusalem. It contains four families of 4200 priests, a tenth of the Jewish People returning to Judah which totals 42,000 people altogether. This is G-d's part, one tenth, a blessed decimation.