The first theory of mines with gunpowder appears in 1480 in a Ms. of George of Sienna (Tiraboschi, tom. vi. P. i. p. 324). They were first practised by Sarzanella, in 1487; but the honor and improvement in 1503 is ascribed to Peter of Navarre, who used them with success in the wars of Italy (Hist. de la Ligue de Cambray, tom. ii. p. 93 - 97).