Thomassin (Discipline de l'Eglise, tom. ii. 1. ii. c. 1-8, p. 673-721 ) has copiously treated of the election of bishops during the five first centuries, both in the East and in the West; but he shows a very partial bias in favour of the episcopal aristocracy. Bingham (1. iv. c. 2) is moderate; and Chardon (Hist. des Sacramens, tom. v. p. 106-128) is very clear and concise.