The Date and Time and Day of the Birth of Jesus Christ.
You can faithfully avail your Christian knowledge of the time and date of Jesus Christ's birth by seeking the Word of God and if it is His Word that He spoke from the beginning, then that time and date of His birth will be found to be true.
Words attributed to Jesus Christ concerning his birth:
1. 'I came into being on the eighth day, which is the day of the Lord.'
Ref - The Epistle of the Apostles; Coptic version.
2."I was born the same day on which Augustus Caesar gave peace to the Roman world."
Ref - The Archko Volume, Pilate's Report.
All deliberations by me for the date of Jesus Christ's birth are then circumscribed to conform to the day related by Jesus Christ, for as Christians we are to 'hear Him' - Luke 9:35.
1. The eighth day in Holy Scripture is Sunday, the first day of the week - the Lord's day.
The eighth day in Holy Scripture is also the inauguration day of the High Priest : Exodus 40:2 has that day as the first day of the first month, where chief-priest Aaron was anointed and placed in that office to minister to God as a saviour ministering for the atonement of the children of Israel.
Jesus Christ as our High Priest (Hebrews 4:15) has in Holy Scripture prescribed his birth as for being on Sunday the first of January.
Infancy Gospel of Matthew the Evangelist; ' And some shepherds also affirmed that they had seen angels singing a hymn at midnight, praising and blessing the God of heaven and saying , 'The Saviour of all, who is Christ the Lord has been born. Salvation shall be brought back to Israel through him.'
I Clement Ch.18; 'And particularly, that we perform our offerings and service to God, at their appointed seasons... at certain determinate times and hours.' 'For the chief-priest has his proper services...' 'They therefore who make their offerings at the appointed seasons are happy and accepted: because that obeying the commandments of the Lord, they are free from sin.'
Apocrypha Syriaca: Transitus Mariae; 'He was in her womb until the Second Kanun (Syriac calendar month conterminous with January) on its sixth (hour - midnight) on the first day of the week, the Holy Day...'
Day of Birth: Sunday the first of January at midnight 00.00 (am).
2. The day that Augustus Caesar gave peace to the Roman world can be happily placed to be a time when the Roman people enjoyed peace within the bounds of the Roman Empire.
That day was celebrated by the ritual of the doors of the Temple of Janus being closed. At times of war they were kept open and rarely were they closed but on three occasions during the years of Augustus Caesar they were closed, of which he listed as a laudable achievement of his as Princeps - Res Gestae 13. The first two occasions were 31 BC and 25 BC but with no record for the third closing of the doors of Janus that day has to be exacted judiciously from subsidiary historical records.
The day then that the doors of Janus were closed for the third time is determined to be the day that Jesus Christ was born.
Times of peace are when treaties are signed and so threats are nullified. Of the range of years during the time of Jesus' birth there was one occasion when a relevant treaty was signed, that was with the Parthian Empire.
The Parthian Empire was at the time more than capable of attacking the Roman Empire over the other peoples and tribes. Utilizing archers possessing outstanding horsemanship their repeated hit and retreat attacks were able to overcome the strength of the Roman Legions.
And so by ensuring no war broke out with the Parthians, Roman Legions could be on hand to defend other parts of the empire such as near Germanica, therewith ensuring peace and safety for the people residing within the Roman Empire.
Augustus Caesar sent his sons Gauis and Lucius in the year 1 BC to the regions of Parthia to make terms with Phraates V ruler of Parthia on an island on the river Euphrates. The Euphrates was then to remain the boundary in which the Parthian army were not to pass. Gaius and Lucius were Consul-Designates with Gaius assuming the office of Consul at the age of 21 on January 1, A.D. 1 therewith consular powers to sign the treaty.
With the day settled as January 1 as to which the doors of the Temple of Janus were closed for the third time by Augustus thereby giving peace to the Roman people, only the year has to be determined.
The Apocryphal and Legendary Life of Christ has the Gates of Janus being closed at the time of Jesus' birth. Orosius a priest, historian and theologian has chronicled the temple doors closing at the time of Jesus' birth.
Roman Historian Dio Cassius has Gaius making peace with Phraates king of Parthia in early A.D. 1.
Thereupon Jesus Christ was born at midnight on Sunday, January 1, A.D. 1.
Further investigations are now directed to authenticate this date if your doctrine is Christianity, as it conforms to the words attributed to Jesus Christ at 1. and 2. above.
