We're making big changes. Please try out the beta site at beta.ccel.org and send us feedback. Thank you!
« Prev XIII. Next »


XIII. ¹Ἡ φιλαδελφία μενέτω. ²τῆς φιλοξενίας

2 τὴν φιλοξενίαν א*.

The thirteenth chapter is a kind of appendix to the Epistle, like Rom. xv., xvi. The first twelve chapters form a complete treatise; and now for the first time distinct personal traits appear. A difference of style corresponds with the difference of subject; but the central portion brings back with fresh power some of the main thoughts on which the writer has before insisted.

The chapter falls into three divisions:

(1) Social duties (1—6).

(2) Religious duties (7—17).

(3) Personal instructions of the writer (18—25).

(1) Social duties (1-6).

The character of the precepts suggests that the society to which they were addressed consisted of wealthy and influential members. The two special illustrations of the practical exhibition of 'love to the brethren' point to services which such persons especially could render; and the warnings which follow regard the temptations of a similar class to luxury and love of money.

The succession of thought is perfectly natural. Particular duties spring out of the recognition of the new relation to God and men established in Christ. Sympathy (1, 2), self-respect and self-control (4, 5), confidence in spiritual support (6), express the application of the one truth to different spheres.

¹Let love of the brethren continue. ²Forget not to entertain strangers, for thereby some entertained angels unawares. ³Remember them that are in bonds, as bound with them: them that are evil entreated, as being yourselves also in the body. ⁴Let marriage be had in honour in all things; and let the bed be undefiled; for fornicators and adulterers God will judge, ⁵Let your character be free from the love of money. Be content with the things ye have; for Himself hath said, I will in no wise fail thee, nor will I in any wise forsake thee. ⁶So that with good courage we say, The Lord is my helper: I will not fear. What shall man do to me?

(1). ἡ φιλαδελφία] love of the brethren, Vulg. caritas fraternitatis. The relation of Christians one to another in virtue of their common Lord (ii. 11 f.) led necessarily to the extension of the term for the affection of natural kinsmanship to all the members of the one 'brotherhood' (ἀδελφότης 1 Pet. ii. 17; v. 9). Comp. 2 Pet. i. 7 (1 Pet. iii. 8); Rom. xii. 10; 1 Thess. iv. 9; 1 Pet. i. 22.

The love of the Jew for his fellow Jew, his 'brother' (Deut. xxiii. 19; comp. Philo, de carii. § 6, ii. 388 M.), was national: the Christian's love for his fellow-Christian is catholic. The tie of the common faith is universal, and in proportion as the ill-will of those without increased, it became necessary to deepen the feeling of affection within.

The use of μενέτω suggests that the bond had been in danger of being severed. Compare vi. 10; x. 33.

Jugiter maneat in vobis caritas fratemitatis, id est semper diligatis fraternitatem, hoc est, fratres qui sunt aqua et spiritu renati sicut et vos (Herv.).

Ὅρα πῶς τὰ παρόντα προστάττει φυλάττειν αὐτοὺς καὶ οὐχὶ προστίθησιν ἕτερα. οὐ γὰρ εἶπε, Γίνεσθε φιλάδελφοι ἀλλά, Μενέτω ἡ φιλαδελφία (Chrys.).

(2). τῆς φιλοξ. μὴ ἐπιλ.] The circumstances of the time made private hospitality almost a necessity for travellers. In writing to the Corinthians Clement mentions among their former glories τὸ μεγαλοπρεπὲς τῆς φιλοξενίας 430 μὴ ἐπιλανθάνεσθε, διὰ ταύτης γὰρ ἔλαθόν τινες ξενίσαντες ἀγγέλους. ³μιμνήσκεσθε τῶν δεσμίων ὡς συνδεδεμένοι, τῶν κακουχονμένων ὡς καὶ αὐτοὶ

ἐπιλανθάνεσθαι D₂* (so v. 18 προσεύχεσθαι, v. 22 ἐνέχεσθαι, v. 24 ἀσπάσασθαι). ἔλαθον: didicerunt d (ἔμαθον). 3 δεσμίων: δεδεμένων D₂*. κακουχουμένων: κακωχ. C: κακοχ. M₂.

ὑμῶν ἧθος (ad Cor. i. 17), and dwells on the 'hospitality' of Abraham, Lot, Rahab (cc. 10—12). Comp. 1 Tim. v. 10; 3 John 5 ff.; 1 Pet. iv. 9; 1 Tim. iii 2; Tit. i. 8 (φιλόξενος). Φιλοξενία occurs again Rom. xii. 13. See also Herm. Mand. viii. ἄκουε...τῶν ἀγαθῶν τὰ ἔργα ἅ γε δεῖ ἐργάζεσθαι ...χήραις ὑπηρετεῖν, ὀρφανοὺς καὶ ὑστερουμένους ἐπισκέπτεσθαι, ἐξ ἀναγκῶν λυτροῦσθαι τοὺς δούλους τοῦ θεοῦ, φιλόξενον εἶναι, ἐν γὰρ τῇ φιλοξενίᾳ εὑρίσκεται ἀγαθοποίησισ...Lucian mocks at the liberality of Christians to strangers: ἐξήει (Peregrinus) τὸ δεύτερον πλανησόμενος, ἱκανὰ ἐφόδια τοὺς χριστιανοὺς ἔχων, ὑφ' ὧν δορυφορούμενος ἐν ἄπασιν ἐφθόνοις ἧν (de morte Peregr. § 16; comp, §§ 12 f.).

The use of the phrase μὴ ἐπιλανθάνεσθε, compared with μιμνήσκεσθε, implies that the virtue was now being neglected: τοῦτο γὰρ εἶκὸς ἀπὸ τῶν θλίψεων γίνεσθαι (Chrys.).

There is a marked correspondence between φιλαδελφία and φιλοξενία. Compare Rom. xii. 10, 13.

διὰ ταύτης γὰρ...] Comp. Gen. xviii. xix.; Philo, de Abr. § 22, i. pp. 16 f. M. The form of the illustration seems to be that we only observe the outside surface of those whom we receive. More lies beneath than we can see. Christ indeed comes in the least of those who are welcomed in His name (Matt. xxv. 40, 45; John xiii. 20).

The idiomatic form of expression, ἔλαθον ξενίσαντες (Vulg. latuerunt quidam angelis hospitio receptis) does not occur again in the Ν. T. or in the lxx. Compare the use of λανθ. in the corresponding passage of Philo: oἱ δὲ (sc. ὁδοιποροῦντες ἄνδρες) θειοτέρας ὄντες φύσεως ἐλελήθεισαν (i. c. § 22).

Primasius and Gregory (Hom. xxiii. in Ev. § 2) (with some Latin copies) read placuerunt quidam [sc. Deo].

(3). Hospitality is the answer to a direct appeal We must also seek for those who need our help, and whose circumstances withdraw their claims from our sight. Such sufferers may owe their distress either to direct persecution (τῶν δεσμίων), or to the 'changes and chances of this mortal life' (τῶν κακουχουμένων). In both cases Christians must acknowledge the obligation of fellowship.

μιμνήσκεσθε] Remember 'in precibus, in beneficiis' (Bengel). Compare c. x. 32 ἀναμιμνήσκεσθε. Elsewhere μνημονεύειν, v. 7; Gal. ii. 10.

For τῶν δεσμίων compare c. x. 34.

ὡς συνδεδεμένοι] as bound with them, rather than as if you were bound with them. The participle appears to give the reason in this as in the following clause (ὡς...ὄντες...). The members of the Christian body are so closely united that the suffering of one is really, though it may be unconsciously, shared by all. This is the ideal which each believer must strive to realise.

Compare 2 Cor. xi. 29 τίς ἀσθενεῖ καὶ οὐκ ἀσθενῶ; τίς σκανδαλίζεται καὶ οὐκ ἐγὼ πυροῦμαι;

Non sint vobis oblivioni quamvis teneantur in abditis reclusi (Herv.).

Public intercession for 'prisoners' has formed part of the Church service from the earliest times down to our own Litany.

The petition is found in the prayer 431 ὄντες ἐν σώματι. ⁴Τίμιος ὁ γάμος ἐν πᾶςιν καὶ

which closes the Epistle of Clement: λύτρωσαι τοὺς δεσμίους ἡμῶν. ἐξανάστησον τοὺς ἀσθενοῦντας. παρακάλεσον τοὺς ὀλιγοψυχοῦντας (c. lix.).

So in the Apostolical Constitutions (viii. 10) the direction is given ὑπὲρ τῶν ἐν μετάλλοις καὶ ἐξοπίαις καὶ φυλακαῖς καί δεσμοῖς ὄντων διὰ τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ κυρίου δεηθῶμεν. ὑπὲρ τῶν ἐν πικρᾷ δουλείᾳ καταπονουμένων δεηθῶμεν. And petitions to this effect are found in early liturgies:

Liturgy of Alexandria, p. 32 (Swainson); Liturgy of St Basil, p. 84; St James (Cod. Rossan.), p. 250; Coptic, p. 371.

A similar petition is found in the daily Synagogue Morning Service, p. 19 (Artom).

Ignatius in describing false Christians says περὶ ἀγάπης οὐ μέλει αὐτοῖς, οὐ περὶ χήρας, οὐ περὶ ὀρφανοῦ, οὐ περὶ θλιβομένου, οὐ περὶ δεδεμένου ἧ λελυμένου, οὐ περὶ πεινῶντος ἧ διψῶντος (ad Smyrn. 6).

τῶν κακουχουμένων] them that are evil entreated, Vulg. laborantium, c. xi. 37 (only in N. T.), comp. xi. 25. The word is used in late Greek authors (twice in lxx.), but κακουχία is found in Æschylus. The meaning appears to be quite general.

ὡς καὶ αὐτοὶ ὅ ἐν σ.] as being yourselves also in the body and so exposed to the same sufferings, Vulg. tanquam et ipsi in corpore morantes. The former injunction had been enforced by the consideration of the true nature of the Christian body; this one is enforced by the actual outward circumstances of life: Cuivis potest accidere quod cuiquam potest.

Per hoc enim quia in corpore mortali manctis, sicut et illi, experimento probatis quia militia est vita hominis super terram, et homo ad laborem nascitur et (ut?) avis ad volatum (Primas.).

For the phrase ὄντες ἐν σώμ. compare 2 Cor. v. 6 (1). It occurs in Porphyr. de abstin. i. 38 εἰ γὰρ μὴ ἐνεπόδιζε τὰ αἰσθήματα τῇ τῆς ψυχῆς ἐνεργείᾳ, τί δεινὸν ἧν ἐν σώματι εἶναι. The thought is that of the body as being the home (or the prison) of the soul.

The interpretation 'as being yourselves also members in the one body of Christ'—beautiful as the thought is—is inadmissible. This would require a more definite phrase than ἐν σώματι (at least ἐν τῷ σώματι).

(4). From the widest duties of the social life of Christians the epistle passes to the closest. Warnings on the sacredness of marriage were the more necessary from the license of divorce among the Jews which had been sanctioned by the teaching of the school of Hillel. Comp. Matt. xix. 3 ff. (κατὰ πᾶσαν αἰτίαν).

It is questioned whether the sentence contains a precept (Let marriage be...) or a declaration (Marriage is...), whether, that is, ἔστω or ἐστί is to be supplied.

The Syriac version gives the indicative: Marriage is honourable...So also Chrysostom (πῶς τίμιος ὁ γάμος; ὅτι ἐν σωφροσύνῃ, φησί, διατηρεῖ τὸν πιστόν) reading δέ, and by implication Theodoret and Œcumenius (but not Theophylact: see below).

The Latin leaves the construction ambiguous: Honorabile connubium in omnibus et torus immaculatus, while in the corresponding phrase below it inserts the substantive verb, sint mores sine avaritia. The Latin Fathers generally take the words as declaratory. Primasius adds: sit vobis sive placet Deo; but goes on to explain the words as declaratory. Connubium est honorabile, id est legales nuptiæ sunt honorabiles in omnibus, nihil est in eis quod honore careat, et torus talium conjugum est immaculatus, 432 ἡ κοίτη ἀμίαντος, πόρνους γὰρ καὶ μοιχοὺς κρινεῖ ὁ θεός. ⁵Άφιλάργυρος ὁ τρόπος. ἀρκούμενοι τοῖς

4 γάρ אAD₂* M₂ vg me: δέ C syr vg. 5 ἀρκούμενοι: ἀρκούμενος Μ₂.

id est sine macula criminis (Herv.).

In spite of the concurrence of ancient opinion towards the other view, the general structure of the passage and the unquestionable sense of ἀφιλ. ὁ τρόπος are sufficient to decide in favour of regarding the clauses as hortatory and not indicative. This interpretation is confirmed if not required by the γάρ which follows in the true text (Let marriage be had in honour...for...). It may be added that ὁ γάμος is used here only in the Ν. T. in the sense of 'marriage.'

ἐν πᾶσιν] in all respects, and in all circumstances, so as to be guarded not only from graver violations but from everything which lowers its dignity. Πᾶσιν is neuter as in v. 18; 1 Tim. iii. 11; 2 Tim. iv. 5; Tit. ii. 9.

Μὴ ἐν θλίψει μὲν [ἐν] ἀνέσει δὲ οὔ. μὴ ἐν τούτῳ μὲν τῷ μέρει τίμιος ἐν ἄλλῳ δὲ οὔ. ἀλλ' ὅλος δι'ὅλου τίμιος ἔστω (Theophlct.).

For τίμιος compare Acts v. 34.

The masc. interpretation (among all) gives a better sense with the indic. than with the imper. construction.

πάρνους γάρ...] Compare 1 Thess. iv. 6. The words ὁ θεός stand emphatically at the end. Whatever the opinion of man be from ignorance or indifference, God will judge.

(5). ἀφιλάργυρος ὁ τρ.] Let your character be free from the love of money, Vulg. Sint mores sine avaritia. Sins of impurity and of covetousness go together. Both are typical examples of πλεονεξία (self-seeking, selfishness). Eph. v. 3 ff.

Ὁ τρόπος describes the general character. It is not found elsewhere in N.T. in this sense. Compare Didache.

xi. 9. For ἀφιλάργυρος see 1 Tim. iii. 3; Didache xv. 1 (comp. iii. 5); 2 Clem. iv. 3.

ἀρκ. τοῖς παρ.] The form of words had passed into a moral commonplace. Comp. [Phecyl.] 6 ἀρκεῖσθαι παρέουσι καὶ [al. παρ' ἑοῖς τῶν δ'] ἀλλοτρίων ἀπέχεσθαι. Teles. ap. Stob. Floril. 97 (95) § 31 τί οὖν μοί ἐστι φιλοσοφήσαντι;...βοὠσῃ ἀρκούμενος τοῖς παροῦσι, τῶν ἀπόντων οὐκ ἐπιθυμῶν... Comp. Clem. 1 Cor. 2 τοῖς ἐφεδίοις τοῦ θεοῦ ἀρκούμενοι.

For the construction see Rom. xii. 9.

Οὐκ εἶπεν Μηδὲν κέκτησθε ἀλλὰ Κἄν ἔχητε μὴ ἧτε δεδουλωμένοι ἀλλ' ἀλευθέρως ταῦτα ἔχετε...(Theophlct.).

The patristic commentators suggest that the losses of the Hebrews (x. 32 ff.) had checked their liberality and given occasion to the desire of accumulating fresh wealth.

αὐτος γὰρ εἵρ.] for He Himself, God our Father, hath said...—the phrase sounds like an echo of the Pythagorean αὐτὸς ἔφα, Ipse dixit, 'the Master said'—I will in no wise fail thee, nor will I in any wise forsake thee.

The exact source of the quotation is not certain. Similar words occur in several places: Gen. xxviii. 15; Jos. i. 5; Deut. xxxi. 6 ff.; and a quotation in exactly the same form occurs in Philo, de conf. ling. § 32 (i. p. 430 M.). There seems however to be no sufficient reason for supposing that the quotation was taken from him. The words had probably been moulded to this shape by common use.

ἀνῶ...ἐγκαταλίπω] Vulg. deseram...derelinquam. The idea of ἀνίημι is that of loosing hold so as to withdraw the support rendered by the sustaining grasp: that of ἐγκαταλείπω 433 παροῦσιν. αὐτὸς γὰρ εἴρηκεν Οὐ μή σε ἀνῶ οὐδ' οὐ μή σε ἐγκαταλίπω. ⁶ὥστε θαρροῦντας ἡμᾶς λέγειν

Kύριος ἐμοὶ βοηθός, οὐ φοβηθήσομαι

τί ποιήσει μοι ἄνθρωπος;

ἐγκαταλίπω S D₂ (ενκ.): -λείπω אACΜ₂. 6 λέγειν ἡμᾶς D₂: om. ἡμᾶς Μ₂. oὐ א* C* vg syr vg me: + καὶ' οὐ א* AD₂Μ₂.

of deserting or leaving alone in the field of contest, or in a position of suffering.

Ἀνίημι does not occur elsewhere in the N. T. in this sense; for ἐγκαταλείπω see 2 Cor. iv. 9; 2 Tim. iv. 10, 16; Matt. xxvii. 46 (lxx.); Acts ii. 27 (lxx.); comp. c. x. 25. The use of the word in Matt. xxvii 46 is a clue to the true meaning of the passage. It was the Father's good pleasure to leave the Son exposed to the assaults of His enemies 'in their hour' (Luke xxii. 53).

Biesenthal most truly points out the fitness of an allusion to the encouragement given to Joshua at such a crisis as the Hebrews were passing through. The position of Jewish Christians corresponded spiritually with that of their fathers on the verge of Canaan.

For εἴρηκεν see c. x. 8 note.

(6). ὥστε θαρρ. ἡ. λ.] Ps. cxviii. 6 (comp. Ps. cvi. 12). The lxx. by inserting καί has led to an alteration in the original division of the words. There can be no doubt that the last clause should be taken as an independent question.

