When the son of Charlemagne asserted his right of sovereignty,
he was answered by the loyal Venetians,
(Constantin. Porphyrogenit. de Administrat Imperii, pars ii. c. 28, p. 85); and the report of the 9th establishes the fact of the 10th century, which is confirmed by the embassy of Liutprand of Cremona. The annual tribute, which the emperor allows them to pay to the king of Italy, alleviates, by doubling, their servitude; but the hateful word must be translated, as in the charter of 827(Laugier, Hist. de Venice, tom. i. p. 67, etc.), by the softer appellation of subditi, or fideles.