Christian adherents profit by inquiring of Holy Scripture when accurate knowledge is sought, the Holy Scriptures being foremost for Christians that would wish to harmonize His Word at 1. and 2. above, in actively determining when Jesus was born.
Conforming Holy Scriptures:
Luke 3:23: Jesus at thirty years of age is baptized by John → A.D.31 (Jesus became thirty years old on January first). Numbers 4:3 4:23 4:47 recounts that priests are consecrated when they are thirty years old and able to begin their ministry.
John the Baptist was born six months earlier than Jesus - Luke 1:36, subsequently he began his ministry in July A.D.30 → The Spiritual Gospel of Jesus Christ Ch. 61 Levi H Dowling transcribing - 'When John was thirty years of age he went into Jerusalem...'. Here he began his role as harbinger calling to the people for their need for repentance of sins through baptism, that role being placed upon him by the word of God in A.D. 29, when he was in the wilderness → Luke Ch. 3:1 (reign of Tiberius in his fifteenth year was September A.D. 28 to September A.D.29.)
Jesus was thirty years old and able to begin his ministry from January 1, A.D.31 → First Gospel of the Infancy of Jesus Christ Ch. 12 - Caiaphas '...he arrived at the end of his thirtieth year, at which time the Father publicly owned him at Jordan...' Therefore he was baptized by John in January, A.D. 31 → Luke 3:21,22 - '...Thou art my beloved Son; in thee I am well pleased.'
John 2:13 recounts the first Passover of Jesus' ministry in A.D.31. John 6:4 recounts the second Passover of Jesus' ministry in A.D.32.
John 11:55 records the approaching third Jewish Passover of A.D.33.
John Ch.12 until Ch.20 records events of the days proximate to the death on the cross of Jesus Christ:
A.D.33 March 28/Nisan 8 Saturday, Jesus came to Bethany.
A.D. 33 March 29/Nisan 9 Sunday, Jesus came to Jerusalem - Palm Sunday ascription.
A.D. 33 April 1/Nisan 12 Wednesday, penultimate supper, and when supper had ended there was the washing of the disciples' feet, and then the condemnation went out against the Lord with Judas' promise to the ruling priests to betray Jesus for money - that being the reason for the later institution of a new fast day → 'Teaching of the Twelve Apostles' Original Didache and Kindred Documents edition by Philip Schaff.
A.D. 33 April 2/Nisan 13 Thursday, Last Supper.
A.D. 33 April 3/Nisan 14 Friday, crucifixion and at 3 pm the death on the cross of The Lord → The Gospel of Peter.
A.D. 33 April 5/Nisan 16 Sunday midnight, resurrection of the Son of Man → Gospel of Nicodemus and the Gospel according to the Hebrews - where the Lord appears to first Nicodemus and then to James the Just, the eponymous brother of the Lord.
When calibrated through Astronomy contingent with the Jewish Passover, the death on the cross of Jesus Christ is apodictically established at 3 pm on Friday April 3 A.D. 33 → Sir Isaac Newton's calculations for Passover A.D. 33.
John wrote his Gospel after Matthew, Luke and John → Anti- Marcionite Prologues; The Mythological Acts of the Apostles by Agnes Smith Lewis. Conducive for him then was to dispel errant teachings of Christian sects that had developed. Hence he wrote a more full account, an explanatory for those who seek the factual records of events, customs and Christian doctrine, which in turn is conducive for this study, in determining that Jesus was born 30 years prior to January A.D 31, and that Jesus died on the cross during the Passover of A.D. 33, the third Passover of his ministry, further confirming he was thirty years of age in January A.D. 31.
Ref: Joel 2:31 associated with Acts 2:20 sees Peter recount to the gallery the lunar eclipse 'blood moon' that they had observed during the crucifixion of Jesus Christ, confirming the signs prophesied of Jesus and so determining that He was both Lord and Christ.
Ref: Lunar eclipse 'blood moon' → NASA's list of lunar eclipses - 0033 April 03 CE; Pilate observed in his correspondence sent to Tiberius Caesar that there was seen a blood moon eclipse - '..and the moon that was like blood..' and the moon lost its brightness as though tinged with blood'; 'and the moon, as if turned into blood' → The Reports of Pilate, Anaphora Pilati.
Continuity of historicity is built from information confirming the date, that is, a plethora of confirming information will ensue that there is no doubt for the reasonable person.