We Christians—such is the writer's meaning—can use with confidence the most joyful expression of thanksgiving used in the Church of old times. Ps. cxviii. formed an important part of the Jewish Festival services, and is quoted several times in the Ν. T. The key-word given here would call up at once to the mind of the readers the thought of 'the chief corner-stone' (Matt. xxi. 42) and of Him 'that came in the name of the Lord' (Matt. xxi. 9). In the triumph of the Lord through suffering they would see the image of the triumph of His people.

The word θαρρεῖν occurs elsewhere in the N. T. only 2 Cor. (v. 6, 8; &c.). The imperative θάρσει (-εῖτε) is found only as a divine voice (Gospp., Acts).

(2) Personal religious duties (7—17).

The mode in which religious duties are presented indicates the presence of a separatist spirit among those who are addressed. They are charged to remember (a) the example of their first rulers (7); and, following on this, they are (b) bidden to render complete devotion to Christ, and to men in and through Him (8—16); and practically (c) to obey their present rulers (17).

Remember them that had the rule over you, which spake unto you the word of God; and considering the issue of their life, imitate their faith.

Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and today, yea and for ever. ⁹Be not carried away by manifold and strange teachings; for it is good that the heart be established by grace, not by meats; for they that occupied themselves therein were not profited. ¹°We have an altar whereof they have no right to eat who serve the tabernacle. ¹¹For the bodies of those animals whose blood is brought into the Holy place by the High-priest as an offering for sin, are burned without the camp. ¹²Wherefore Jesus also, that He might sanctify the people through His own blood, suffered without the gate. ¹³Let us therefore go forth unto Him without the camp,


⁷Μνημονεύετε τῶν ἡγουμένων ὑμῶν, οἴτινες ἐλάλησαν ὑμῖν τὸν λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ, ὧν ἀναθεωροῦντες τὴν ἔκβασιν

7 τ. ἡγουμένων ὑμῶν: τ. προηγουμένων D₂* (sic.). ἀναθεωροῦντες: -ρήσαντες C.

carrying His reproach. ¹⁴For we have not here an abiding city, but we seek after that which is to come. ¹⁵Through Him let us offer up a sacrifice of praise to God continually, that is, the fruit of lips which make confession to His Name. ¹⁶But to do good and to communicate forget not; for with such sacrifices God is well pleased.

¹⁷Obey them that have the rule over you, and submit to them, for they watch in behalf of your souls, as men that shall give account, that they may do this with joy and not with grief; for this were unprofitable for you.

(α) The writer has spoken of the help of God generally. He now appeals to examples in which it had been conspicuously shewn before he passes on to enforce religious duties.

(7). μνημονεύετε τῶν ἡγ.] Remember, though they have now passed away, them that had the rule over you. Scripture everywhere recognises the living power of a great example. Comp. c. vi. 12. The word μνημονεύειν is used of our relation to Christ 2 Tim. ii. 8 (μνημ. Ἰ. Χ. ἐγηγερμένον).

The term οἱ ἡγούμενοι (Vulg. praæpositi) occurs again vv. 17, 24; Clem. 1 ad Cor. 1 (in c. 7 of civil rulers); 21 τοὺς προηγουμένους ἡμῶν. Compare Acts xv. 22 (ἄνδρας ἡγουμένους ἐν τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς). The word occurs frequently in the lxx. of various forms of authority; and in later Greek of bishops and abbots. Compare pp. 384 f.

οἴτινες ἐλάλ....] men that spake to you.... Comp. ii. 3 note. The phrase ὁ λόγος τοῦ θεοῦ is used from Luke v. 1 throughout the Ν. T. both of the revelation in the 0. T. and of the revelation through Christ.

For the thought compare 1 Thess. v. 12 f.; Didache iv. 1 τέκνον μου, τοῦ λαλοῦντός σοι τὸν λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ μνησθήσῃ νυκτὸς καὶ ἡμέρας, τιμήσεις δὲ τὸν ὡς κύριον....

Barn. Ep. xix. 9 ἀγαπήσεις ὡς κόρην ὀφθαλμοῦ σου πάντα τὸν λαλοῦντά σοι τὸν λόγον κυρίου.

ὧν ἀναθ. τὴν ἔκβ. τῆς ἀναστρ.] and considering with attentive survey again and again the issue of their life... Vulg. quorum intuentes exitum conversationis. This last scene revealed the character of their 'conversation' before. Perhaps the writer had in his mind the words of the persecutors of the righteous man: Wisd. ii. 17, ἴδωμεν εἰ οἱ λόγοι αὐτοῦ ἀληθεῖς, καὶ πειράσωμεν τὰ ἐν ἐκβάσει αὐτοῦ. The word ἔκβασις occurs in a different connexion 1 Cor. x. 13: compare ἔξοδος Lk. ix. 31; 2 Pet. i. 15. Ἀναστροφή describes life under its moral aspect (comp. v. 18; x. 33) wrought out in intercourse with men. The image occurs in St Paul, St James, St Peter; compare περιπατεῖν in St John: 1 John i. 7 note.

For ἀναθεωρεῖν see Acts xvii. 23 (not in lxx.); c. vii. 4 (θεωρεῖτε).

The reference here seems to be to some scene of martyrdom in which the triumph of faith was plainly shewn. Theodoret refers to St Stephen, St James the son of Zebedee, and St James the Just.

μιμεῖσθε τ. π.] imitate their faith. The spirit and not the form of their lives is proposed for imitation: the faith by which they were supported and not the special actions which the faith inspired in their circumstances.

Δείκνυσιν ὅτι πιστεύσαντες βεβαίως τοῖς μέλλουσι τὴν ἀρίστην πολιτείαν κατώρθωσαν. οὐ γὰρ ἄν ἐπεδείξαντο βίον καθαρὸν εἴ γε ἠμφισβήτουν περὶ τῶν μελλόντων, εἴ γε ἀμφέβαλλον (Chrys.). 435 τῆς ἀναστροφῆς μιμεῖσθε τὴν πίοτιν. ⁸Ἰησοῦς Χριστὸς ἐχθὲς καὶ σήμερον ὁ αὐτός, καὶ εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ⁹διδαχαῖς ποικίλαις καὶ ξέναις μὴ παραφέρεσθε. καλὸν

8 ἐχθές אΑC* D₂* Μ₂: χθές S. αἰῶνας: + ἀμήν D₂*. 9 παραφέρεσθε אΑCD₂Μ₂ vg syr vg me: περιφέρεσθε S.

(b) The rule and strength of Christian devotion (8—16).

Having glanced at the former leaders of the Hebrew Church the Apostle goes on to show that

(α) Christ Himself is the sum of our religion: which is eternal, spiritual (8, 9); and that

(β) He who is our sin-offering is also our continuous support (10-12); and that

(γ) He claims our devotion and our service (13—16).

(α) 8, 9. The thought of the triumph of faith leads to the thought of Him in whom faith triumphs. He is unchangeable, and therefore the victory of the believer is at all times assured.

The absence of a connecting particle places the thought as a reflection following the last sentence after a pause.

Ad superiora pertinent ista, ubi testatus est dixisse Dominum Non te deseram neque derelinquam : poterant illi respondere Hoc non pertinet ad nostrum auxilium, quia non nobis est promissum, sed potius Josue promisit hoc Deus. Ad hoc Apostolus Nolite deficere...Nolite putare quasi qui tunc fuit non sit modo: idem enim qui fuit heri, idem erit et in sæculum (Primas.).

(8). Ἰ. Χ....αἰῶνας] Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and to-day, yea and for ever, Vulg. J. Ch. heri et hodie ipse est, et in sæcula.

The statement is true universally, but the immediate thought appears to be that as Christ had but just now brought victory to His disciples so He would do in the present trials.

Ac si dicatur: Idem Christus qui cum illis fuit vobiscum est, et erit cum eis qui futuri sunt usque ad consummationem sæculi. Heri fuit cum patribus, hodie est vobiscum, ipse erit et cum posteris vestris usque in sæcula (Herv.).

Ceterum divinitas ejus interminabilis plenitudinem totam pariter comprehendit ac possidet, cui neque futuri quidquam absit nec præteriti fluxerit, quoniam esse ejus totum est et semper est nescitque mutabilitatem (id.).

The full title Ἰησοῦς Χριστός occurs again in the Epistle in v. 21; c. x. 10. The words ἐχθὲς καὶ σήμερον express generally 'iη the past and in the present' (comp. Ecclus. xxxviii. 22 ἐμοὶ χθὲς καὶ σοὶ σήμερον); and the clause καῖ εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας is added to the sentence which is already complete to express the absolute confidence of the Apostle: 'Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and to-day: yea, such a confession falls wholly below the truth: He is the same for ever.'

The phrase εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας occurs here only in the Epistle (Rom. i. 25; ix. 5; xi. 36; xvi. 27; 2 Cor. xi. 31).

Compare v. 21 (εἰς τοὺς αἰ. τῶν αἰώνων); vi. 20; vii. 17 ff. (εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα); i. 8, lxx. (εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα τοῦ αἰῶνος).

For ὁ αὐτός compare i. 12. The usage is common in classical writers, e.g. Thucyd. ii. 61 ἐγὼ μὲν (Pericles in the face of Athenian discontent) ὁ αὐτός εἰμι καὶ οὐκ ἐξίσταμαι.

(9). The unchangeableness of Christ calls up in contrast the variety of human doctrines. The faith of the Christian is in a Person and not in doctrines about Him.

διδ. π. καὶ ξ. μὴ παρ.] Be not carried 436 γὰρ χάριτι βεβαιοῦσθαι τὴν καρδίαν, οὐ βρώμασιν, ἐv

away by manifold and strange teachings, Vulg. Doctr. variis et peregrinis (novis d) abduci nolite. These 'manifold and strange teachings' seem to have been various adaptations of Jewish thoughts and practices to Christianity. There was a danger lest the Hebrews should be carried by these away from the straight course of the Christian life. The phrase shews that the activity of religious speculation had by this time produced large results. For the plural διδαχαί compare διδασκαλίαι Col. ii. 22; 1 Tim. iv. 1.

Œcumenius takes the image of παραφέρεσθαι (Jude 12; comp. 1 Sam. xxi. 13) to be derived from the movements of those beside themselves, τῶν τῇδε κἄκεῖσε παραφερομένων. Wetstein gives examples of the word being used of objects swept out of their right course by the violence of a current. Comp. ii. 1 (παραρρυῶμεν).

The tense (μὴ παραφέρεσθε) marks the danger as actually present. Compare vv. 2, 16, μὴ ἐπιλανθάνεσθε, and contrast c. x. 35 μὴ ἀποβάλητε.

These doctrines are characterised as 'manifold' (c. ii. 4) in contrast with the unity of Christian teaching (Eph. iv. 5), and 'strange' (1 Pet. iv. 12) in contrast with its permanence (comp. Col. ii. 8 and Bp Lightfoot's note).

There is indeed a sense in which the wisdom of God is 'most manifold' (πολυποίκιλος Eph. iii. 10).

For διδαχαὶ ξέναι compare Herm. Sim. viii. 5.

καλὸν γὰρ...βρώμασιν] for it is good that by grace the heart (c. iii. 8 note) be established (βεβαιοῦσθαι 1 Cor. i. 8; 2 Cor. i. 21; Col. ii. 7). Vulg. optimum enim.... The attractiveness of the novel views which endangered the faith of the Hebrews lay in their promise of security and progress; but such promises in the case before the Apostle were obviously vain. For no true stability can be gained by outward observances to which Judaizing and Jewish teachings lead. This must come from a spiritual, divine influence. The position of χάριτι throws a strong emphasis upon the idea of 'grace.' Our strength must come from without. And 'grace' is the free outflow of divine love for the quickening and support of man (c. ii. 9), though, in one sense, man 'finds' it (c. iv. 16).

The opposition χάριτι...οὐ βρώμασιν..., shews that here the βρώματα represent something to be enjoyed; and therefore that the reference is not, at least in the first instance, to any ascetical abstention from 'meats.' And again the next verse suggests the contrast of some sacrificial meal, so that the term 'meats' does not simply point to such as were pure according to the provisions of the Levitical Law. It appears to point primarily to 'meats' consecrated by sacrifice, and then used for food; though other senses of the word are not necessarily excluded. No doubt the Passover was present to the writer's mind, but with it would be included all the sacrificial feasts, which were the chief element in the social life of the Jews.

The context seems to justify and to require this sense of βρώματα, which is used in the Gospels for 'food' generally (Matt. xiv. 15; Luke iii. 11). Elsewhere in the Epistles the word is used with reference to ritual or ascetic distinctions of 'meats' (Rom. xiv. 15 ff.; 1 Cor. vi. 13; viii. 8; 1 Tim. iv. 3). But this usage does not supersede the wider one, and it is natural that the Apostle should describe the privileges which were over-valued by a term which set them in a truer light as simply outward things. Comp. Ign. ad Trall. 2 οὐ γὰρ βρωμάτων καὶ ποτῶν εἰσιν διάκονοι ἀλλ' ἐκκλησίας θεοῦ ὑπηρέται. 437 οἶς οὐκ ὠφεληθησαν οἱ περιπατοῦντες. ¹°ἔχομεν θυσιαστήριον

9 περιπατήσαντες

9 περιπατοῦντες א* AD₂* vg: περιπατήσαντες S א* CM₂.

It is said of bread literally that καρδίαν ἀνθρώπου στηρίζει (Ρs. ciii. [civ.] 15). So Jud. xix. 5.

There is a somewhat similar contrast of the material and spiritual in Eph. v. 18.

Compare also 'the notes of the kingdom of heaven' Rom. xiv. 17.

The remarks of Herveius, which are interesting in themselves, leave out of account the circumstances of the Hebrews: Datur intelligi quosdam inter eos fuisse qui dogmatizarent non esse peccatum escis vacare. Nam quia per gratiam licitum est omnibus cibis uti, prædicabant non esse culpam cibis affluere sed bonum esse. So also Chrysostom appears to miss the point: μονονουχὶ τὸ τοῦ Χριστοῦ λέγει ἐν οἶς ἔλεγεν οὐ τὸ εἰσερχόμενον κοινοῖ τὸν ἄνθρωπον ἀλλὰ τὸ ἐξερχόμενον, καὶ δείκνυσιν ὅτι τὸ πᾶν πίστις ἐστίν. ἅν αὔτη βεβαιώσῃ ἡ καρδία ἐν ἀσφαλείᾳ ἔστηκεν.

For the use of καλόν compare Rom. xiv. 21; 1 Cor. vii. 1, 8, 26; Gal. iv. 18; Matt. xvii. 4 &c. In each case the idea of the observable effect of that which is described appears to be dominant Comp. c. x. 24, note.

ἐν οἶς...οἱ περιπ.] Vulg. (non profuerunt) inambulantibus in eis, for they that occupied themselves (walked) therein were not profited, that is, they did not gain the end of human effort, fellowship with God. There is no thought here of the disciplinary value of the Law.

For the image of περιπατεῖν [ἐν βρώμασιν] compare Eph. ii. 10 (ἐν [ἔργοις ἀγαθοῖς] περιπ.); Col. iii. 7; and the more general phrases Rom. vi. 4 (ἐν καινότητι ζωῆς π.); 2 Cor. x. 3 (ἐν σαρκὶ π.); Col. iv. 5 (ἐν σαφίᾳ π.). The ἐν expresses the defined sphere of action and thought.

For οὐκ ὠφελήθησαν see Herm. Vis. ii. 2 προδόντες οὐκ ὠξελήθησαν.

(β) 10—12. The strength of the Christian comes from God's gift, but He uses the natural influences of life for the fulfilment of His purpose. Provision is made in the Christian society for the enjoyment of the benefits of Christ's Life and Death in social fellowship. In this respect Christians have that which more than compensates for any apparent loss which they may incur in their exclusion from the Jewish services.

(10). ἔχομεν θυσιαστήριον] Vulg. habemus altare (hostiam d). The position of ἔχομεν and the absence of the personal pronoun indicate that the statement presents a contrast to some supposed deficiency. Christians, as such, so it appears to have been urged, are in a position of disadvantage: they have not something which others have. The reply is 'We have an altar....' 'We have that which furnishes us also with a feast upon a sacrifice.'

There is not a sharp opposition between Christians and Jews at first: that difference comes out later. The main contention is that the exclusion from the sacrificial services of the Temple is compensated by something which answers to them and is of a nobler kind. At the same time the writer, as he develops the thought, goes further. Hitherto he has shewn that the Christian can dispense with the consolations of the Jewish ritual: he now prepares to draw the conclusion that if he is a Christian he ought to give them up (v. 13 Let us go forth...).

From the connexion which has been pointed out it seems clear that the 'altar' (θυσιαστήριον) must correspond with the Temple altar as including 438 ἐξ οὖ φαγεῖν οὐκ ἔχουσιν [ἐξουσίαν] οἱ τῇ

10 ἐξουσίαν אAC: om. D₂* M₂.

both the idea of sacrifice and the idea of food from the sacrifice (1 Cor. ix. 13). Primarily there is but one sacrifice for the Christian and one means of support, the sacrifice of Christ upon the Gross and the participating in Him (John vi. 53 ff.). In this first and highest sense, into which each secondary sense must be resolved, the only earthly 'altar' is the Gross on which Christ offered Himself: Christ is the offering: He is Himself the feast of the believer. The altar is not regarded at any time apart from the victim. It is the source of the support which the Christian partakes. When the idea of the one act of sacrifice predominates, the image of the Cross rises before us: when the idea of our continuous support, then the image of Christ living through death prevails.

So it is that as our thoughts pass from the historic scene of the Passion to its abiding fruit, Christ Himself, Christ crucified, is necessarily regarded as 'the altar' from which we draw our sustenance, and on (in) which (to go on to a later idea) we offer ourselves.

