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to the Hebrews. The attempt of Jason to introduce them was regarded as a grievance, 2 Mace. 4:12. "Coverings for the head were not in ordinary use. Thus, it was a token of mourning to cover the head, 2 Sam. 15:30; Jer. 14:3-4, and the mantle seems to have been employed for the purpose, 1 Kgs. 19:13. The head-dresses that were then used

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Head-dress of Assyrian King and Queen. (From Nineveh Marbles.)

were rather for ornament. This was specially the case with the high priest's mitre and the 'bonnets' of the ordinary priests, which are expressly said to have been 'for glory and for beauty.' Ex. 28:36-40. And those which were intended by the Hebrew words tzaniph and peer seem to have been worn only by eminent persons or on festive occasions. The former word implies wrapping around, after the fashion of a turban; it is described as used by men, Job 29:14

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Syrian Head-dresses. Damascus. (Ayre.)

(in our version 'diadem'); by women, Isa. 3:23 ('hoods'); as belonging to kings, 62:3 ('diadem'); to the high priest, Zech. 3:5 ('mitre'). The latter, peer, conveying the idea of ornament or beauty, is said to have been worn by priests, Ex. 39:28; Eze. 44:18 ('bonnets'), by females, Isa. 3:20, by a bride-groom, Isa. 61:10, and by others in gala-dress. Isa. 61:3; Eze. 24:17, 24:23."— Ayre.

The Assyrian head-dress is described in Eze. 23:15 as consisting of a high turban. The word rendered "hats" in Dan. 3:21 properly applies to a cloak.

HEAP. See Stones.

HEART, Acts 16:14. The seat of the affections, desires, hopes, and motives. John 14:1; Esth. 1:10. The term is also used by the Bible writers to designate the understanding, 1 Cor. 2:9, and intellectual perceptions. It is further a general term for the spiritual nature of man. Isa. 1:5; 2 Cor. 4:6. In the latter passage the apostle speaks of the light shining in our hearts, teaching us of Christ as the One who reveals God. The heart is declared to be corrupt and full of evil, Eccl. 9:3, and deceit, Jer. 17:9, the seat of sin and crime. Matt. 15:19, as also of faith. Rom. 10:10. The Lord "looketh on the heart," 1 Sam. 16:7, in contrast to the outward appearance, and we are commanded to cultivate it, as the most important part of our nature, rather than external appearances. Prov. 4:4; Joel 2:13. The expression "to speak in the heart," 1 Sam. 1:13, is synonymous with "to think."

HEARTH. The Hebrew words so translated do not, any of them, mean what we call a hearth. Thus, the "hearth" of Gen. 18:6 was the heap of ashes covering the hot stones on which the bread was baked, according to the Eastern custom. See Bread. The "hearth" of Ps. 102:3 means fagot as fuel; in Isa. 30:14, not the hearth, but the burning mass. When we read that King Jehoiakim threw the cut leaves of Jeremiah's prophecy into the fire that was on the hearth, we are to understand that before him was a portable furnace or brazier of charcoal, Jer. 36:22-23.

HEATH. Jer. 17:6; 48:6. No true heath is found in Palestine. There is great probability that the dwarf juniper or savin (Juniperus sabina), which grows in the most sterile and desolate parts of the desert, is the plant intended. "Its gloomy, stunted appearance, with its scale-like leaves pressed close to its gnarled stems and cropped close by the wild goats, as it clings to the rocks about Petra, gives great force to the contrast suggested by the prophet between him that trusteth in man, naked and destitute, and the man that trusteth in the

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