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CONTENTS.

PAGE
INTRODUCTION.

I. THE IDEA OF ETHICS, AND THE POSITION OF THIS SCIENCE IN THE FIELD OF SCIENCE IN GENERAL

13

§ 1. THE IDEA

13

§ 2. PHILOSOPHICAL ETHICS

16

§ 3. THEOLOGICAL ETHICS

21
II. THE SCIENTIFIC TREATMENT OF ETHICS, § 4 27

III. THE HISTORY OF ETHICS AND OF THE MORAL CONSCIOUSNESS IN GENERAL, § 5

35

A. THE MORAL CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE ETHICS OF HEATHEN NATIONS, § 6

37

§ 7. THE UNHISTORICAL NATIONS; THE CHINESE

43

§ 8. THE INDIANS

47

§ 9. THE EGYPTIANS AND THE SEMITIC NATIONS

54

§ 10. THE PERSIANS

58

§ 11. THE GREEKS

62

§ 12. SOCRATES

69

§ 13. THE 0YNICS AND THE CY RENAICS

72

§§ 14-15. PLATO

75

§§ 16-21. ARISTOTLE

92

§§ 22-25. THE EPICUREANS AND THE STOICS

126

§ 26. THE SKEPTICS AND THE NEO-PLATONISTS; THE ROMANIS

144

B. OLD TESTAMENT AND JEWISH ETHICS.

§ 27. THE CANON OF THE OLD TESTAMENT

151

§ 28. THE APOCRYPHAL BOOKS, THE TALMUD

169

[ISLAMISM]

171

C. CHRISTIAN ETHICS, § 29

173

121. THE ANCIENT CHURCH, §§ 30, 31

180

2. THE MIIDDLE AGES, § 32

199

§§ 33, 34. SCHOLASTICS AND CASUISTICS

200

§ 35. TItE MYSTICS AND THE PROTO-REFORMERS

223

3. THE EPOCH OF REFORM, § 36

233

§ 37. THE EVANGELICAL ETHICS OF THE SIXTEENTH AND SEVENTEENTH CENTURIES

235

§§ 38, 39. ROMISH ETHICS

255, 273

§ 40. PHILOSOPHICAL ETHICS BEFORE KANT

217

§ 41. DEISTIC AND NATURALISTIC ETHICS

301

§ 42. THE EVANGELICAL ETHICS OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY

324

§ 43. KANT

32

§ 44. FICHTE

338

§ 45. SCHELLING; JACOBI

341

§ 46. HEGEL AND HIS SCHOOL

345

§ 47. THE MOST RECENT PHILOSOPHY

355

§ 48. THE EVANGELICAL ETHICS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY

359

§ 49. ROMISH ETHICS

375
13
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