There is no confusion therefore when Thomas Aquinas says: Istud altare vel est crux Christi in qua Christus pro nobis immolatus est, vel ipse Christus in quo et per quem preces nostras offerimus; et hoc est altare aureum de quo dicitur Apoc. viii.

The latter thought is recognised also in the Glossa Ordinaria which is enlarged by Lanfranc: quod [corpus Christi] et in aliis divinarum locis Scripturarum altare vocatur, pro eo videlicet quod in ipso, id est, in fide ipsius, quasi in quodam altari oblateo preces et operationes nostra acceptabiles fiunt Deo (Migne, P. L. cl. p. 405).

Compare Rupert of Deutz in Amos iv. c. ix. (Migne, P. L. clxviii. 366): Vidi, inquit, Dominum stantem super altare... Quærentibus autem in toto Christi Evangelio...nihil tam magnum, nihil tam evidens secundum hujus visionis proprietatem nobis occurrit quam schema vel habitus Domini nostri Jesu Christi crucifixi. Crucifixus namque et sacrificium pro nobis factus super altare crucis stetit, statione difficili, statione laboriosa sibi...Taliter stans ipse hostia, crux vero altare erat.

The universality of this altar is finely expressed by Leo the Great with a reference to this passage: extra castra crucifixus est ut, veterum victimarum cessante mysterio, nova hostia novo impenerotur altari, et crux Christi non tompli esset ara sed mundi (Serm. lx. (lvii.) § 5).

For the history of the word θυσιαστήριον see Additional Note.

The sacrifice is one, the altar is one. But, just as in the discourse at Capernaum, the absolute idea points towards or even passes into the outward form in which it was embodied. The fact of that Death was visibly set forth, and the reality of that participation pledged, in the Eucharist. The 'Table' of the Lord (1 Cor. x. 21), the Bread and the Wine, enabled the believer "to shew forth Christ's Death,' to realise the sacrifice upon the Cross and to appropriate Christ's 'flesh and blood.' In this sacrament then, where Christ gives Himself as the support of His faithful and rejoicing people, the Christian has that which more than fulfils the types of the Jewish ritual.

ἐξ οὖ φαγεῖν] whereof, as denoting the class of sacrifice and not the particular sacrifice, they have no right to eat.... Vulg. de quo edere.... The phrase occurs again in the 439 σκηνῇ λατρεύοντες. ¹¹ὧν γὰρ εἰσφέρεται ζῴων τὸ αἷμα

11 ζῶον D₂*.

common text of 1 Cor. ix. 13, but the true reading is τὰ ἐκ τοῦ ἱεροῦ ἐσθίουσιν and not ἐκ τοῦ ἱ. ἐσθ.

οἱ τῂ σκ. λατρ.] Vulg. qui tabernaculo deserviunt, the priests whose office it is to fulfil the duties of the legal ritual (c. viii. 5; comp. Clem. 1 ad Cor. 32 οἱ λειτουργοῦντες τῷ θυσιαστηρίῳ τοῦ θεοῦ), rather than the whole assembly of Israel (c. x. 2). Those, the most highly privileged of the people of Israel, who were allowed to eat of sacrifices of which none other could partake (Lev. vi. 26; vii. 6; x. 17), were not allowed to partake of that sacrifice which represented the sacrifice of Christ under the aspect of an atonement for sin.

The superiority which the Christian enjoyed over the Jew became most conspicuous when the highest point in each order was reached. The great sacrifice for sin on the Day of Atonement was wholly consumed. Though they 'who served the tabernacle' 'were partakers with the altar,' even those who were most privileged had no right to eat of this offering. But Christ who is our sacrifice for sin, the perfect antitype of that symbol, is our food also. He is our atonement; and He is our support He died as the sin-offering 'outside the gate,' and He lives to be our life by the communication of Himself. By His blood He entered into the archetypal Sanctuary and made a way for us, and He waits to guide us thither. Meanwhile 'we have become partakers of the Christ' (c. iii. 14), and live with the power of His life which in His own appointed way He brings to us.

Thus the point of the passage is not simply that those who continue Jews, and cling to the worship of the Temple, are excluded from the highest advantages of tho Gospel; but that in itself absolutely the Gospel as compared with the Law offers not less but more to believers under that aspect of social worship in which the believer felt his loss most keenly. The Christian enjoys in substance that which the Jew did not enjoy even in shadow. If the Christian was now called upon to sacrifice all the consolations of the old ritual, he had what was far beyond them. It does not however appear that the writer of the Epistle implies that Jews by birth who still observed the Law could not enjoy the privileges of Christianity.

Briefly the argument is this: We Christians have an altar, from which we draw the material for our feast. In respect of this, our privilege is greater than that of priest or high-priest under the Levitical system. Our great sin-offering, consumed in one sense outside the gate, is given to us as our food. The Christian therefore who can partake of Christ, offered for his sins, is admitted to a privilege unknown under the old Covenant.

The phrase τῇ σκηωῇ λατρεύειν is remarkable: comp. c. viii. 5 ὑποδείγματι καὶ σκιᾷ λατρεύουσιν. The Tabernacle itself—the outward form—is represented as the object of service. Christians also serve the Antitype of the Tabernacle, but that is Christ Himself. The use of λατρεύειν (the divine service) as contrasted with λειτοθργεῖν (the official service) is to be noticed. Contrast Clem. 1 ad Cor. 32 (quoted above).

(11). ὧν γὰρ εἰσφέρ.] The proof of the reality of this surpassing privilege of Christians lies in the familiar ordinances in regard to the sacrifice on the Day of Atonement: Lev. xvi. 27. Of these victims only was the blood brought into the Holy of Holies. In two other cases the blood was brought into the Holy place; and here also the 440 περὶ ἁμαρτίας εἰς τὰ ἅγια διὰ τοῦ ἀρχιερέως, τούτων σώματα κατακαίεται ἔξω τῆς παρεμβολῆς. ¹²διὸ καὶ Ἰησοῦς, ἵνα ἁγιάσῃ

11 περὶ ἀμ. εἰς τ. ἅγ. אD₂Μ₂ vg: om. περὶ ἀμ. A: εἰς τὰ ἅγ. περὶ ἀμ. C* syr vg me. κατακαίεται: καταναλίσκονται D₂*.

bodies were consumed outside: Lev. iv. 11 f. (the sin-offering for a priest); id. 21 (the sin-offering for the congregation).

ζῴων] Vulg. animalium. The use of this word is apparently unique. Elsewhere the victims are spoken of by their special names—'bulls and goats,'—and I am not aware of any place in the Greek Scriptures in which a victim is spoken of by the general term ζῴον. In the Ν. T. the word is used of 'irrational animals' (ἅλογα ζῴα: 2 Pet. ii. 12; Jude 10), and of the four 'living creatures' of the apocalyptic vision (Apoc. iv. 6 ff.; comp. Ezek. i. 5 ff. lxx.). Perhaps the word is chosen here to mark the contrast between the sacrifices which were of nature only and the sacrifice of 'Jesus,' who was truly man and yet more than man.

περὶ ἁμαρτίας] See Additional Note on i. 3.

εἰς τὰ ἅγια] The phrase may describe 'the Holy of Holies' (c. ix. 8 note), so that the reference is to the ceremonial of the Day of Atonement only; or it may include 'the Holy place,' and take account of the victims whose blood was brought there.

The use of the preposition διά 'through' (per pontificem Vulg., saψerdotem d), where we might have expected ὑπό 'by,' is of interest. The High-priest is the agent through whom the act of the people is accomplished. Compare v. 15 δι' αὐτοῦ ἀναφέρωμεν.

ὧν...τούτων] The emphatic insertion of the demonstrative is not uncommon: Phil. iv. 9; 2 Tim. ii. 2; Gal. ii. 18. Compare Rom. ix. 8 οὐ τὰ τέκνα...ταῦτα...; James i. 25, 23 εἴ τις...οὗτος....

ἔξω τῆς παρεμβολῆς] Vulg. extra castra, compare Ex. xxix. 14 (at the consecration of the priests); Lev. iv. 11 (sin-offering for the priest); id. 21 (sin-offering for the congregation); xvi. 27 (sin-offering on the Day of Atonement). See also Lev. vii. 17; ix. 11.

The life is taken to the presence of God: that which has been the transitory organ of life is taken beyond the limits of the ordered Society to be wholly removed.

(12). διὸ καὶ Ἰησοῦς] Wherefore Jesus also—the Lord truly man—the sin-offering for humanity—in order that He might so fulfil the symbolism of the Law and sanctify the people by His Blood, suffered without the gate. Even as the Levitical Highpriest entered into the Sanctuary through the blood of the atoning victims while their bodies were burnt without, Jesus as our High-priest entered through His own Blood into heaven; and His mortal Body, laid in the grave, was glorified, consumed, so to speak, by the divine fire which transfigured it. In both respects He satisfied completely the thoughts suggested by the type.

ἵνα ἁγ....τὸν λαόν] that He might sanctify the people, those who are truly Israel (c. ii. 17 note), through His own blood as contrasted with the blood of victims: c. ix. 12. By His death on the Cross Christ not only 'made purification of sins' (i. 3), but He also 'sanctified' His people. In the offering of Himself, He offered them also, as wholly devoted to God. His blood became the blood of a New Covenant (x. 29) by which the privilege of sonship was restored to men in the Son through His offered life (x. 10); and the Covenant sacrifice became the groundwork of a feast (comp. Ex. xxiv. 8, 11). 441 διὰ τοῦ ἰδίου αἵματος τὸν λαόν, ἔξω τῆς πύλης ἔπαθεν.

12 τῆς πόλεως syr vg. om. ἔπαθεν א*.

For the idea of ἁγιάζειν, see c. ix. 13.

With διὰ τοῦ αἵματος compare c. ix. 12; Acts xx. 28; Eph. i. 7; Col. i. 20; and contrast ἐν τῷ αἵματι c. x. 19, 29; (ix. 22, 25; v. 20); Rom. iii. 25; v. 9; (1 Cor. xi. 25); Eph. ii. 13; Apoc. i. 5; v. 9; vii. 14; and διὰ τὸ αἵμα Apoc. xii. 11.

(γ) 13—16. The relation in which the Christian stands to Christ—the perfect sin-offering and the continuous support of the believer—carries with it two consequences. Believers must claim fellowship with Him both in His external humiliation and in His divine glory, both as the Victim consumed (v. 11) and as the Priest who has entered within the veil. Hence follows the fulfilment of two duties, to go out to Christ (13, 14), and to offer through Him the sacrifice of praise and well-doing (15, 16).

ἔπαθεν] The Fathers commonly think of the Passion as a 'consuming of Christ by the fire of love,' so that the effect of the Passion is made to answer directly to κατακαίεται. But the Passion is never to be separated from the Resurrection. Here indeed the writer of the Epistle, though he goes on at once to speak of Christ as living, naturally dwells on the painful condition by which the triumph was prepared, because he wishes to encourage his readers to endurance in suffering. But the thought of victory lies behind. And there are traces in early writers of the truer view which sees in the transfiguration of the Risen Lord the correlative to the burning of the victim.

Extra castra sunt carnes ejus crematæ, id est extra Jerusalem igne passionis consumptæ. Vel concrematio ad signum pertinet resurrectionis, quia natura ignis est ut in superna moveatur....(Herv.).

The use of the verb πάσχειν of Christ is characteristic of this Epistle, of 1 Peter, and of the Acts. It is found again c. ii. 18; v. 8; ix. 26; in 1 Peter ii. 21, 23; (iii. 18;) iv. 1; and in Acts i. 3; iii. 18; xvii. 3. It does not occur in this connexion in the epistles of St Paul, though he speaks of the παθήματα of Christ: 2 Cor. i. 5, 7; Phil. iii. 10.

It is found in the Synoptic Gospels, Matt. xvi. 21; xvii. 12 and parallels: Luke xxii. 15; xxiv. 26, 46.

See c. ii. 10 note.

ἔξω τῆς πόλης] Vulg. extra portam. The change from ἔξω τῆς παρεμβολῆς, which occurs immediately before and after, is remarkable. Πύλη suggests the idea of 'the city' rather than that of the camp, and so points to the fatal error of later Judaism, which by seeking to give permanence to that which was designed to be transitory marred the conception of the Law. In this aspect the variant πόλεως (comp. Tert. adv. Jud. 14) is of interest.

The fact that the Lord suffered 'without the gate' (Lev. xxiv. 14; Num. xv. 35) is implied in John xix. 17, but it is not expressly stated.

The work of Christ, so far as it was wrought on earth, found its consummation outside the limits of the symbolical dwelling-place of the chosen people. It had a meaning confined within no such boundaries. The whole earth was the scene of its efficacy. So also in the new Jerusalem there is no sanctuary (Αροc. xxi. 22). The whole city is a Temple and God Himself is present there.

(13), 14. Christ—not a dead victim merely but the living leader—is represented as 'outside the camp,' outside the old limits of Israel, waiting to receive His people, consumed and yet unconsumed. Therefore, the Apostle concludes, even now let us be on our way to Him, carrying His reproach, 442 ¹³τοίνυν ἀξερχώμεθα πρὸς αὐτὸν ἔξω τῆς παρεμβολῆς, τὸν ὀνειδισμὸν αὐτοῦ φέροντες, ¹⁴οὐ γὰρ ἔχομεν ὧδε μένουσαν

13 ἐξερχόμεθα D₂.

and abandoning not only the 'city,' which men made as the permanent home for God, but also moving to something better than 'the camp,' in which Israel was organised. No Jew could partake of that typical sacrifice which Christ fulfilled: and Christians therefore must abandon Judaism to realise the full power of His work. In this sense 'it is expedient' that they also 'should go away,' in order to realise the fulness of their spiritual heritage.

It is worthy of notice that the first tabernacle which Moses set up was 'outside the camp' (Ex. xxxiii. 7): 'and it came to pass that every one which sought the Lord went out unto the tabernacle of the congregation which was without the camp.' The history is obscure, but as it stands it is significant in connexion with the language of the Epistle.

(13). τοίνυν] The word occurs in the same position in Luke xx. 25 (v. l.) and in the lxx. Is. iii. 10 &c., like τοιγαροῦν c. xii. 1; 1 Thess. iv. 8.

ἐξερχώμεθα] The present expresses vividly the immediate effort. Comp. c. iv. 16; Matt. xxv. 6; John i. 47; vi. 37.

The words necessarily recal the voice said to have been heard from the Sanctuary before the destruction of the Temple, Μεταβαίνωμεν ἐντεῦθεν (Jos. B.J. vi. 5, 3).

Compare also the Lord's prophecy: Matt. xxiv. 15 ff.

The Fathers commonly understand the phrase of 'leaving the world' and the like. This may be a legitimate application of the command, but it is wholly foreign to the original meaning.

One example may be quoted: Qui enim vult corpus et sanguinem ejus accipere debet ad locum passionis ejus accedere, ut honores et opes tabernaculi relinqueus improperia et paupertatem pro nomine ejus ferre non respuat...(Herv.).

τὸν ὀνειδ. αὐ. φέρ.] carrying His reproach, Vulg. improperium ejus portantes. Comp. xi. 26 (τὸν ἀνειδισμὸν τοῦ Χριστοῦ); Luke xxiii. 26 (ἐπέθηκαν αὐτῷ τὸν σταυρόν, φέρειν...). The thought is not only of a burden to be supported (βαστάζειν Gal. vi. 2, 5); but of a burden to be carried to a fresh scene. Comp. i. 3 note.

ἔξω τῆς παρ.] 'outside the camp,' and not only 'outside the gate.' Ἔξω τῆς παρεμβολῆς ἀντὶ τοῦ ἔξω τῆς κατὰ νόμον γενώμεθα πολιτείας (Theodt.). Christians are now called upon to withdraw from Judaism even in its first and purest shape. It had been designed by God as a provisional system, and its work was done.

The exhortation is one signal application of the Lord's own command, Lk. ix. 23.

(14). οὐ γὰρ ἔχομεν ὧδε] The necessity for the abandonment of the old, however dear, lies in the general fact that we have no abiding system, no unchanging organisation, in the present transitory order (ὧδε here on earth). That which 'abides' belongs to the spiritual and eternal order. And such an 'abiding city' lies before us. For we are seeking, not with a vague search for 'one to come,' but 'that which is to come,' 'that which hath the foundations,' of which the organisation and the stability are already clearly realised.

For μένουσαν compare c. x. 34; xii. 27; 1 Pet. i. 23.

The inadequate and misleading translation 'one (a city) to come' is due to the Latin futuram inquirimus. 443 πόλιν, ἀλλὰ τὴν μέλλουσαν ἐπιζητοῦμεν. ¹⁵δι' αὐτοῦ ἀναφέρωμεν θυσίαν αἰνέσεως διὰ παντὸς τῷ θεῷ, τοῦτ' ἔστιν

15 οὖν

15 δι' αὐτοῦ א* D₂* syr vg: δι' αὐτοῦ + οὖν א* ΑCΜ₂ vg me.

But the object of Christian hope and effort is definite (τὴν μέλλ. ἀπιζ.). All earthly institutions are imperfect adumbrations of the spiritual archetype. Compare c. xi. 10 (τὴν τοὺς θεμελίους ἔχουσαν πόλιν); 16 (ἡτοίμασεν αὐτοῖς πόλιν); xii. 22 (πόλει θεοῦ ζῶντος). Herm. Sim. i. 1 ἡ πόλις ὑμῶν μακράν ἐστιν ἀπὸ τῆς πόλεως ταύτης.

For ἐπιζητοῦμεν compare c xi. 14 note; and contrast v. 10 ἔχομεν.

(15), 16. There is another side to our duty to Christ. Our sacrifice, our participation in Him, involves more than suffering for His sake: it is also an expression of thanksgiving, of praise to God (15), and of service to man (16), for Christ has made possible for us this side also of sacrificial service.

