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XII.

XII. ¹Τοιγαροῦν καὶ ἡμεῖς, τοσοῦτον ἔχοντες

1 τοσ.: τηλικοῦτον א*.

iii. The general application of the lessons of the past to the present season of trial (c. xii.).

The consideration of the past victories of Faith suggests three main lines of thought which are pursued in this chapter.

(1) 1—13. The virtue of discipline.

(2) 14—17. The necessity of peace and purity.

(3) 18—29. The character and obligations of the New Covenant.

(1) 1—13. The virtue of discipline.

The teaching on the virtue of discipline falls into two parts, (a) The motive to endurance in suffering (1, 2); and (b) The measure and end of suffering (3—13).

(a) The motive to endurance in suffering (1, 2).

Christians in one sense had entered on the inheritance of the promises for which the fathers had waited (xi. 39); but the full enjoyment of possession was still delayed. In such a case the example of the earlier heroes of faith was of prevailing power. With less encouragement than the Hebrew Christians enjoyed they had conquered. They had looked to a Christ imaged in prophecy: the Hebrews could look to a Christ Who had 'come in the flesh' (Jesus), Thus the writer marks (α) the position, (β) the preparation, (γ) the effort, (δ) the aim, of Christians looking to One Who had Himself conquered through suffering.

(α) The position of Christians.

The writer regards himself and his fellow Christians as placed in an arena and contending for a great prize. The image of the amphitheatre with the rising rows of spectators seems to suggest the thought of an encircling cloud. The witnesses of whom the cloud is composed are unquestionably the countless heroes of faith whose deeds have been summarised in c. xi. The testimony which they bear can only be the testimony which they bear to God, either by victorious achievements or by courageous sufferings, answering to that which He has wrought for and in them. In both respects, as conquerors and as sufferers, they witness to His power and faithfulness; and those who regard them cannot but be strengthened by their testimony.

There is apparently no evidence that μάρτυς is ever used simply in the sense of a 'spectator.' Even in such a passage as Wisd. i. 6 τῶν νεφρῶν αὐτοῦ μάρτυς ὁ θεὸς καὶ τῶς καρδίας αὐτοῦ ἐπίσκοπος ἀληθὴς καὶ τῆς γλώσσησ ἀκουστής there is the thought of the open testimony to be given: comp. 1 Tim. vi. 12; 2 Tim. ii. 2; Acts x. 41.

At the same time it is impossible to exclude the thought of the spectators in the amphitheatre. The passage would not lose in vividness though it would lose in power if θεατῶν were substituted for μαρτύρων. Those champions of old time occupy the place of spectators, but they are more than spectators. They are spectators who interpret to us the meaning of our struggle, and who bear testimony to the certainty of our success if we strive lawfully (2 Tim. ii. 5).

There is no confusion in this fulness of sense. The word περικείμενον gives the thought of the great company to whom the Christian athlete Is made a spectacle (1 Cor. iv. 9 θέατρον ἐγενήθημεν: c. x. 33 θεατριζόμενοι); and μαρτύρων explains what the true nature of this host is, widely different from the pitiless throng visible to the bodily eye at the heathen games.

Tertullian describes the scene which actually met the eye (ad Martyras, c. 1): nec tantus ego sum ut vos alloquar, verumtamen et gladiatores 392 περικείμενον ἡμῖν νέφος μαρτύρων, ὄγκον ἀποθέμενοι πάντα

perfectissimos non tantum magistri et præpositi sui sed etiam idiotæ et supervacue (-cui?) quique adhortantur de longinquo, ut sæpe de ipso populo dictata suggesta profuerint.

In a cognate passage of Longinus (de sublim. § xiv.), quoted by Wetstein, the 'witnesses' are regarded as those who will bear testimony of what they see in the trial: τῷ γὰρ ὄντι μέγα τὸ ἀγώνισμα...ἐν τηλικούτοις ἥρωσι κριταῖς τε καῖ μάρτυσι ὑπέχειν τπων γραφομένων εὐθύνας.

The true idea of the 'witnesses' is given by the Fathers, as by Chrysostom: Μάρτυρας δὲ οὐχὶ τοὺς ἐν τῇ καινῇ λέγει μόνον ἀλλὰ καὶ τοὺς ἐν τῇ παλαιᾷ. καὶ γὰρ καὶ αὐτοὶ ἐμαρτύρησαν τῇ τοῦ θεοῦ μεγαλειότητι. and Primasius: Nubem testium appellat multitudinem patriarcharum ac prophetarum reliquorumque fidelium qui testes fuerunt perfectæ fidei.

Epictetus uses the image of the games to support a spirit of effort and endurance: Dissert. iii. 25; Enchir. li. 2.

¹Therefore let us also, seeing we have so great a cloud of witnesses encompassing us, lay aside every encumbrance and the sins which doth so easily beset us, and with patience run the race that is set before us, ²looking unto Him Who is the leader and finisher of Faith, even Jesus, Who, for the joy that was set before Him, endured the cross, despising shame, and hath sat down on the right hand of the throne of God.

(1). τοιγαροῦν καὶ ἡμεῖς...] Vulg. Ideoque et nos...Therefore assuredly let us also, who are under the New Covenant in the time of our trial...The writer identifies himself with those whose courage he desires to animate: c. x. 39.