All information that doesn't calibrate to the date 1 Jan. A.D. 1 are then to the faithful Christian - discomfirmations.
Projected Evidence for Historicity:
Numismatics and chronicles are two main trains from which we can build the historicity of the word of Jesus Christ in regard to establishing his time and date of birth. Through numismatics, markings that record events and customs of peoples and lands and published by their rulers and administrators, references can be obtained. Chronicles sourced from various channels and their accounts, can be cross-referenced for affirmation of facts.
Aficionados of numismatics and chronicles can provide their expertise if they wish to. Accounting in historicity to 1. and 2. is all that is necessary for acknowledged contributions. Outlier material will not be acknowledged as applicable and will remain in the comments.
Contributions of followers from religions that oppose Christianity as an historical account are not expected if its not in their interest to build such a case; nor from Atheists, historians and scientists who may be adverse to confirmations of Jesus Christ's existence or in giving historical support to Christian chronology. Christians who believe that Truth is retained in the book of their Bible and not in the words of Jesus Christ outside their Bible are not expected to contribute.
Other ancillary factors for historicity will include material from inscriptions, antiquities and Levant customs, and when added to all, will establish midnight Sunday 1st January A.D. 1 (1 CE) as the date of birth of Jesus Christ.
Calendars in concert with the year A.D. 1: Seleucid 311th year; 4th year of the 194th Olympiad; A.U.C. (founding of Rome) 754.
An eclipse of the moon occurred before the death of Herod, that being near the time of Jesus' birth. The eclipse of Dec 29 1 BC is chosen, other eclipses are disconfirmed.
This eclipse was chronicled by Josephus as being on a fast day. Monday and Thursday were Jewish fast days of that era - Didache; Ta'an 12a. Dec 29 1 BC was a Thursday.
Quirinius (Cyrenius) is described as governor of Syria at the time of Jesus' birth, this is deemed to be in an acting capacity, and in an official capacity later in A.D. 6 to A.D. 12.
Gaius Caesar was in fact Governor of the East (includes Syria) from 1 BC to A.D. 4 - Suetonius.
Quirinius along with Marcus Lollius were at the time of Jesus' birth in the East acting as guardians or tutors to Gaius and Lucius.
Marcus Lollius was an experienced governor of the East. Quirinius was a former governor to the rank of proconsul of Cyrenaica.
Soon after the signing of the treaty on the Euphrates, Lollius died and Quirinius was at hand to act as guide for Gaius in the administration of the East, (includes Syria).
Herod's death is given at 4 BC because his sons were reckoned as rulers at the time. As they were acting in name at the time then they therefore antedated their reigns to that date on the death of their father, in A.D. 1. see Josephus Antiquities of the Jews, Book 17, Ch.8.
Numismatics show coins of tetrarchs Archelaus, Antipas and Philip aren't found issued before A.D.1. Coins minted in Ceasarea Philippi that were struck in CY 34 (A.D. 1) and RY 37 (A.D. 4) of Herod IV Philip are the first issued by any of the sons of Herod the Great, when on his death Rome gave official recognition to their rule, actuating de jure coins.
On the coins their rule is antedated to when their father placed them in their provinces as tetrarchs.
Nativity gospels state that in the Seleucid calendar year 309 (2 B.C.) Augustus published a decree that those families within the Roman world should enroll in their towns, see The First Gospel of the Infancy of Jesus Christ, The Arabic Infancy Gospel of the Saviour; Orosius, Historiarum Adversum Paganos, Book 6 Ch. 22.
Bethlehem of Judea a provincial town of the Roman world, was set down to be visited by commissioners sent from Rome to the provinces, during the days near Jesus' birth. Mary, considered the call of registering for Roman citizenship opportune (see Micah Ch. 5:2) and necessitated her to travel, even though she was expecting.
Numismatic allegorial material relating to Janus, Gaius and Lucius is instructive. Coins struck when they were consul-designates between Feb 5 2 BC (Augustus made pater patriae) and midnight A.D. 1, has them leaning on their grounded shields with hastae behind the shields pointed downwards and their parazonia sheathed. These are blazon symbols of peace.
The inauguration of peace to the Roman world is shown to the second, to the minute, to the hour, to the day, to the month, to the year, in an augury manner through the simpulum and lituus implements accompanied by the saltire symbol, a stamp of Janus.