(15). δι' αὐτοῦ...] Through Him—and through no other—let us offer up a sacrifice of praise. The emphatic position of δι' αὐτοῦ brings out the peculiar privilege of the believer. He has One through Whom he can fulfil the twofold duty of grateful worship: through Whom (c. vii. 25) as High-priest every sacrifice for God and for man must be brought and placed upon the altar of God. Compare 1 Pet. ii. 5 (ἀνενέγκαι...διὰ Ἰ. Χ.); iv. 11 (ἵνα...δοξάζηται ὁ θεὸς διὰ Ἰ. Χ.); Rom. i. 8 (εὐχαριστῶ...διὰ Ἰ. Χ.); xvi. 27 (θεῷ διὰ Ἰ. Χ....ἡ δόξα); Col iii. 17; Clem. 1 ad Cor. 36, 44 and Bp Lightfoot's note. Thus we gain the significance of petitions made 'through Jesus Christ.' The passage is illustrated by the adaptation made of it to Melchizedek by the sect which regarded him as the divine 'priest for ever': εἰς ὅνομα τούτου τοῦ Μελχισεδὲκ ἡ προειρημένη αἴρεσις καὶ τὰς προσφοράς ἀναφέρει καὶ αὐτὸν εἶναι εἰσαγωγέα πρὸς τὸν θεόν, καὶ δι' αὐτοῦ, φησί, δεῖ τῷ θεῷ προσφέρειν, ὅτι ἄρχων ἐστὶ δικαιοσύνης...καὶ δεῖ ἡμῶς αὐτῷ προσφέρφέρειν, φασίν, ἵνα δε' αὐτοῦ προσενεχθῇ ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν καὶ εὕρωμεν δι' αὐτοῦ ζωήν (Epiph. Hær. iv. § 8, p. 474). Compare also Iren. Hær. iv. 17, 5.

For the full meaning of ἀναφέρειν comp. c. vii. 27 note. Men in the fulfilment of their priestly work still act through their great High-priest.

θυσίαν αἰνέσ.] Vulg. hostiam laudis. The phrase occurs in Lev. vii. 12 (זבח התודה: comp. xxii. 29; Ps. cvii. 22; cxvi. 17; [l. 14, 23]), of the highest form of peace-offering. The thank offering was made not in fulfilment of a vow (נדד), nor in general acknowledgment of God's goodness (נדבה), but for a favour graciously bestowed. Comp. Oehler Ο. T. Theology ii 2 f.

In this connexion διὰ παντός continually has a peculiar force. That which was an exceptional service under the Old Dispensation is the normal service under the New.

The Jewish teachers gave expression to the thought: R. Pinchas, R. Levi, and R. Jochanan said in the name of R. Menachem of Galilee: One day all offerings will cease, only the Thank-offering will not cease: all prayers will cease, only the Thanksgiving prayer will not cease (Jer. xxxiii. 11; Ps. lvi. 13). Vajikra R. ix. (Lev. vii. 12); and xxvii. (Lev. xxii. 29) (Wünsche, pp. 58, 193). Comp. Philo, de vit. offer. § 3 (ii. 253 M.), on the offering of the true worshipper.

The word θυσία in Mal. i. 11 (θυσία καθαρά) appears to have been understood in the early Church of the prayers and thanksgivings connected with the Eucharist. Thus Doctr. Apost. xiv. 2 ἵνα μὴ κοινωθῇ ἡ θυσία 444 καρπὸν χειλέων ὁμολογούντων τῷ ὀνόματι αὐτοῦ. ¹⁶τῆς δὲ εὐποιίας καὶ κοινωνίας μὴ ἐπιλανθάνεσθε, τοιαύταις γὰρ θυσίαις εὐαρεστεῖται ὁ θεός. ¹⁷Πείθεσθε τοῖς ἡγουμένοις ὑμῶν καὶ ὑπείκετε, αὐτοὶ γὰρ

16 + τῆς' κοιν. D₂. τοιαυται...θυσιαι Μ₂. εὐαρεστεῖται : εὐεργετεῖται M₂.

ὑμῶν is represented in the Latin by 'ne inquinetur et impediatur oratio vestra.' Comp. Apoc. v. 8.

At the same time the 'first-fruits of God's creation' were offered (Iren. iv. 17, 5 f.), and this outward expression of gratitude was also called θυσία. Comp. Just. M. Dial. 117. Immediately below acts of benevolence are included under the term 'sacrifices.'

καρπὸν χειλέων] The phrase is borrowed from the lxx. (paraphrase?) of Hos. xiv. 3 (HebrewW0# D Tr, 'as bullocks, our lips'). Another example of the image occurs in Is. lvii. 19 (HebrewD?p#3). Comp. 2 Macc. x. 7 ὕμνους ἀνέφερον.

ὁμολ. τῷ ὀν. αὐ.] The revelation of God in Christ (His Name) is the source of all thanksgiving (1 Pet. i. 13). This illuminates, and is illuminated by, every object of joy.

The phrase ὁμολογεῖν τῷ ὀνόματι does not occur again in the Ν. T. nor in the lxx. (not Jer. xliv. (li.) 26).

ἐξομολογεῖσθαι (τῷ θεῷ) (Hebrewft Π^Π) 'to make confession to, in honour,' 'to celebrate, praise,' is common in the lxx. Comp. Matt. xi. 25; Rom. xiv. 11.

(16). At the same time spiritual sacrifice must find an outward expression. Praise to God is service to men.

τῆς εὐπ. καὶ κοιν.] Vulg. beneficentiæ et communionis, Syr. vg. compassion and communication to the poor. The general word for kindly service (εὐποιία) is followed by that which expresses specially the help of alms. The two nouns form a compound idea (not τῆς εὐπ. καὶ τῆς κοιν.). The word εὐποιία is not found elsewhere in Ν. T. nor in lxx. For κοινωνία compare 2 Cor. ix. 13 (ἀπλότητι τῆς κοινωνίας εἶς αὐτούς); Rom. xv. 26 (κοινωνίαν τινὰ ποιήσασθαι εἷς τοὺς πτωχούς); Did. iv. 8 συγκοινωνήσεις πάντα τῷ ἀδελφῷ σου.

μὴ ἐπιλ.] See ν. 2 note.

τοιαύταις γὰρ θ.] The direct reference appears to be to εὐποιία καὶ κοινωνία, but 'praise' has been already spoken of as a 'sacrifice' and is naturally included in the thought.

The construction εὐαρεστεῖται ὁ θεός, Vulg. promeretur (placetur) Deus (placetur Deo Aug.), is found in late Greek, but not again in Ν. T. or lxx.

(c) The obligation to loyal obedience.

The section began with a reference to leaders of the Church, and so it closes. The Hebrews have been charged to remember and imitate those who have passed away (v. 7); now they are charged to obey and yield themselves to those who are still over them. This duty rests upon the most solemn nature of the relation in which they stand to them.

(17). πείθεσθε...καὶ ὑπείκετε] Vulg. obedite...et subjacete. Obedience to express injunctions is crowned by submission to a wish. The word ὑπείκειν is not found elsewhere in Ν. T. or lxx. For τοῖς ἡγ. see v. 7 note.

αὐτοὶ γάρ...] Vulg. ipsi enim pervigilant... The emphatic pronoun serves to bring out the personal obligation of the rulers with which the loyal obedience of the ruled corresponded; for they, and no other... Comp. James ii. 6 f.; 1 Thess. i. 9; Matt. v. 3 ff. The image in ἀγρυπνοῦσιν ὑ. τ. ψ. is that of the 'watchmen' in the 0. T.: Is. lxii. 6; Ezek. iii. 17.

For the word ἀγρυπνεῖν compare Eph. vi. 18; Ps. cxxvii. (cxxvi.) 1 ἐὰν μὴ ὁ κύριος φυλάξῃ πόλιν, εἶς μάτην ἡγρύπνησεν ὁ φυλάσσων. Wisd. vi. 15. 445 ἀγρυπνοῦσιν ὑπὲρ τῶν ψυχῶν ὑμῶν ὡς λόγον ἀποδώσοντες, ἵνα μετὰ χαρᾶς τοῦτο ποιῶσιν καὶ μὴ στενάζοντες, ἀλυσιτελὲς γὰρ ὑμῖν τοῦτο.

17 ὑπείκετε: + αὐτοῖς א*. ὑπὲρ τ. ψ. ὑμ. ὡς λ. ἀποδ. אCM₂ syr vg me: ὑπὲρ τ. ψ. ὑμ. ὡς λ. ἀποδώσονται περὶ ὑμῶν D₂*: ὡς λ. ἀποδ. ὑπὲρ τ. ψ. ὑμ. A vg.

ὑπὲρ τῶν ψυχῶν] The writer chooses this fuller phrase in place of the simple ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν to suggest the manifold sum of vital powers which the Christian has to make his own: Lk. xxi. 19. Comp. 1 Pet. i. 9; ii. 25; c. x. 39.

The Vulg. joins the clause with λόγ. ἀποδ. quasi rationem pro animabus vestris reddituri.

ἵνα μετὰ χαρᾶς...] that they may do this (i.e. watch) with joy.... The clause depends on π. καὶ ὑπ., the intervening words being parenthetical: xii. 17 note.

Tunc vigilant præpositi cum gaudio quando vident subjectos suos proficere in Dei verbo, quia et agricola tunc cum gaudio laborat quando attendit arborem et fructum videt, quando attendit segetem et fructificare prospicit ubertatem (Herv.). Compare Herm. Vis. iii. 9, 10.

For στενάζοντες see James v. 9; (Rom. viii. 23; 2 Cor. v. 2, 4). Ἀλυσιτελής does not occur again in Ν. T. or in lxx. Λυσιτελεῖ is found Lk. xvii. 2.

The Greek Fathers gave a stern meaning to the words:

Ὁρᾷς ὅση ἡ φιλοσοφία. στενάζειν δεῖ τὸν καταφρονούμενον, τὸν καταπατούμενον τὸν διαπρυόμενον, μὴ θαρρήσῃς ὅτι σε οὖκ ἀμύνεται. ὁ γὰρ στεναγμὸς πάσης ἀμύνης χείρων. ὅταν γὰρ αὐτὸς μηδὲν ὀνήσῃ στενάζων καλεῖ τὸν δεσπότην (Chrys.).

Ὥστε μὴ ἐπειδὴ στεναγμός ἐστι καταφρονήσῃς ὁ τῷ ἡγουμένῳ ἀπειθῶν, ἀλλὰ πλέον φοβήθητι, ὅτι τῷ θεῷ σε παραδίδωσι (Theophlct.).

Herveius says with a wider view: expedit illis ipsa tristitia et prodest illis, sed non expedit vobis.

(3) Personal instructions of the writer (18—25).

The Epistle closes with wide-reaching words of personal solicitude and tenderness. The writer asks for the prayers of his readers (18, 19) and offers a prayer for them (20, 21). He then adds one or two details which shew the closeness of the connexion by which they were bound to him, (22, 23) and completes his salutations (24) with a final blessing (25).

¹⁸Pray for us; for we are persuaded that we have an honest conscience, desiring to live honestly in all things, ¹⁹And the more exceedingly do I exhort you to do this, that I may be restored to you the sooner.

²°Now the God of peace, who brought up from the dead the Shepherd of His sheep, the great Shepherd, in the blood of an eternal covenant, even our Lord Jesus, ²¹make you perfect in every good thing, to the end that you do His will, doing in us that which is well-pleasing in His sight, through Jesus Christ; to whom be the glory for ever and ever. Amen.

²²But I exhort you, brethren, bear with the word of exhortation; for I have written unto you in few words.

²³Know ye that our brother Timothy hath been discharged, with whom, if he come shortly, I will see you.

²⁴Salute all them that have the rule over you, and all the saints. They of Italy salute you.

²⁵Grace be with you all. Amen.

(18), 19. The thought of the duty which the Hebrews owed to their own leaders leads the writer naturally to think of their wider duties, of what they owed to him and his fellow-workers. The same spirit which led to wilful self-assertion at home was likely to cherish distrust towards


¹⁸Προσεύχεσθε περὶ ἡμῶν, πειθόμεθα γὰρ ὅτι καλὴν συνείδησιν ἔχομεν, ἐν πᾶσιν καλῶς θέλοντες ἀναστρέφεσθαι

18 + καὶ'περί D₂*. πειθόμεθα AC* D₂* M₂ syr vg: πεποίθαμεν S א*. ἡμῶν ὅτι καλὴν|θα γὰρ ὅτι καλήν א* (i.e. ὅτι καλὴν written for πειθόμε).

teachers at a distance who sought to restrain its evil tendencies. The Apostle therefore asks for the prayers of those to whom he writes. He awakens their deepest sympathy by thus assuring them that he himself desires what they would beg for him.

Hic superbiam elationemque mentis quorundam pontificum destruit qui typo (typho) superbiæ inflati dedignantur deprecari suos subjectos quatenus pro eis orationes fundant (Primas.).

(18). προσεύχ. π. ἡμῶν...παρακαλῶ...] Pray for us...I exhort you....The passage from the plural to the singular is like Col. iv. 3 προσευχόμενοι...πεπὶ ἡμῶν...δι' ὅ καὶ δέδεμαι...Gal. i. 8 f. ἐὰν ἡμεῖς...ὡς προειρήκαμεν καὶ ἄρτι πάλιν λέγω...Rom. i. 1 Παῦλος δοῦλος...δι' οὖ ἐλάβομεν χάριν... In all these cases the plural appears to denote the Apostle and those who were immediately connected with him. The force of a true plural is evident in 1 Thess. iii. 1; v. 25; 2 Thess. iii. 1. The separate expression of personal feeling in connexion with the general statement is easily intelligible.

πειθόμεθα γάρ] for we are persuaded... Vulg. confidimus (suademur d) enim. The ground of the Apostle's request lies in the consciousness of the perfect uprightness of those with whom he identifies himself. However they might be represented so as to be in danger of losing the affection of some, he could say upon a candid review that their endeavours were pure. Such a conviction must underlie the request for efficacious intercession. The prayers of others will not avail for our neglect of duty. They help, when we have done our utmost, to supply what we have failed to do, and to correct what we have done amiss.

πειθόμεθα] Acts xxvi. 26 λανθάνειν αὐτὸν τούτων οὐ πείθομαι οὐθέν. The perfect is more common: πέπεισμαι c. vi. 9; Rom. viii. 38 xv. 14, &c. The present seems to express a conclusion drawn from the immediate survey of the facts.

καλ. συν. ἔχ.] Comp. ἀγαθὴν συν. ἔχειν 1 Tim. i. 19; 1 Pet. iii. 16; ἀπρόσκοπον συν. ἔχ. Acts xxiv. 16. The phrase καλὴ συν. occurs here only: συν. ἀγαθή is found (in addition to the places quoted) in Acts xxiii. 1; 1 Tim. i. 5; 1 Pet. iii. 21. See also καθαρὰ συνείδησις 1 Tim. iii. 9; 2 Tim. i. 3. Comp. c. x. 22, συν. πονηρά.

For συνείδησις see ix. 9 Additional Note; and p. 116.

The adj. καλὸς seems to retain its characteristic sense of that which commands the respect and admiration of others. So far the word appeals to the judgment of the readers.

ἐν πᾶσιν κ. θ. ἀναστρ.] This clause may go either with πειθόμεθα or with ἔχομεν, expressing the ground of the conviction: 'since we wish to live honestly'; or describing the character of that to which the conscience testified: 'as wishing to live honestly.' The latter connexion appears to be the more natural and simpler.

ἐν πᾶσιν] in all respects, in all things, in the points which cause misgivings, as in others. The word is neuter and not masculine. Comp. v. 4 note.

Hoc est, non ex parte sed ex toto studemus bene vivere (Herv.). The Greek Fathers take it as masculine: ἅρα οὐκ ἐν ἀθνικοῖς μόνον ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐν ὑμῖν (Chrys., Œcum., Theophlct.).

καλὴν...καλῶς...] an honest 447 ¹⁹περισσοτέρως δὲ παρακαλῶ τοῦτο ποιῆσαι ἵνα τάχειον ἀποκατασταθῶ ὑμῖν. ²°Ὁ δὲ θεὸς τῆς

conscience...to live honestly..., in the old sense of the word. Comp. v. 22 (παρακαλῶ...παραΚήσεως); Matt. xxi. 41.

θέλοντες] desiring and not merely being willing: c. xii. 17. Whatever the issue might be this was the Apostle's earnest wish. Compare 1 Thess. ii. 18; 2 Tim. iii. 12.

ἀναστρέφεσθαι] Vulg. conversari, to enter into the vicissitudes and activities of social life. See v. 7 note.

(19). περισσ. δὲ...] Amplius autem deprecor vos hoc facere (hoc peto faciatis d). The writer enforces the common request by a personal consideration, And the more exceedingly do I exhort you to do this... The transition from the plural to the singular, no less than the order, points to the connexion of περισσ. with παρακαλῶ and not with ποιῆσαι.

ἵνα τάχ. ἀποκατ. ὑ.] that I may be restored to you the sooner, Vulg. quo (ut quo am.) celerius restituar vobis. The expression does not necessarily imply a state of imprisonment, which is in fact excluded by the language of v. 23, since the purpose thus declared presupposes, so far, freedom of action. All that the word requires is that the writer should have been kept from the Hebrews (in one sense) against his will. It may have been by illness.

For the word see Matt. xii. 13; xvii. 11; Acts i. 6. Comp. Acts iii. 21. It is not unfrequent in Polybius: iii. 5, 4; 98, 9; viii. 29, 6 &c.

By the use of it the writer suggests the idea of service which he had rendered and could render to his readers. He was in some sense required for their completeness; and by hie presence he could remove the causes of present anxiety. Δείκηυσιν ὅτι θαρρεῖ τῷ συνειδότι καὶ διὰ τοῦτο προστρέχει αὐτοῖς (Theophlct.).

Quo celerius restituar vobis, hoc est, amplius pro vestra quam pro mea salute deprecor νοs ut oretis pro me...ut...restituar non mihi sed vobis (Herv.).

