Isa 28:1
28:1 Woe to the {a} crown of pride, to the drunkards of Ephraim,
     whose glorious beauty [is] a fading flower, who [are] on
     the head of the rich {b} valleys of them that are overcome
     with wine!

     (a) Meaning, the proud kingdom of the Israelites, who were
         drunk with worldly prosperity.
     (b) Because the Israelites for the most part dwelt in
         plentiful valleys, he means by this the valley of them
         who had abundance of worldly prosperity and were as it
         were crowned with garlands.

Isa 28:2
28:2 Behold, the Lord hath a mighty and {c} strong one, [which]
     as a tempest of hail [and] a destroying storm, as a flood
     of mighty waters overflowing, shall cast down to the earth
     with the hand.

     (c) He seems to mean the Assyrians, by whom the ten tribes
         were carried away.

Isa 28:4
28:4 And the glorious beauty, which [is] on the head of the rich
     valley, shall be a fading flower, [and] as {d} the early
     fruit before the summer; which [when] he that looketh upon
     it seeth, while it is yet in his hand he eateth it up.

     (d) Which is not of long continuance, but is soon ripe and
         first eaten.

Isa 28:5
28:5 In that day shall the LORD of hosts be for a crown of
     glory, and for a diadem of beauty, to the {e} remnant of
     his people,

     (e) Signifying that the faithful who do not put their trust
         in any worldly prosperity but made God their glory,
         will be preserved.

Isa 28:6
28:6 And for a spirit of judgment to him that sitteth in
     judgment, and for {f} strength to them that turn the battle
     to the gate.

     (f) He will give counsel to the governor and strength to
         the captain to drive the enemies in at their own gates.

Isa 28:7
28:7 But {g} they also have erred through wine, and through
     strong drink are out of the way; the priest and the prophet
     have erred through strong drink, they are overwhelmed with
     wine, they are out of the way through strong drink; they
     err in vision, they stumble [in] judgment.

     (g) Meaning, the hypocrites who were among them, and were
         altogether corrupt in life and doctrine, which is here
         meant by drunkenness and vomiting.

Isa 28:9
28:9 {h} Whom shall he teach knowledge? and whom shall he make
     to understand doctrine? [them that are] weaned from the
     milk, [and] drawn from the breasts.

     (h) For there was no one that was able to understand any
         good doctrine: but were foolish and as unfit as young

Isa 28:10
28:10 For {i} precept [must be] upon precept, precept upon
      precept; line upon line, line upon line; here a little,
      [and] there a little:

      (i) They must have one thing often repeated.

Isa 28:11
28:11 For with stammering {k} lips and another tongue will he
      speak to this people.

      (k) Let one teach what he can, yet they will no more
          understand him, than if he spoke in a strange

Isa 28:12
28:12 To whom {l} he said, {m} This [is] the rest [with which]
      ye may {n} cause the weary to rest; and this [is] the
      refreshing: yet they would not hear.

      (l) That is, the prophet, whom God would send.
      (m) This is the doctrine on which you ought to stay and
      (n) Show to them that are weary and have need of rest,
          what the true rest is.

Isa 28:13
28:13 But the word of the {o} LORD was to them precept upon
      precept, precept upon precept; line upon line, line upon
      line; here a little, [and] there a little; that they might
      go, and fall backward, and be broken, and snared, and

      (o) Because they will not receive the word of God, when it
          is offered, it comes of their own malice, if after
          their hearts are so hardened, that they care not for
          it, as before, Isa 6:9.

Isa 28:15
28:15 Because ye have said, We have made a {p} covenant with
      death, and with hell are we in agreement; when the
      overflowing scourge shall pass through, it shall not reach
      us: for we have made lies our refuge, and under {q}
      falsehood have we hid ourselves:

      (p) They thought they had shifts to avoid God's judgments,
          and that they could escape though all others perished.
      (q) Though the prophets condemned their idols and vain
          fruit of falsehood and vanity, yet the wicked thought
          in themselves that they would trust in these things.

Isa 28:16
28:16 Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD, Behold, I lay in Zion
      for a foundation a stone, a {r} tried stone, a precious
      corner [stone], a sure foundation: he that believeth {s}
      shall not make haste.

      (r) That is, Christ, by whom all the building must be
          tried and upheld,
          Ps 118:22, Mt 21:42, Ac 4:11, Ro 9:33, 1Pe 2:6.
      (s) He will be quiet, and seek no other remedies, but be
          content with Christ.

Isa 28:17
28:17 Judgment also will I lay to the line, and {t}
      righteousness to the plummet: and the {u} hail shall sweep
      away the refuge of lies, and the waters shall overflow {x}
      the hiding place.

      (t) In the restitution of his Church, judgment and justice
          will reign.
      (u) God's corrections and affliction.
      (x) Affliction will discover their vain confidence, which
          they kept secret to themselves.

Isa 28:19
28:19 From the time that it goeth forth it shall take you: for
      morning by morning shall it pass over, by day and by
      night: and it shall be a {y} vexation only [to] understand
      the report.

      (y) Terror and destruction will make you learn that which
          exhortations and gentleness could not bring you to.

Isa 28:20
28:20 For the bed is {z} shorter than that [a man] can stretch
      himself [on it]: and the covering narrower than that he
      can wrap himself [in it].

      (z) Your affliction will be so sore, that you are not able
          to endure it.

Isa 28:21
28:21 For the LORD shall rise as [on] mount {a} Perazim, he
      shall be angry as [in] the valley {b} of Gibeon, that he
      may do his work, his strange work; and bring to pass his
      act, his strange act.

      (a) When David overcame the Philistines,
          2Sa 5:20, 1Ch 14:11.
      (b) Where Joshua discomfited five kings of the Amorites,
          Jos 10:12.

Isa 28:25
28:25 When he hath made {c} even the face of it, doth he not
      cast abroad the black cummin, and scatter the cummin, and
      cast in the wheat in rows and the appointed barley and the
      rye in their place?

      (c) As the plowman has his appointed time, and various
          instruments for his labour, so has the Lord for his
          vengeance: for he punishes some at one time, and some
          at another, some after one sort, and some after
          another, so that his chosen seed is beaten and tried,
          but not broken as are the wicked.