By Mably (Observations sur l'Histoire de France ), Voltaire (Histoire Generale ), Robertson (History of Charles V. ), and Montesquieu (Esprit des Loix , l. xxxi. c. 18.). In the year 1782, M. Gaillard published his Histoire de Charlemagne (in 4 vols. in 12mo.), which I have freely and profitably used. The author is a man of sense and humanity; and his work is labored with industry and elegance. But I have likewise examined the original monuments of the reigns of Pepin and Charlemagne, in the 5th volume of the Historians of France.