(20), 21. The Apostle has first asked for the prayers of his readers, and then he anticipates their answer by the outpouring of his own petitions in their behalf.

Notandum quod primo postulat ab eis orationis suffragium ac deinde non simpliciter sed tota intentione et omni prorsus studio suam orationem pro eis ad Dominum fundit (Primas.).

Comp. 1 Thess. v. 23; 1 Pet. v. 10 f.

(20). The aspects under which God is described as 'the God of peace' and the author of the exaltation of Christ, correspond with the trials of the Hebrews. They were in a crisis of conflict within and without. They were tempted to separate themselves from those who were their true leaders under the presence of unexpected afflictions (comp. xii. 11); and they were tempted also to question the power of Christ and the efficacy of the Covenant made through Him.

The title 'the God of peace' is not uncommon in St Paul's Epistles: Rom. xv. 33; xvi. 20; 2 Cor. xiii. 11 (ὁ θεὸς τῆς ἀγάπης καὶ εἶρ.); 1 Thess. v. 23. Comp. 1 Cor. xiv. 33.

It is through God, as the author and giver of peace, that man is able to find the harmony which he seeks in the conflicting elements of his own nature, in his relations with the world, in his relations to God Himself. Τοῦτο εἶπε διὰ τὸ στασιάζειν αὐτοῦς (Chrys.).

Ἐπειδὴ θεὸς εἶρηνης ἐστὶ οὐ δεῖ ὑμᾶς διαστασιάζειν πρὸς ἐμὲ καὶ ταῦτα ἀπὸ ἀκοῆς ψιλῆς (Theophlct.).

The thoughts which spring from the contemplation of the general character of God are deepened by the contemplation of His work for 'our Lord Jesus.' In the Resurrection of Christ we have the decisive revelation of 448 εἰρήνης, ὁ ἀναγαγὼν ἐκ νεκρῶν τὸν ποιμένα τῶν προβάτων τὸν μέγαν ἐν αἵματι διαθήκης αἰωνίου, τὸν κύριον ἡμῶν Ίησοῦν,

20 Ίησοῦν אACM₂: + Xριστόν D₂* syr vg me.

victory over all evil, in the victory over death. Christ's Resurrection is the perfect assurance of the support of those who in any degree fulfil in part that pastoral office which He fulfilled perfectly.

This is the only direct reference to the Resurrection in the Epistle, just as c. xii. 2 is the only direct reference to the Cross. The writer regards the work of Christ in its eternal aspects. Compare Additional Note.

ὁ ἀναγ. ἐκ ν.] Vulg. qui eduxit de mortuis (suscitat ex mortuis d). The phrase occurs again in Rom. x. 7. Compare Wisd. xvi. 13 κατάγεις εἰς πύλας ὅδου καὶ ἀνάγεις. The usage of the verb ἀνάγειν generally in the Ν. T., as well as the contrast in which it stands in these two passages to κατάγειν, shews that ἀναγαγών must be taken in the sense of 'brought up' and not of 'brought again.' The thought of restoration is made more emphatic by the addition of the thought of the depth of apparent defeat out of which Christ was raised.

τὸν ποιμένα...] the Shepherd of the sheep, the great Shepherd. Pastor est quia totum gregem conservat et pascit. Pascit autem non solum verbo doctrinæ sed corpore et sanguine suo (Herv.).

The image is common from Homer downwards. Philo in commenting on the application of the title of Shepherd to God in Ps. xxiii. says that as Shepherd and King He leads injustice and law the harmonious courses of the heavenly bodies 'having placed His right Word, His first-born Son, as their leader, to succeed to the care of this sacred flock, as a viceroy of a great king' (de Agric. § 12; i. 308 M.); and elsewhere he speaks of 'the divine Word' as a 'Shepherd-king' (de mut. nom. § 20; i. p. 596 M.). Comp. John x. 11 note; and for the addition τὸν μέγαν c. iv. 14; x. 21. Πολλοὶ προφῆται διδάσκαλοι ἀλλ' εἶς καθηγητὴς ὁ χριστός (Theophlct.).

The old commentators saw rightly in the words here a reference to Is. lxiii. 11 (lxx.) ποῦ ὁ ἀναβιβάσας ἐκ τῆς θαλάσσης τὸν ποιμένα τῶν προβάτων; The work of Moses was a shadow of that of Christ: the leading up of him with his people out of the sea was a shadow of Christ's ascent from the grave: the covenant with Israel a shadow of the eternal covenant.

ἐν υἵμ. διαθ. αἰ.] This clause, based on Zech. ix. 11, goes with all that precedes, ὁ ἀναγ....ἐν αἵ. δ. αἰ. The raising of Christ was indissolubly united with the establishment of the Covenant made by His blood and effective in virtue of it. His 'blood' is the vital energy by which He fulfils His work. So, when He was brought up from the dead, the power of His life offered for the world was, as it were, the atmosphere which surrounded Him as He entered on His triumphant work. Comp. x. 19 note. Εἰ μὴ ἐγήγεπτο, οὐκ ἆν ἧν ἡμῖν τὸ αἷμα αὐτοῦ εἰς διαθήκην (Theophlct.). For αἵμ. διαθ. compare Test. xii. Patr. Benj. 3 ὑπὲρ ἀσεβῶν ἀποθανεῖται [ὁ ἀμνὸς τοῦ θεοῦ] ἐν αἵματι διαθήκης.

The covenant is described in its character (ἐν αἵ. δ. αἰ.). The new covenant is 'an eternal covenant': Jerem. xxxii.; Is. lv., lxi. Comp. c. viii. 8 ff. Αἰωνίαν τὴν καινὴν κέκληκε διαθήκην ὡς ἑτέρας μετὰ ταύτην οὐκ ἐσυμένης (Theodt.).

τὸν κύρ. ἡ. Ἰ.] The phrase expresses the sum of the earliest Creed: Rom. x. 9; 1 Cor. xii. 3.

The title 'the Lord Jesus' is common in the book of the Acts (i. 21; iv. 449 ²¹καταρτίσαι ὑμᾶς ἐv παντὶ ἀγαθῷ εἰς τὸ ποιῆσαι τὸ θέλημα αὐτοῦ, τ ποιῶν ἐν ἡμῖν τὸ εὐάρεστον ἐνώπιον αὐτοῦ διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, ᾦ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν

21 αὐτῷ. ? αὐτός

21 ὑμᾶς: ἡμᾶς D₂*. ἐν παντί אD₂* vg: + ἔργῳ CΜ₂: + ἔργῳ καὶ λόγῳ A (2 Thess. ii. 17). ποιῆσαι: + ἡμᾶς D₂*. ποιῶν א* D₂M₂ vg syr vg me: + αὐτῷ' ποιῶν א* (Α)C*. ἐν ὑμῖν C vg me: ἐν ἡμῖν אAD₂M₂ syr vg. om. τῶν αἰ. D₂.

33; [vii. 59;] viii. 16; xi. 20; xv. 11; xix. 13, 17; xx. 24, 35; xxi. 13). In other books it is much more rare (1 Cor. v. 5 (?); xi. 23; xvi. 23; 2 Cor. iv. 14 (?); xiii. 13 (?); Eph. i. 15; 2 Thess. i. 7; Phm. 5) and the fuller title 'the Lord Jesus Christ' is generally used. 'Our Lord Jesus' occurs 2 Cor. i. 14; viii. 9 (?); 'Jesus our Lord' Rom. iv. 24; 2 Pet. i. 2.

Here it is natural that the writer of the Epistle should desire to emphasise the simple thoughts of the Lord's sovereignty and humanity as 'the Great Shepherd.' For the contrast of Moses and 'Jesus' see c. iii. 1 note.

(21). καταρτίσαι ὑ. ἐν π. ἀγ.] make you perfect in every good thing. Vulg. aptet ros in omni bono.

Comp. 1 Pet. v. 10. The word καταρτίζειν, to make perfect, includes the thoughts of the harmonious combination of different powers (comp. Eph. iv. 12 καταρτισμός 2 Cor. xiii. 9 κατάρτισις), of the supply of that which is defective (1 Thess. iii. 10), and of the amendment of that which is faulty (Gal. vi. 1; comp. Mk. i. 19). Comp. Ign. Eph. 2; Phil. 8; Smyrn. 1; Mart. Ign. 4.

Chrysostom remarks wisely on the choice of the word, πάλιν μαρτυρεῖ αὐτοῖς μεγάλα. τὸ γὰρ καταρτιζόμενόν ἐστι τὸ ἀρχὴν ἔχον εἶτα πληρούμενον.

The general phrase ἐν παντὶ ἀγαθῷ conveys the thoughts expressed by the explanatory glosses ἔργῳ and ἔργῳ καὶ λόγῳ.

εἰς τὸ ποιῆσαι...] to the end that you do....Action is the true object of the harmonious perfection of our powers. And each deed is at once the deed of man and the deed of God (ποιῆσαι, ποιῶν). The work of God makes man's work possible. He Himself does (αὐτὸς ποιῶν), as the one source of all good, that which in another sense man does as freely accepting His grace. And all is wrought in man 'through Jesus Christ.' Comp. Acts iii. 16.

τὸ εὐάρ. ἐνώπ. αὐτοῦ] Compare 1 John iii. 22 τὰ ἀρεστὰ ἐνώποιν αὐτοῦ; and for ἐνώποιν αὐτοῦ Acts iv. 19; 1 Pet. iii. 4; 1 Tim. ii. 3; v. 4.

διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ] Εἰ μεσίτης γενέσθαι θεοῦ καὶ ἡμῶν ἠθέλησεν εἰκότως δι'αὐτοῦ ὁ πατὴρ τὸ εὐάρεστον αὐτῷ εἰς ἡμᾶς ἐπιτελέσει (Œcum.).

ᾦ ἡ δόξα...] The doxology may be addressed to Christ as in 2 Tim. iv. 18; 2 Pet. iii. 18; Apoc. i. 6. The Greek, however, admits the reference of the relative to the main subject of the sentence, ὁ θεός (cf. c. v. 7; 2 Thess. ii. 9), and this is the most likely interpretation. Primasius combines both persons: Cui est gloria, id est, Deo Patri et Jesu Christo. Compare Additional Note.

εἰς τοῦς αἰ. τῶν αἰ.] Comp. v. 8 note. The phrase occurs here only in the Epistle. It is common in the Apocalypse (twelve times, with the varied phrase εἰς αἰῶνας αἰώνων in xiv. 11), and is found also in Phil. iv. 20; 1 Tim. i. 17; 2 Tim. iv. 18; 1 Pet. iv. 11 (all doxologies).

The language of the Apostle's prayer has given occasion to an instructive expression of the characteristic differences of Greek and Latin 450 αἰώνων. ἀμήν. ²⁴Παρακαλῶ δὲ ὑμᾶς, ἀδελφοί, ἀνέχεσθε τοῦ λόγου τῆς παρακλήσεως, καὶ γὰρ διὰ

22 ἀνέχεσθαι

22 ἀνέχεσθε א(A)CM₂ me: ἀνέχεσθαι D₂* vg. om. γάρ א*.

theology in regard to man's share in good works. The Greek Commentators find in the word καταρτίζειν the recognition of the free activity of man: the Latin Commentators see in the prayer itself a testimony to man's complete dependence upon God.

Thus Chrysostom writes: ὁρᾷς πῶς δείκνυσι τὴν ἀρετὴν οὔτε ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ τὸ ὅλον οὔτε ἐξ ἡμῶν μόνον κατορθουμένην. τῷ γὰρ εἰπεῖν καταρτίσαι....ὡσεὶ ἔλεγεν Ἔχετε μὲν ἀρετὴν δεῖσθε δὲ πληρώσεως. Theophylact goes farther: ὅρα ὅτι δεῖ ἡμᾶς πρότερον ἄρχεσθαι καὶ τότε αἰτεῖσθαι τὸ τέλος παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ. And so Œcumenius ἡμᾶς δεῖ ἐνάρξασθαι τὸν δὲ πληροῦντα ἱκετεύειν.

On the other hand Primasius writes: A vobis nihil boni habere potestis nisi illo proveniente et subsequente....Per illum facti et redempti sumus, et per illum quidquid boni habemus nobis subministratur. And this thought is forcibly expressed by Herveius in a note on v. 25: Hæc est gratia quæ mentem prævenit et adjuvat ut homo suæ voluntatis et operationis obsequium subjungat; et dictum ex hoc ne de liberi arbitrii sui viribus præsumerent et quasi ex seipsis hæc posse bene agere putarent (Herv.).

It is obvious that the two views are capable of being reconciled in that larger view of man's constitution and destiny which acknowledges that the Fall has not destroyed the image of God in which he was created. Every act of man, so far as it is good, is wrought in fellowship with God.

(22). παρακαλῶ δέ...] But I exhort you, brethren, bear with the word of exhortation....The words come as a postscript after the close of the letter, when the writer has reviewed what he has said. As he looks back he feels that the very brevity of his argument on such themes as he has touched upon pleads for consideration.

παρακαλῶ...παρακλήσεως] Comp. v. 19; iii. 13; x. 25; vi. 18 note; xii. 5.

ἀνέχεσθε] bear with that which makes demands on your self-control and your endurance. 2 Tim. iv. 3 ὑγιαινούσησ διδασκαλίας οὐκ ἀνέξovτai.

The word is frequently used in regard to persons: Matt. xvii. 17; 2 Cor. xi. 1; &c.

τ. λόγ. τ. παρακλ.] the word of exhortation (Vulg. verbum solacii) with which the writer had encouraged them to face their trials. Acts xiii. 15 εἰ ἔστιν λόγος ἐν ὑμῖν παρακλήσεως, λέγετε.

Οὐ λέγει παρακαλῶ ὑμᾶς ἀνέχεσθε τοῦ λόγου τῆς παραινέσεως, ἀλλὰ τοῦ λόγου τῆς παρακλήσεως. τουτέστι, τῆς παραμυθίας, τῆς προτροπῆς (Chrys.).

καὶ γάρ...] c. iv. 2 note. 'I ask for patient attention, for in fact (Vulg. etenim...) I have written little when I might have extended my arguments to far greater length if I had not feared to weary you.' This appears to be the natural sense of the words. It is less likely that the writer wishes to apologise for any obscurity or harshness in what he has written on the ground of his brevity.

ἐπέστειλα] I have written, Vulg. scripsi. The word ἐπιστέλλειν is used in a similar connexion in Clem. 1 ad Cor. 62 περὶ τῶν ἀνηκόντων τῇ θρησκείᾳ ἡμῶν...ἱκανῶς ἐπεστείλαμεν ὑμῖν, ἄνδρες ἀδελφοί. Compare also cc. 7; 47; Ign. Mart. c. 4. Iren. iii. 3, 3 ἐπέστειλεν ἡ ἐν Ῥώμῃ ἐκκλησία ἱκανωτάτην γραφὴν τοῖς Κορινθίοις. 451 βραχέων ἐπίστειλα ὑμῖν. ²³Γινώσκετε τὸν ἀδελφὸν ἡμῶν Τιμόθεον ἀπολελυμένον, μεθ' οὖ ἀὰv τάχειον αρχηται ὄψομαι ὑμᾶς. ²⁴Άσπάσασθβ πάντας τοὺς ἡγουμένους ὑμῶν καὶ πάντας τοὺς ἁγίους. Ἀσπάζονται ὑμᾶς οἱ ἀπὸ τῆς Ἰταλίας.

ἐπέστειλα: ἀπέστειλα D₂. 23 ἀδ. ἡμῶν א* (A)CD₂* M₂ vg syr vg me: om. ἡμῶν S א*. ἔρχηται: ἔρχητε D₂*: ἔρχησθε א*.

The verb occurs again Acts xv. 20 (and v. i. in xxi. 25) where the sense is somewhat uncertain (write or enjoin). For the aor. comp. 1 John ii. 12 ff. (γράφω, /ἔγραψα) note.

διὰ βραχέων] in few words (Vulg. perpaucis), that is, relatively to the vastness of the subject. Compare 1 Pet. v. 12 δι' ὀλίγων ἔγραψα.

(23). γινώσκετε] The order, no less than the general scope of the verse, seems to shew that the verb is imperative: Know ye, that our brother Timothy hath been discharged (ἀπολελυμένον, Vulg. dimissum), that is discharged from confinement (Acts xvi. 35 f.), or more generally set free from the charge laid against him (Acts iii. 13; xxvi. 32). It can cause no surprise that the details of this fact are wholly unknown.

τὸν ἀδ. ἡμ. Τιμ.] The order which St Paul adopts invariably is [Τιμ.] ὁ ἀδελφός. Rom. xvi. 23; (1 Cor. i. 1); 1 Cor. xvi. 12; (2 Cor. i. 1); ii. 13; Phil. ii. 25; (Col. i. 1); iv. 7; 1 Thess. iii. 2; (Philem. 1).

ἐὰν τάχειον...] Vulg. si celerius.... The comparative suggests the occurrence of hindrances which the Apostle could not distinctly foresee. Compare v. 19.

ὄψομαι ὑμᾶς] Rom. i. 11; 1 Thess. ii. 17; iii. 6, 10; 2 Tim. i. 4; 3 John 14.

(24). ἀσπάσασθε...] A general salutation of this kind is found in most of the Epistles of the Ν. T. (Rom., 1, 2 Cor., Phil, Col., 1 Thess., Tit., 1 Pet., 3 Joh.); but the form of this is unique; and there appears to be an emphasis in the repetition πάντας...πάντας...all...all... which probably points to the peculiar circumstances of the Church. Comp. Phil. iv. 21 ἀσπ. πάντα ἅγιον ἐν Χριστῷ. The special salutation of 'all that have the rule' implies that the letter was not addressed officially to the Church, but to some section of it. The patristic commentators notice the significance of the clause:

Αἰνίττεται ὁ λόγος ὡς οἱ προαστατεύοντες αὐτῶν τοιαύτης διδασκαλίας οὐκ ἔχρῃζον. οὖ δὴ χάριν οὐκ ἐκείνοις ἐπέστειλεν ἀλλὰ τοῖς μαθηταῖς (Theodt).

Ὅρα πῶς αὐτοὺς τιμᾷ εἰγε δι'αὐτοὺς ἡγουμένους προσαγορεύει (Theophlct).

ἀσπ. ὑ. οἱ ἀπὸ τῆς Ἰτ.] They of Italy salute you, Vulg. Salutant vos de Italia. The phrase may mean either (1) 'those who are in Italy send greeting from Italy,' or (2) 'those of Italy,' that is Italian Christians who were with the writer at the time, 'send greeting.' The former rendering is adequately illustrated by Matt. xxiv. 17; Luke xi. 13; Col. iv. 16; and it is adopted by the Fathers: οἱ ἀπὸ τῆς Ἰταλίας. ἔδειξε πόθεν γέγραφε τὴν ἐπιστολήν (Theodt); apertissime his verbis nobis innuit quod Romæ hanc epistolam scripserit quæ in regione Italiæ sita est (Primas.).

The choice between tho two renderings will be determined by the view 452 ²⁵Ή χάρις μβτά πάντων νμων.

25 ἀμήν.

25 ὑμῶν: τῶν ἁγίων D₂*. ἁμήν: om. א*

which is taken of the place from which the Letter was written. The words themselves contribute nothing to the solution of the question.

(25). The same greeting is found Tit. iii. 15. Every Epistle of St Paul includes in its final greeting the wish for 'grace' to those who receive it.

Ή χάρις is used absolutely in Eph. vi. 24 ή χάρις μετὰ πάντων τῶν ἀγαπώντων.... Col. iv. 18; 1 Tim. vi. 21; 2 Tim. iv. 22 ἡ χάρις μεθ'ὑμῶν.

Generally 'the grace' is defined as 'the grace of our Lord [Jesus Christ]' (Rom., 1, 2 Cor., Gal., Phil., 1, 2 Thess., Phm.).

In 1 Cor. xvi. 23 and 2 Cor. xiii. 13 significant additions are made to the prayer for grace ('my love, 'the love of God, and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit'). In 1 Pet., 3 John the prayer is for 'love, not for 'grace.' There is no corresponding greeting in James, 2 Pet᾿, 1, 2 John, Jude.

The simplicity of the final greeting when compared with the ordinary forms of salutation in the Epistles is remarkable.

μετὰ π. ὑμ.] 2 Thess. iii. 18; 1 Cor. xvi. 24; 2 Cor. xiii. 13; Rom. xv. 33.

On the sense of χάρις Theophylact writes: τίς δέ ἐστιν ἡ χάρις; ἡ ἄφεσι τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν, ἡ κάθαρσις, ἡ τοῦ πνευματος μετάληψις. And Primasius, more in detail ; Gratise nomine debemus hic accipere fidem perfectam cum exsecutione bonorum operum, remissionem quoque peccatorum quam percipiunt fideles tempore baptismatis, donum etiam Spiritus Sancti quod datur in baptismato per impositionem manus episcoporum, quæ omnia gratis a Deo dantur. The changes in the revised texts of Haymo and Atto are worth notice.


*Additional Note on* xiii. 10. *On the history of the word θυσιαστήριον.*

The word Θυσιαστήριον is found first in the lxx. From the lxx. it passed into the vocabulary of Philo, of the N.T., and of Christian writers. It is not quoted from classical authors, who have (though rarely) the corresponding form θυτήριον: Arat. PhŒŒœœn. 402 &c. [ara Cic.]; Hyginus, xxxix.; comp. Eurip. Iph. Taur. 243; Hesych. Suid. θυτηρίοις. θυμιατηρίοις.

The word is an adjectival form derived from θυσιάζω (lxx. Ex. xxii. 20, &c,) like θυμιατήριον, περιρραντήριον, ἱλαστήριον, χαριστήριον &c., and, expressing generally 'that which is connected with the act of sacrifice,' it is used specially in a local sense to describe 'the place of sacrifice' (compare δειπνητήριον, ὁρμητήριον, φυλακτήριον).

The usage of the word in the lxx. is of considerable interest. It is the habitual rendering of Hebrew, as applied to the altar of the true God, from Gen. viii. 20 onwards, in all the groups of books (more than 300 times). It occurs once as a variant for ἱλαστήριον (Hebrew) in Lev. xvi. 14; once again as a rendering of Hebrew in 2 Chron. xiv. 5; and once in a clause which varies widely from the Hebrew text (Ex. xxvii. 3; comp. xxxviii. 3).

On the other hand Hebrew is rendered also by βωμός (more than twenty times), and once by στήλη, 2 Chron. xxxiii. 3 (Θυσιαστήριον Compl.). There is however a general difference of usage between θυσιαστήριον and βωμός. θυσιαστήριον is characteristically the altar of God, and βωμός the altar of idolatrous or false worship. Thus βωμός is used of idol altars, Ex. xxxiv. 13 (ara); Deut. vii. 5 (ara); Is. xvii. 8 (altare), &c., and in the Apocrypha, 1 Macc. i. 54, 59; ii. 23; 2 Macc. x. 2. It is used also of the altar of Balaam, Num. xxiii. 1 ff., and of the altar of the Reubenites, Josh. xxii. 10 ff. (contrast vv. 28 f. θυσιαστήριον, and in v. 19 βωμός and Θυσιαστήριον are opposed). In accordance with this usage it is found seven times as a rendering of Ηebrew (high place). It is never used, I believe, of the altar of God in the translation of the Books of the Hebrew Canon. In some of the later Books it is so used: Ecclus. i. 12, 14; 2 Macc. ii. 19; xiii. 8 (not x. 2); but 1 Macc., follows the earlier precedent (1 Macc. i. 47, 59; ii. 23 ff. 45; v. 68).

It must, however, be added that Θυσιαστήριον is not unfrequently used of idol altars: Jud. ii. 2; vi. 25, 28, 31 f.; 1 K. xvl. 32; xviii. 26; 2 K. xi. 18; xxl. 5; xxiii. 12; Ezek. vi. 4 ff.; Hos. x. 1, &c.

As a general rule, but by no means uniformly, βωμός was represented in the Old Latin by ara and Θυσιαστήριον by altare, and traces of the distinction remain in the Vulgate11   Durandus (Rationale, i. 2, 2) gives a distinction between altare and ara which, although it is utterly inconsistent with the usage of the O. T., suggests an important thought as to the different conceptions of an altar: altare quasi alta res vel alta ara dicitur, in quo sacerdotes incensum adolebant: ara quasi arca, id est plates, vel ab ardore dicitur, quia in ea sacrificia ardebant..


The exact relation of βωμός to θυσιαστήριον in 1 Macc. i. 59 (comp. Jos. Antt. xii. 5, 4), Ecclus. i. 11 f. is not easy to determine. Perhaps θυσιαστήριον is (see below) the altar-court.

In the Gospels and Epistles of the Ν. Τ. θυσιαστήριον is used of

(1) The brazen altar of burnt-offering,

Matt v. 23 f. (altare).

___ xxiii. 35 &c. (altare).

(2) The golden altar of incense,

Luke i. 11, τὸ θυσιαστήριον τοῦ θυμιάματος.

(3) And generally of the altar

(a) for the worship of Jehovah: James ii. 21 (O. L. and Vulg. altare); Rom. xi. 3 (lxx.) (altare).

(b) for the Levitical service: 1 Cor. ix. 13 (O. L. altarium, Vulg. altare); x. 18 (altare)11   The variation in the language in vv. 18, 21 deserves careful study: οὐχ oἱ ἐσθίοντες τὰς θυσίας, κοινωνοὶ τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου εἰσί;...οὐ δύνασθε τραπέζης Κυρίου μετέχειν καὶ τραπέζης δαιμονίων. When the offering is regarded as the material of a feast the 'altar' becomes a 'table.' Not only was the Table of Shewbread so called, but the Altar of incense (Ezek. xli. 22), and perhaps the Altar of burnt-offering (Ezek. xliv. 16; Mal. i. 13)..

In the Apocalypse it is used, according to the general interpretation, of

(1) The altar of sacrifice: vi. 9 (O. L. ara, Vulg. altare); viii. 3 a (O. L altarium, Vulg. altare), which proclaims the justice of God's judgments: xvi. 7 (Vulg. altare).

(2) The golden altar which is before the throne, vlii. 3 b (O. L. ara, Vulg. altare), 5; before God, ix. 13 (O. L ara, Vulg. altare).

(3) The place of the altar (the altar-court): xi. 1 (O. L. ara, Vulg. altare). Compare xiv. 17 f.; and see also Clem. xii. with Bp Lightfoot's note22   It is however by no means clear that the imagery is that of the Jewish.

Philo appears to use βωμός commonly of the altar of God (de vict. off. § 4. ii. 253 Μ.: προστάξας δύο κατασκευασθῆναι βωμούς), but he recognises θυσιαστήριον as the characteristic name of the altar of sacrifice: de vit. Mos. iii. § 10 (ii. 151 Μ.) τὸν ἐν ὑπαίθρῳ βωμὸν εἰωθε καλεῖν θυσιαστήριον: and elsewhere he speaks of this as 'a peculiar and special name': de vict. off. § 6 (ii. 255 M.) κέκληκε θυσιαστήριον, ἴδιον καὶ ἐξαίρετον ὄνομα αθέμενος αὐτῷ παρὰ τὸ διατηρεῖν ὡς ἕοικε τὰς θυσίας. It is consonant with his manner of thought that he should regard 'the thankful soul' as the θυσιαστήριον of God (de vict. offer. § 5; ii. 255 Μ.) τοῦ θεοῦ θυσιαστήριόν ἐστιν ή τοῦ σοφοῦ ψυχή, παγεῖσα ἐκ τελείων ἀριθυῶν ἀτμήτων καὶ ἀδιαιρέτων.

Temple with its two altars, and not rather a foreshadowing of the arrangements of the Christian Basilican Churoh with its single altar, and sanctuary, and nave and narthex. It is indeed difficult to agree with Mr G. G. Soott in thinking that the picture is directly drawn from any existing Christian building, but the general view which he gives of its agreement with Christian as distinguished from Jewish ritual deserves careful consideration: Εssαy on English Church Architecture, pp. 27 ff.


Josephus does not seem to make any distinction between the two words. He speaks of the altar of burnt-offering (Antt. iii. 6, 8), and of the golden altar (xii. 5, 4), no less than of the altar of Balaam (iv. 6, 4) by the name βωμός. And again he calls the altar of burnt-offering θυσιαστήριον (Antt. viii. 3, 7).

The early Christian writers follow the custom of the lxx. Clement (l ad Cor. 32 οἱ λειτουργοῦντες τῷ θυσιαστηρίῳ τοῦ θεοῦ) uses θυσιαστήριον as the general term for the divine altar, and perhaps, though this seems to be uncertain, for 'the court of the altar' (c. 41 οὐ πανταχοῦ προσφέρονται θυσίαι...ἀλλ' ἔμπροσθεν τοῦ ναοῦ πρὸς τὸ θυσιαστήριον...Lightfoot ad loc.). On the other hand he calls the altar of the Sun βωμός (c. 25).

Barnabas uses θυσιαστήριον for the altar of Abraham's sacrifice on Moriah (vii. 3), and for the Levitical altar (vii. 9). The Latin rendering ad aram illius (i 7), which suggests τῷ βωμῷ αὐτοῦ, for 'the altar of God,' cannot be maintained against the reading of both the Greek @Mss. τῷ φόβῳ αὐτοῦ.

The usage of θυσιαστήριον in the Epistles of Ignatius is very remarkable. In one place it occurs by a natural image for the arena in which Ignatius expected to die (ad Rom. 2 πλέον μοι μὴ παράσχησθί του σπον δισθῆναι θεῷ, ὡς ἔτι θυσιαστήριον ἔτοιμόν ἐστιν). In three other passages the word expresses that which represents the unity of the Christian Society.

Eph. 5. Μηδεὶς πλανάσθω. ἐὰν μή τις ῇ ἐντὸς τοὺ θυσιαστήριου ὑστερεῖτα ίται τοῦ ἀρτοῦ [τοῦ θεοῦ]. εἰ γὰρ ἑνὸς καὶ δευτέρου προσευχὴ τοσαύτνη ἰσχὺν ἔχει, πόσῳ μᾶλλον ἥ τε τοῦ ἐπισκόπου καὶ πάσης τῆς ἐκκλησίας.

Here the θυσιαστήριον—the place of sacrifice—is evidently the place of assembly of the spiritual Israel, where the faithful meet God in worship, like the altar-court of the old Temple, the court of the congregation. He who has no place within this sacred precinct is necessarily excluded from the privileges which belong to the Divine Society. He is not a member of the Body of Christ, and therefore cannot share in the sacrifices which are offered there, the common prayer of the Church, or in 'the bread of God' which is given to believers (comp. Bp Lightfoot ad loc.).

The same general thought is expressed in a second passage:

Trall. 7. ὁ ἐντὸς θυσιαστηρίου ὥν καθαρός ἐστιν. ὁ δὲ ἐκτὸς θυσιαστηρίου ὥν οὐ καθαρός ἐστιν. τουτέστιν, ὁ χωρὶς ἐπισκόπου καὶ πρεσβυτερίου καὶ διακόνων πράσσων τι, οὗτος οὐ καθαρός ἐστιν τῇ συνειδήσει.

The idea of the Christian θυσιαστήριον is here more exactly defined. To be included in the holy precinct, is to be in fellowship with the lawfully organised society.

In a third passage the thought is different and yet closely connected:

Magn. 7. πάντες οὖν ὡς εἰς ἕνα ναὸν συντρέχετε θεοῦ (Ltft. conj. θεόν), ὡς ἐπὶ ἐν θυσιαστήριον ἐπὶ ἔνα Ἰησοῦν Χριστόν, τὸν ἀφ' ἑνὸς πατρὸς προελθόντα καὶ εἰς ἕνα ὅντα καὶ χωρήσαντα.

Here the Father is Himself the Sanctuary, and Christ the means through Whom and in Whom we have access to the Father. He is Himself the living source of unity, just as the altar-court was the symbol of unity for the people of God. To be 'in Him' is to be within the θυσιαστήριον.


These passages serve to determine the meaning of the word in the last place in which it occurs:

Philad. 4. σπουδάσατε oὖv μιᾷ εὐχαριστίᾳ χρῆσθαι. μία γὰρ σὰρξ τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν Ίησοῦ Χρίστοῦ, καὶ ἐν ποτήριον εἰς ἔνωσιν τοῦ αἵματος αὐτοῦ. ἐν θυσιαστήριον, ὡς εἶς ἐπίσκοπος, ἅμα τῷ πρεσβυτερίῳ καὶ διακόνοις τοῖς συνδούλοις μου. ἵνα ὁ ἐὰv πράσσητε, κατὰ θεὸν πράσσητε.

There is one organised congregation, which is the Body of Christ, in which the blessings of communion with God are realised.

In the Epistle of Polycarp the image of the 'altar' finds still another application in the narrower sense. Just as Christ Himself can be spoken of as the θυσιαστήριον and the whole Christian body which is 'in Him,' so also a part of the Body may receive the name.

Philipp. 4. διδάξωμεν...τὰς χήρας...γινωσκούσας ὅτι εἰσὶ θυσιαστήριον θεοῦ, καὶ ὅτι πάντα μωμοσκοπεῖται, καὶ λέληθεν αὐτὸν οὐδέv....

The widows are an altar in a double sense, both because on them the alms of the faithful are offered to God, and also because they themselves offer to God sacrifices of service and prayer (comp. Const. Apost. ii. 26; iii. 6; 14; iv. 3). The last passage is instructive: ὁ δὲ ἡλικίαν...ἧ τέκνων πολυτροφίαν λαμβάνων, ὁ τοιοῦτος οὐ μόνον οὐ μεμφθήσεται ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐπαινεθήσεται. θυσιαστήριον γὰρ τῷ θεῷ λελογισμένος ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ τιμηθήσεται.... οὐκ ἀργῶς λαμβάνων ἀλλὰ τῆς δόσεως αὐτοῦ, ὅση δύναμις, τὸν μισθὸν διδοὺς διὰ τῆς προσευχῆς11   The word is not, I believe, used literally of the Christian Holy Table in the Constitutions..

Hermas uses θυσιαστήριον twice in a purely spiritual sense. For him the altar is, after the imagery of the Apocalypse, that whereon the offerings of men are placed that they may be brought before God.

Mand. x. 3, 2 f. λυπηροῦ ἀνδρὸς ἡ ἔντευξις οὐκ ἔχει δύναμιν τοῦ ἀναβῆναι ἐπὶ τὸ θυσιαστήριον τοῦ θεοῦ.

Whatever sacrifice man makes must be made with joy.

Sim. viii. 2, 5. ἐὰν δέ τίς σε παρέλθῃ, ἐγὼ αὐτοὺς ἐπὶ τὸ θυσιαστήριον δοκιμάσω.

So the angel speaks to the Shepherd. If a penitent passes human scrutiny unworthily, a severer trial awaits him. The angel himself will test him (comp. μωμοσκοπεῖσθαι Clem. i. 41; Polyc. 4 quoted above) before he is laid on the altar of God.

In this first stage of Christian literature there is not only no example of the application of the word θυσιαστήριον to any concrete, material, object, as the Holy Table, but there is no room for such an application. As applied to the New Order the word expresses the spiritual correlatives of the altar and altar-court of the Old Order. Two of these in which it was referred to Christians and to Christ Himself continued current in later times.

Thus Clement of Alexandria speaks of 'our altar here, our altar on earth' as being the assembly of those devoted to prayer: ἔστι γοῦν τὸ παρ΄ ἡμῖν θυσιαστήριον ἐvταῦθα τὸ ἐπίγειον τὸ ἄθροισμα τῶν ταῖς εὐχαῖς ἀνακειμένων μίαν ὥσπερ ἔχον φωνὴν τῆν καινὴν καὶ μίαν γνώμην (Strom. vii. § 31, p. 848).

And in the following section he extends the image to the single soul, using, however, the word βωμός....βωμὸν ἀληθῶς ἅγιον τὴν δικαίαν ψυχὴν καὶ τὸ ἀπ' 457 αὐτῆς θυμίαμα τὴν ὁσίαν εὐχὴν λέγουσιν ἡμῖν ἀπιστήσουσιν (id. § 32; comp. Philo de vict. offer. § 5 quoted above).

So Origen, in reply to the charge that Christians βωμοὺς καὶ ἀγάλματα καὶ νεὼς ἱδρύσθαι φεύγειν, answers that 'the sovereign principle of the righteous is an altar': βωμοὶ μὲν εἰσιν ἡμῖν τὸ ἑκάστου τῶν δικαίων ἡγεμονικόν, ἀφ' οὖ ἀναπέμπεται ἀληθῶς καὶ νοητῶς εὐώδη θυμιάματα, αἱ προσευχαὶ ἀπὸ σθνειδήσεως καθαρᾶς (c. Cels. viii. 17); and Methodius speaks of the social interpretation of the word as traditional: θυσιαστήριον ἀναίμακτον εἶvai παρεδόθη τὸ ἄθροισμα τῶν ἁγνῶν (Symp. ν. 6).

Chrysostom uses the image somewhat differently, and speaks of the Christian poor as 'the living altar' on which the alms of the faithful are offered. Such offerings are not consumed like the burnt sacrifices but pass into 'praise and thanksgiving': ἐκαῖνο μὲν γὰρ ἄψυχον τὸ θυσιαστήριον τοῦτο δὲ ἐμψυχον. κἀκεῖ μὲν τὸ ἐπικείμενον ἅπαν τοῦ πυρὸς γίνεται δαπάνη καὶ τελευτᾷ εἰς κόνιν...ἐνταῦθα δὲ οὐδὲν τοιοῦτον ἀλλ' ἑτέρους φέρει τοὺς καρπούς...ὁρᾷς εἰς εὐχαριστίαν ἀναλυομένην αὐτὴν (τὴν λειτουργίαν 2 Cor. ix. 12 ff.) καὶ αἶνον τοῦ θεοῦ...θύωμεν τοίνυν, ἀγαπητοί, θύωμεν εἰς ταῦτα τὰ θυσιαστήρια καθ' ἑκάστην ἡμέραν (Hom. xiii. in Joh. § 4: Migne, P. G. lix. 90).

Cyril of Alexandria again speaks of Christians as 'living stones,' who are framed together into an altar as well as into a temple: αὐδὲν ἧττόν ἐσμεν καῖ οἱονεί τι θυσιαστήριον, συναγηγερμένοι μὲν καθ΄ ἕνωσιν τὴ πνευματικὴν καὶ τὴν ἐν Χριστῷ πίστιν εὐωδιάζοντες, προσκομίζοντες δι' αὐτῦ τῷ θεῷ καὶ πατρὶ καθάπερ ἐν τάξει τπων εὐοσμοτάτων θυμιαμάτων τὰ ἐξ ἀρετῶν αὐχήματα (Glaph. in Deut. p. 427; P. G. lxix. p. 668). So the altar which Moses erected at the making of the Covenant (Ex. xxiv. 4 f.) was a type of the Church of Christ: τὸ μὲν οὖν θυσιαστήριον τύπος ἀν εἴη καὶ μάλα σαφῶς τῆς ἐκκλησίας τοῦ Χρίστοῦ, τῆς oἱονεί πως ἐπὶ τὸ ὅρος κειμένης (Glaph. in Ex. iii. p. 330 P. G. id. 517).

Not Christians only, however, but Christ Himself is spoken of as an altar by later Fathers. Cyril of Alexandria uses the phrase several times. Thus, in commenting on the command to make an altar of earth (Ex. xx. 24 f.), he says: γήῖνον ὀνομάζει θυσιαστήριον τὸν Έμμανουήλ, γέγονε γὰρ σὰρξ ὁ λόγος. γῆ δὲ ἐκ γῆς ἡ σαρκός ἐστι φύσις. ἐν Χριστῷ δὴ οὖν ἡ πᾶσα πάσα καρποφορία καὶ πᾶσα προσαγωγή, φησὶ γὰρ αὐτὸς Χωρὶς ἐμοῦ οὐ δύνασθε ποιεῖν οὐδέν...ἐπαγγέλλεται δὲ τοῖς τὸ ἐκ γῆς ἱστᾶσι θυσιαστήριον ἄφιξίν τε καὶ εὐλογίαν, Ἤξω γὰρ, φησί, πρός σε καὶ εὐλογήσω σε (de ador. in sp. et ver. ix. p. 290: P. G. lxviii. 592). In another place of the same treatise he speaks of Christ as being the altar of incense and the incense itself: μεμνησόμεθα δὲ καὶ τὸ θυσιαστήριον τὸ χρυσοῦν καὶ αὐτὸ δὲ τὸ σύνθετον καὶ λεπτὸν θυμίαμα Χριστὸν εἰρηκότες καὶ αὐτὸν ἡμῖν τὸν Ἐμμανουὴλ δε' ἀμφοῖν σημαίνεσθαι (id. ix. p. 324: P. G. lxviii. 648; comp. x. p. 335: P. G. id. p. 664).

Epiphanius, in a striking passage, points to Christ as fulfilling in Himself all the elements of a perfect sacrifice: μένες...τὴν ἐντελεστἐραν ζῶσαν [θυσίαν] ὑπὲρ παντὸς κόσμου ἱερουργήσας, αὐτὸς ἱερεῖον, αὐτὸς θύμα, αὐτὸς ἱερεύς, αὐτὸς θυσιαστήριον, αὐτὸς θεός, αὐτὸς ἄνθρωπος, αὐτὸς βασιλεύς, αὐτὸς ἀρχιερεύς, αὐτὸς πρόβατον, αὐτὸς ἀρνίον τὰ πάντα ἐν πᾶσιν ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν γενόμενος....(Haer. iv. 4)11   Origen gives another suggestive interpretation of the two altars of Jewish worship: Altaria duo, id est interius et exterius, quoniam altare orationis indicium est, illud puto significare quod dicit Apostolus, orabo spiritu, orabo et mente. Cum enim corde oravero, ad altare interius ingredior...cum autem quis clara voce et.

verbis cum sono prolatis...orationem fundit ad Deum, hic spiritu orat, et offerre videtur hostiam in altare quod foris est ad holocaustomata populi eonstitutum (Hom. x. in Num. § 3).


In Irenaeus there appears to be a transition from the spiritual sense of θυσιαστήριον to that of an earthly Christian altar. Such a use of the word followed naturally from the habitual thought of material offerings. Thus, in a passage preserved only in the Latin translation, after dwelling on the material offerings in the Eucharist, he adds, ideo nos quoque offerre vult [Verbum Dei] munus ad altare frequenter sine intermissione. Est ergo altare in caelis (illuc enim preces nostrae et oblationes diriguntur) et templum, quemadmodum Ioannes in Apocalypsi, xi. 19; xxi. 3 (adv. haer. iv. 18, 6). The words are obscure, but the heavenly altar seems to be made to correspond with an earthly altar. In the first clause munus is material and it appears that altare must correspond with it. The heavenly counterpart answers to the spiritual element in prayers and oblations.

Tertullian repeats the figure of Polycarp (see p. 456), and, arguing against the second marriage of widows, says: aram enim Dei mundam proponi oportet (ad ux. i. 7). But in another place he uses the word ara in connexion with the Eucharist: Ergo devotum Deo obsequium Eucharistia resolvit an magis Deo obligat? Nonne solemnior erit statio tua si et ad aram Dei steteris? (de orat. 14 [19])11   The words de orat. 10 (11) ad Dei altare, and de pat. 12 apud altare, refer to Matt. v. 23 f., and cannot be pressed to give decisive evidence as to Christian usage..

The writings of Cyprian mark a new stage in the development of ecclesiastical thought and language. In them the phraseology of the Levitical law is transferred to Christian institutions. The correspondence between the Old system and the New is no longer generally that of the external and material to the inward and spiritual, but of one outward order to another. Thus he writes: oportet enim sacerdotes et ministros qui altari et sacrificiis deserviunt integros atque immaculatos esse, cum Dominus Deus in Levitico loquatur et dicat: homo in quo fuerit macula et vitium non accedit offerre dona Deo (Lev. xxi. 21); item in Exodo haec eadem praecipiat et dicat: et sacerdotes qui accedunt ad Dominum Deum sanctificentur ne forte derelinquat illos Dominus (Ex. xix. 22); et iterum: et cum accedunt ministrare ad altare eancti, non adducent in se delictum ne moriantur (Ex. xxviii. 43) (Ep. lxxii. 2). As a necessary consequence the Christian minister is said to serve at a material 'altar,' which becomes the habitual name for the Holy Table, Ep. lxix. (lxxvi.) 1 falsa altaria, et illicita sacerdotia, et sacrificia sacrilega; comp. Ep. xliii. (xl.) 5; xlv. (xlii.) 2; de eccles. unit. 1722   Cyprian seems to feel the difference between altare and ara though he does not rigidly observe it: e.g. Ep. lix. (lv.) 18 Domini altare...idola cum aris suis...; Ep. lxv. (lxiv.) 1 quasi post aras diaboli accedere ad altare Dei fas sit...(comp. Ep. lv. (lii.) 14 arae diaboli; de lapsis 15); and on the other hand he writes de lapsis 8 diaboli altare (with ara in the context); Ep. lix. [lv.] 12 diaboli altaria..


From this time there can be no doubt that the names θυσιαστήριον and altare were applied habitually though not exclusively to the Holy Table. The custom had grown up from intelligible causes. No conclusion to the contrary can be drawn from the common statements of the Apologists, that Christians had no shrines or altars (Orig. c. Cels. viii.; Minuc. Fel. Oct. xxxii.; Arnob. adv. gentes, vi. 1). Their language in its context shews that they had before them all the associations of the heathen ritual. In a similar sense Julian accused the Christians of neglecting to sacrifice in spite of the injunctions of the Law, at a time when beyond all question sacrificial language was everywhere current among them (Cyril Alex. adv. Jul. ix.; P. G. lxxvi. 970 ff.).

We read of altars as soon as we read in detail of churches. Eusebius, in his description of the great Church at Tyre, mentions especially τὸ τῶν ἁγίων ἅγιov θυσιαστήριον as placed in the middle of the sanctuary (H. E. x. 4, 43). Elsewhere, speaking of the abolition of heathen worship, he says ἐπὶ τῆς καθ' ὅλης ἀνθρώπων οἰουμένης θυσιαστήρια συνέστη ἐκκλησιῶν τε ἀφιερώματα, νοερῶν τε καὶ λογικῶν θυσιῶν ἱεροπρερεῖς λειτουργίας (de laud. Const. xvl). See also Can. Apost. 3 εἶ τις ἐπίσκοπος...προσενέγκῃ ἕτερά τινα ἐπὶ τὸ θυσιαστήριον ἥ μέλε ἥ γάλα...(comp. Conc. Carthag. iii. can. 24). Cyr. Hier. Cat. xxiii. (Myst. v.) § 2 ἑωράκατε τοίνυν τὸν διάκονον τὸν νίψασθαι διδόντα τῷ ἱερεῖ καὶ τοῖς κυκλοῦσι τὸ θυσιαστήριον τοῦ θεοῦ πρεσβυτέροις. Chrys. c. Jud. et Gent. § 12: P. G. xlviii. 830 αἱ βρεταννικαὶ νῆσοι...τῆς δυνάμεως τοῦ ῥήματος ᾔσθοντο. καὶ γὰρ κἀκεῖ ἐκκλησίαι καὶ θυσιαστήρια πεπήγασι. And Chrysostom points to the old distinction between θυσιαστήριον and βωμός in a passage in which the spiritual and material are strangely mixed: εἰ αἴματος ἐπιθυμεῖς, φησί (in 1 Cor. x. 16), μὴ τὸν τῶν εἰδώλων βωμὸν τῷ τῶν ἀλόγων φόνψ άλλα το θυσιαστήριον το ίμον τψ ίμψ φοινισσψ αϊματι (Hom. xxiv. in 1 Cor. § 1: P. G. lxi. 200). Synesius, as is not unnatural, uses the two words convertibly: κυκλώσομαι τὸ θυσιαστήριον.. .οὐ μὴν ὅ γε θεὸς περιόψεται τὸν βωμὸν τὸν ἀναίμακτον ἱερέως αἵματι μιαινόμενον (Catast. ρ. 303: Ρ.G. lxvi. 1572 f.).

Gregory of Nyssa places θυσιαστήριον in an interesting connexion with τράπεζα: τὸ θυσιαστήριον τοῦτο τὸ ἅγιον ὧ παραστήκαμεν φύσιν κοινός...ἐπειδὴ δὲ καθειρώθη τῇ τοῦ θεοῦ θεραπείᾳ...εστι τράπεζα ἅγία, θυσιαστήριον ἄχραντον, οὐκέτι παρὰ πάντων ψηλαφώμενον...(in Bapt. Christi, P. G. xlvi. p. 581).

It was seen that in regard to the Jewish Temple θυσιαστήριον was used not only for the altar itself, but also for the altar-court. A corresponding application of the word in the larger sense was made in Christian Churches. The Sanctuary itself (Βῆμα, Άγίασμα, Euseb. Η. Ε. vii. 15) was called θυσιαστήριον as well as the Holy Table. Thus Procopius speaking of the Church of Sancta Sophia writes: ὁ τοῦ ἱεpoῦ τὰ μάλιστα χῶρος ἀβέβηλος καὶ μόνοις ἱερεῦσι βατός, ὄνπερ καλοῦσι θυσιαστήριον, λιτρῶν ἀργύρου μυριάδας ἐπιφέρεται τέτταρας (de Sancta Soph., Migne, P. G. lxxxvii. 3, p. 2336 c.). The sense occurs in earlier writings: Conc. Laod., Can. xix. μόνοις ἑξὸν εἶναι τοῖς ἱερατικοῖς εἰσιέναι εἰς τὸ θυσιαστήριον καὶ κοινωνεῖν. xliv. ὅτι οὐ δεῖ γυναῖκας ἐν τῷ θυσιαστηρίῳ εἰσέρχεσθαι. Socr. Η. Ε. i. 37 (comp. Soz. ii. 39) [Ἀλέξανδρος] ἐν τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ ἧ ἐπώνυμον Εἱρήνη μόνον ἑαυτὸν κατάκλειστον ποιήσας καὶ εἰς τὸ θυσιαστήριον εἰσελθὼν ὑπὶ τὴν ἱερὰν τράπεζαν ἑαυτὸν ἐπὶ 460 στόμα ἐκτείνας εὔχεται δακρύων. And the word is so used still in the Greek Church (Leo Allatius, de rec. Gr. templ. p. 153). In rare cases altarium is also found in the sense of the altar-place, the Sanctuary: Hieron. Ep. lxix. (ad Ocean.) § 9, Heri catechumenus, hodie pontifex: heri in amphitheatro, hodie in ecclesia: vespere in circo, mane in altario. Greg. Turon. Hist. Franc. ii. 14 Ηabet (the original church of St Martin at Tours) fenestras in altario triginta duas, in capso [the nave] viginti, columnas quadraginta unam.

In the Greek Liturgies, as might have been expected, the word θυσιαστήριον is used in different meanings. It will be enough to take illustrations from the Liturgy of St James (Swainson, pp. 213—332). Commonly the word is used for the Holy Table (pp. 216, 222—6, 246, 254—6, 260—2, 282—8). In one place it occurs in a rubric as a various reading for τράπεζα (p. 238, Rot. Mess. ἐν τῷ θυσιαστηρίῳ Cod. Rossan. ἐv τῇ ἁγίᾳ τραπέζῃ comp. pp. 318, 319). In two rubrics it is used for the Sanctuary (p. 222 ἀπὸ τῶν θυρῶν τῆς ἐκκλησίας ἔως τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου, ρ. 223 μετὰ τὸ εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὸ θυσιαστήριον, Cod. Par. 2509). Elsewhere it is used for the heavenly, spiritual, altar (p. 229 ἀναληφθήτω...εἰς τὸ ἅyιοv καὶ ὑπερουράνιόν σου θυσιαστήριον, εἰς ὀσμὴν εὐωδίας...p. 260 εἰς τὸ ἅγιον καὶ ὑπερουράνιον καὶ νoερόv σου θυσιαστήριον, εἰς ὀσμὴν εὐωδίας...ρ. 304 εἰς τὸ ἅγιον καὶ ὑπερουράνιον, νοερὸν καὶ πνευματικὸν αὐτοῦ θυσιαστήριον, εἰς ὀσμὴν εὐωδίας11   Compare the petition in the Roman and Ambrosian Liturgies: Supplices Te rogamus, omnipotens Deus, jube haec proferri per manus sancti Angeli Tui in sublime altare Tuum in conspectu divinae Majestatis Tuae, ut quotquot ex hae altaris participatione sacrosanctum Filii Tui corpus et sanguinem sumpserimus, omni benedictione caelesti et gratia repleamur.). Once, it may be added, ἡ τράπεζα is used for the heavenly food upon it: p. 322...καταξιώσας ἡμᾶς μετασχεῖν τῆς ἐουρανίου τραπέζης.

The Liturgies bring out plainly the parallel use of θυσιαστήριον and τράπεζα. The earlier word τράπεζα still held its place, and with it the thought of a divine feast to which it bore witness. Early writers found the foreshadowing of the heavenly table in Prov. ix. 1 ff. (Cypr. Testim. ii. 2; Ep. lxiii. 5; comp. the spurious Disp. c. Ar. § 17, printed in the works of Athanasius). Sometimes this Holy Table was made at an early date of wood (Athan. Hist. Ar. ad Mon. § 56 άρπάσαντες τὰ συμψέλλια [subsellia] καὶ τὸν θρόνον καὶ τὴν τράπεζαν, ξυλίνη γὰρ ῇν, καὶ τὰ βῆλα [vela] τῆς ἐκκλησίας...ἔκαυσαν), but afterwards it was of stone (Greg. Nyss. in Bapt. Chr., P. G. xlvi. p. 581 τὸ θυσιαστήριον τοῦτο...λίθος ἐστὶ κατὰ τὴν φύσιν κοινός...ἐπειδὴ δὲ καθιερώθη τῇ τοῦ τεοῦ θεραπεία...ἔστι τράπεζα ἁγία, θυσιαστήριον ἄχραντον... The words are translated by Nicholas I., Ερ. ii.; comp. Sozom. H. E. ix. 2 τὸ ἐπίθεμα τῆς θήκης ὥσπερ εἰς ἱερὰν ἐξησκεῖτο τράπεζαν). Basil appears to use the two words θυσιαστήριον and τράπεζα as interchangeable (Ep. ccxxvi. 2; P. G. xxxii. 485 εἰ ὀρθύδοξος νῦν βασιλείδης ὁ κοινωνικὸς Ἐκδικίου, διὰ τί...τὰ θυσιαστήρια ἐκείνου...κατέστρεφον καὶ ἑαυτῶν τράπεζας ἐτίθεσαν;) for it is difficult to see any contrast between them as they are used. Comp. Cyr. Hier. Cat. xxii. (Myst. iv.) § 7. The corresponding word mensa is common in Latin writers (see e.g. Index to Augustine); and it came to be used as a technical term for the altar-slab (tabula)22   Postea vero lapis, qui mensa altaris.

dicitur, super altare adaptatur, per quam perfectionem et soliditatem notitiae Dei possumus intelligere, quae non propter duritiam sed propter soliditatem fidei lapidea esse debet. Alex. iii. quoted by Durandus, Rationale, i. 7, 25. The chapters of Durandus on the Altar (c. 2) and the consecration of the Altar (c. 7) give a most interesting summary of mediaeval thought upon the ideas of the Altar.


The history of the word offers an instructive illustration of the way in which spiritual thoughts connected with material imagery clothe themselves in material forms, till at last the material form dominates the thought. The three notes of the three chief Greek Commentators who expound the passage shew the action of this natural influence.

Chrysostom. οὐχ οἶα τὰ Ἰουδαῖκά, φησί, τοιαῦτα τὰ παρ' ἡμῖν, ὡς μηδὲ ἀρχιερεῖ θέμις εἶναι μετέχειν αὐτῶν. ὥστ€ ἐπειδὴ εἶπε Μὴ παρατηρεῖσθε, ἐδόκει δὲ τοῦτο καταβάλλοντος εἶναι τὰ ἴδια, πάλιν αὐτὸ περιστρέφει. Μὴ γαρ καὶ ἡμεῖς οὐ παρατηροῦμεν; φησί, καὶ παρατηροῦμεν καὶ σφοδρότερον, oὐδὲ αὐτοῖς τοῖς ἱερεῦσι μεταδίδοντες αυτών.

Oecumenius. ἐπειδὴ εἶπεν ὅτι οὐ χρὴ παρατηρεῖσθαι βρωματα.,.φησί, Μὴ γὰρ καὶ ἡμεῖς οὐκ ἔχομεν παρατηρήσεις; ἀλλ' οὐ βρωμάτων, ἀλλὰ τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου ἡμῶν. τῶν γὰρ ἐκεῖ κειμένων οὐδὲ αὐτοῖς τοῖς ἀρχιερεῦσιν ἔξεστι μετασχεῖν. Then he adds shortly afterwards: τοῦτο δὴ οὖν τὸ αἷμα [τὸ τοῦ Χριστοῦ] διὰ τοῦ παρ' ἡμῖν ἀρχιερέως εἰσφέρεται εἰς τὸ παρ' ἡμῖν θυσιαστήριον, where the θυσιαστήριον in the Christian order is made parallel with τὰ ἅγια in the Jewish order.

Theophylact.@ καὶ ἡμεῖς ἕχομεν παρατήρησιν, ἀλλ' οὐκ ἐπὶ βρώμασι τοιούτοις ἀλλ' ἐπὶ τῷ θυσιαστηρίῳ ἤτοι τῇ ἀναιμάκτῳ θυσίᾳ τοῦ ζωοποιοῦ σώματος, ταύτης γὰρ οὐδὲ τoῖς νομικοῖς άρχιερεῦσι μεταλαβεῖν ἔξεστιν ἔως ἄν λατρεύωσι τῇ σκηνῇ, τουτέστι τοῖς νομικοῖς τύποις...ὁ Χριστός, ὑπὲρ τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν τοῦ κόσμου παθών, τὸ μὲν αἷμα αὐτοῦ εἰς τὰ ἅγια εἰσεκόμισε τῷ πατρὶ ὡς ἀρχιερεύς...ἀνάμνησιν οὖν τῆς θυσίας εκείνης τελούντες οἱ παρ' ἡμῖν ἀρχιερεῖς τὸ αἷμα τοῦ Κυρίου εἰς τὰ παρ' ἡμῖν ἅγια καὶ εἰς τὸ θυσιαστήριον εἰσκομίζουσιν ὡς εἰς οὐρανόν.

*Additional Note on* xiii. 10.

The main thoughts of the verse can be presented clearly in the following propositions.

(1). A sacrifice (according to the Levitical usage) may be regarded generally under two distinct aspects: as something offered to God and as something, by divine appointment, partaken of, enjoyed by man. Christ, as the perfect sacrifice for the whole world, offered Himself once for all to God, and, as He offered Himself, so He gives Himself to us, His flesh and blood, and this gift, in respect of its source, comes to us from the Cross on which the offering was made. Comp. Aug. in Psalm. xxxiii. Enarr. i. § 6...ut jam de cruce commendaretur nobis caro et sanguis Domini, novum sacrificium (commenting on Ps. lxxviii. 25 and Phil. 6 ff.).


(2). The context shews that in this passage the main conception is of a sacrifice to be enjoyed ('eaten') and not of a sacrifice to be offered. There is for Christians a feast following upon a sacrifice accomplished, whereby the sacrifice is made the support of the believer.

(3). The ideas of the Passover and of the sacrifices on the Day of Atonement were both fulfilled in the sacrifice of Christ. Christ — 'our Passover' (1 Cor. v. 7) — is both our covenant sacrifice and our sin-offering. The Passover indeed itself recalled the thoughts of redemption and covenant; but the service of the Day of Atonement emphasised the conception of sin, and so made a separation between the sin-offering and the material of the common feast. In Christ that which was presented in distinct parts in the types has been brought together: He was and is the sacrifice of the New Covenant: the sacrifice of Atonement: the substance of the Feast.

(4). This sacrifice of the New Covenant and of effectual Atonement is, in respect of Christ, in each case one eternal act. He once offered Himself (vii. 27; ix. 25 f.; x. 10), and once entered into the Presence of God in His own Blood (ix. 12). There is no repetition in any way of these acts. But the Feast which was thus provided continues for man's sustenance while the world lasts. Christ communicates to His people, in His appointed way, the virtue of His life and death.

(5). The earthly altar is the Cross, from which, as including the Crucified Christ, we draw our life and the support of life11   The thought is preserved in the words of the prayer before Holy Communion attributed to Ambrose: Summe Sacerdos...qui Te obtulisti Deo Patri hostiam puram et immaculatam in ara crucis pro nobis..... The heavenly altar is Christ Himself, on and in Whom we offer all that we are and have, and through Whom we bring all to God.

Regarded in the light of this passage the Holy Eucharist is seen under two aspects as a μετοχή (a participation) and a κοινωνία (a fellowship). The thought of the participation has been adequately guarded, the thought of fellowship is not unfrequently lost sight of. In early writers the fellowship is justly presented as a fellowship of man with man, and as a fellowship of man with God, both realised in and through the Son of man. The first fellowship is represented by 'the one loaf' (ἄρτος), by sharing which we 'the many are one body' (1 Cor. x. 17). For those thus united in Christ the second fellowship becomes possible, and Christians can offer themselves to God and hold converse with Him. The symbolism of 'the loaf' finds a striking illustration in the earliest liturgical prayer which has been preserved to us: Εὐχαριστοῦμέν σοι Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὑπὲρ τῆς ζωῆς καὶ γνώσεως ἧς ἐγνώρισας ἡμῖν διὰ Ἰησοῦ τοῦ παιδός σου (Ιs. liii.) σοὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. Ὥσπερ ἧν τοῦτο τὸ κλάσμα διεσκορπισμένον ἐπάνω τῶν ὀρέων καὶ συναχθὲν ἐγένετο ἔν, οὕτω συναχθήτω σου ή ἐκκλησία ἀπὸ τῶν περάτων τῆς γῆς εἰς τὴν σὴν βασιλείαν. ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ δόξα καὶ ή δύναμις διὰ Ίησοῦ Χριστοῦ εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. The thought of the bringing of man to God in the Holy Communion is expressed by the characteristic Dionysian conception of Σύναξις, which in the Dionysian writings is not the gathering of Christians together, but the gathering of Christians to God: σύναξιν νοητέον οὐ τὴν τοῦ λαοῦ, καθὼς τὴν λέξιν τιvὲς σήμερον ἐκλαμβάνονται, ἀλλὰ τήν πρὸς θεὸν συναγωγὴν καὶ κοινωνίαν 463 (Pachym. Paraph. Hier. Eccles. c. 3). The Father Himself is the Συναγωγός (Hier. coel. c. 1).

In this connexion the words of the Lord gain a fresh force,

κἀγὼ ἐὰν ὑψωθῶ ἐκ τῆς γῆς πάντας ἐλκύσω πρὸς ἐμαγτόν.

Additional Note on xiii. 20. On the references in the Epistle to the Gospel History.

The direct references in the Epistle to the facts of the Gospel History are not very numerous, but it can be seen that the record, such as it has been handed down to us in the (Synoptic) Gospels, was constantly present to the mind of the writer.

The Incarnation, as it is described in the Synoptic Gospels and summarily presented by St John, is implied in ii. 14 (μετέσχεν τῶν αὐτῶν) compared with i. 2, 5 (see p. 426); and it is definitely said that the Lord sprang 'out of the tribe Judah' (vii. 14 note). Nothing is said in detail of the Lord's life of silent preparation. On the other hand the general account of the completeness of His experience, as corresponding to that of man 'in all things, sin apart' (iv. 15), necessarily involves the recognition of His perfect growth from stage to stage, and this truth of a complete human development is made clear by the conception of His τελείωσις (see Addit. Note on ii. 10). The Epistle contains no certain reference to the Baptism, but the form in which the quotation from Ps. ii. 7 is given in c. v. 5 suggests the thought that the writer may have had in mind the divine voice at that time (comp. i. 5 note; v. 5). The emphatic assertion of the fact that the Lord was tempted and suffered (ii. 18; iv. 15) probably presupposes a knowledge of the critical Temptation before His public ministry. The proclamation of the Gospel 'through the Lord in whom God spake' (i. 2) is specially noticed (ii. 3), but nothing is said of His works. There can be no doubt that the description of the 'prayers and supplications with strong crying and tears' (v. 7) includes a reference to the Agony, though it may point also to other moments of peculiar trial. The reality (ii. 14) and the voluntariness (ix. 14; comp. v. 26) of the Lord's death are marked. He endured a cross (xii. 2; comp. vi. 6). He suffered 'without the gate' (xiii. 12; comp. John xix. 17); and perhaps from among the details of the Passion, there is an allusion to the rending of the veil of the Temple in x. 20. Afterwards God 'brought Him back from the dead' (xiii. 20); and He has ascended (vi. 20; comp. ix. 12, 24), and passed through the heavens (iv. 14; comp. vi. 20), and taken His seat on the Right hand of God (i. 3; iv. 14; viii. 1; x. 12); and now believers look for His Return (ix. 28; comp. i. 6). The mention of 'the Spirit of grace' after the 'Blood of the Covenant' in x. 29 may point to the gift at Pentecost. From first to last through every vicissitude of life the Lord remained absolutely faithful to God in the administration of the Divine Economy (iii. 2 ff.), and sinless (vii. 26).


*Additional Note on* xiii. 21. *On the Apostolic Doxologies.*

The Doxologies in the Ν. T. form an interesting study. They are found in each group of the Epistles and in the Apocalypse, and corresponding forms occur in the Synoptic Gospels.

The following table shews the general symmetry of their form:

(1). Gal. i. 5

ᾦ [τῷ θεῷ καὶ πατρὶ ἡμῶν]

ἡ δόξα

εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων. ἀμήν.

(2). Rom. xi. 36

αὐτῷ [τίς ἔγνω νοῦν κυρίου......ὅτι ἐξ αὐτοῦ καὶ δι' αὐτοῦ καὶ εἰς αὐτὸν τὰ πάντα]

ή δόξα

είς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.

(3). Rom. xvi. 27

μόνῳ σοφῷ θεῲ

διὰ Ἱησοῦ Χρίστοῦ [ῷ]

ἡ δόξα

εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.

(4). Phil. iv. 20

τῷ θεῷ καὶ πατρὶ ἡμῶν

ἡ δόξα

εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων. ἀμήν.

(5). Eph. iii. 21

αὐτῷ [τῷ δυναμένῳ ὑπὲρ πάντα ποιῆσαι...]

ἡ δόξα

ἐν τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ καὶ ἐν Χριστῷ Ίησοῦ εἰς πάσας τὰς γενεὰς τοῦ αἰῶνος τῶν αἰώνων. ἀμήν.

(6). 1 Tim. i. 17

τῷ βασιλεῖ τῶν αἰώνων...μόνῳ θεῷ

τιμὴ καῖ δόξα

εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων. ἀμήν.

(7). 1 Tim. vi. 16

ῷ [τῷ μακαρίῳ καὶ μόνῳ δυνάστῃ...]

τιμὴ καὶ κράτος

αἰώνιον. ἀμήν.

(8). 2 Tim. iv. 18

ῷ [τῷ κυρίῳ]

ἡ δόξα

εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων. ἀμήν.

(9). Hebr. xiii. 21

ῷ [τῷ θεῷ τῆς εἰρήνης or possibly Ἰησοῦ Χριστῷ]

ἡ δόξα

εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων. ἀμήν.

(10). 1 Pet. iv. 11

ῷ [τῷ θεῷ, or possibly Ἰησοῦ Χριστῷ]


ἡ δόξα καὶ τὸ κράτος

εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων. ἀμήν.

(11). 1 Pet. v. 11

αὐτῷ [τῷ θεῷ]

τὸ κράτος

εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.


(12). 2 Pet. iii. 18

αὐτῷ [τῷ κυρίῳ ἡμῶν καὶ σωτῆρι Ἰησοῦ Χριστῷ]

ἡ δόξα

καῖ νῦν καὶ εἰς ἡμέραν αἰῶνος.

(13). Jude 25

μόνῳ θεῷ σωτῆρι ἡμῶν

διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν

δόξα μεγαλωσύνη κράτος καὶ ἐξουσία

πρὸ παντὸς τοῦ αἰῶνος καὶ νῦν καὶ εἰς πάντας τοῦς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.

(14). Apoc. i. 6

αὐτῷ [τῷ ἀγαπῶντι ἡμᾶς καὶ λύσαντι ἡμᾶς...]

ἡ δόξα καὶ τὸ κράτος

εἰς τοῦς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.

(15). Apoc. v. 13

τῷ καθημένῳ ἐπὶ τοῦ θρόνου καὶ τῷ ἀρνίῳ

ἡ εὐλογία καὶ ἡ τιμὴ καὶ ἡ δόξα καὶ τὸ κράτος

είς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων.

καὶ τὰ τέσσαρα ζῷα ἔλεγον. Ἁμήν.

Compare iv. 11; v. 12; xii. 10 ff.

(16). Apoc. vii. 12


ἡ εὐλογία καὶ ἡ δόξα καὶ σοφία καὶ ἡ εὐχαριστία καὶ

ἡ τιμὴ καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ ἰσχὺς

τῷ θεῷ ἡμῶν

εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων [. ἀμήν].

Compare v. 10.

Compare Lk. ii. 14; xix. 38; [Matt. vi. 13] Rom. i. 25; ix. 5.

Several points at once offer themselves for notice.

(1) All the Doxologies except (12) and perhaps (16) are closed by Άμήν. Notice (15), (16).

(2) They exhibit singular variety in detail. Two only are substantially identical in form; (1), (4). Compare also (2), (8).

(3) Three are directly addressed to Christ; (8), (12), (14), and possibly also (9), (10).

(4) In one case the verb is expressed in the indicative (10). In some cases the phrase appears to be affirmative; (7), (11), (12): in others it appears to be precatory; (3), (5), (13). In most cases it is difficult to determine which interpretation is most natural.

(5) In two cases the ascription of glory to God is made through Christ; (3), (13).

The (first) Epistle of Clement offers a remarkable series of Doxologies, which reproduce the three chief types: (1) [i.e. τῳ θεῷ] ἡ αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων. ἀμήν (38, 43, 50; comp. 45); (2) [τῷ δεσπότῃ τῶν ἀπάντων or possibly Ίησοῦ Χριστῷ] ἡ δόξα καὶ ἡ μεγαλωσύνη...(20; comp. 58, 61); (3) δι' οὖ [Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ] ἐστὶν αὐτῷ ἡ δόξα...(58).





Rom. xv. 4

« Prev XIII. Next »

| Define | Popups: Login | Register | Prev Next | Help |