Τοιγαροῦν occurs again 1 Thess. iv. 8 (τοίνυν, c. xiii. 13); elsewhere the writer introduces his conclusion with διὰ τοῦτο or ὅθεν.

ἔχ. περικείμενον ἡμῖν] Vulg. habentes impositam, literally 'having spread about us.' The competitors fool the crowd towering about and above them. Hence the Apostle does not say simply περικείμενοι νέφος (comp. c. v. 2) or περικειμένου νέφους, but ἔχοντες περικείμενον. Believers are conscious of the surrounding host. For ἔχοντες περικ. comp. v. 14 note.

The words occur in a very different connexion in 2 Clem. i. 6 ἀποθέμενοι ἐκεῖνο ὅ περικείμεθα νέφος.

νέφος μαρτύρων] Vulg. nubem (d imbrum) testium. A 'cloud' is used in all languages for a dense mass of living beings from the time of Homer downwards: Il. iv. 274 ἄμα δὲ νέφος εἱπετο πεζῶν. Æn. vii. 793 Insequitur nimbus poditum. Priscill. iii. p. 63 testimoniorum nube.

Chrysostom (followed by others) finds in the 'cloud' the idea of shelter from the scorching heat: ἡ μνήμῃ τῶν ἁγίων ἐκείνων ὥσπερ νέφος τὸν φλεγόμενον ὑπὸ ἀκτῖνος θερμοτέρας σκιάζει...ἀνίστησι καὶ ἀνακτᾶται φυχήν.

(β) The preparation of Christians.

The solemnity of the position of the Christian naturally leads to the consideration of the preparation which he is bound to make for the fulfilment of his arduous duty. This is twofold. He must lay aside natural encumbrances (ὄγκον πάντα), and also the positive sin by which he is hindered.

ὄγκον ἀποθέμενοι π.] (let us)...lay aside every encumbrance...Vulg. deponentes omne pondus. The word ἄγκος, which does not occur elsewhere in Ν. T. or lxx., is used for bulk of body (Galen, in Hippocr. Aphor. 1 (xvii. (2) p. 363, Kühn) τῆς τῶν ἀθλῃτῶν εὐεξίας οὐ μικρὸν τοῦτό ἐστιν ἔγκλημα τὸ περιβάλλεσθαι πειρᾶσθαι μέγεθος ὄγκου κατὰ τὸ σῶμα...), for an arrogant bearing, and for a burdensome load. These several senses have been applied to the interpretation of the word here. The competitor in 393 καὶ τὴν εὐπερίστατον ἁμαρτίαν, δι' ὑπομονῆς τρέχωμεν

a race seeks by training to reduce all superfluity of flesh, and in the contest lays aside all undue confidence and every encumbrance of dress: There can be little doubt that the image is taken from the immediate preparation for the decisive effort, so that the first sense is inapplicable, and it is hardly possible that ἀποθέσθαι ὄηκον could be used of the effects of training. The last interpretation is in every way the most appropriate. The writer seems to have in his mind the manifold encumbrances of society and business which would be likely to hinder a Christian convert. The duty of the convert would be to free himself from associations and engagements which, however innocent in themselves, hindered the freedom of his action.

It may however be noticed that Philo says that the soul which would seek God must not remain ἐν τοῖς σωματικοῖς ὄγκοις (Leg. Alleg. iii. § 15; i. 96 M.).

Compare Chrysostom: πάντα τίνα; τουτέστι τὸν ὕπνον, τὴν ὀλιγωρίαν, τοὺς λογεσμοὺς τοὺς εὐτελεῖς, πάντα τὰ ἀνθρώπινα.

Theodoret: τὸν τῶν περιττῶν φροντίδων ἀπορρίψωμεν ὄγκον.

Theophylact: τουτέστι τὸ βάρος τῶν γηἴνων πραγμάτων καὶ τῶν ἐπ' αὐτοῖς φροντίδων.

For the image in ἀποθέμενοι, 'putting off from one's self as a robe, see Acts vii. 58; comp. c. x. 11 (περιελεῖν); Rom. xiii. 12; Col. iii. 8, &c.

τὴν εὐπερίστατον ἁμαρτίαν] The Christian must put off not only encumbrances but, that which is the source of all failure, sin (ἁμαρτία not ἁμαρτίαι). This sin is described as εὐπερίστατος. The word εὐπερίστατος is not found except in places where it has been derived from this passage. The sense is doubtful. Three meanings have support either from analogy or from early Greek interpreters.

(1) 'easy to be put off', 'avoided,' 'removed,' from the sense of περιίστασθαι in 2 Tim. ii. 16; Tit. iii. 9. This sense is adopted by Chrysostom in treating of the passage: εὐπερίστατον ἥτοι τὴν εὐκόλως περιισταμένην ἡμᾶς ἥ τὴν εὐκόλως περίστασιν δυναμένην παθεῖν λέγει. μᾶλλον δὲ τοῦτο. ῥᾲδιον ἐὰν θέλωμεν περιγενέσθαι τῆς ἁμαρτίας: and d gives fragile. But the form is decisive against the derivation on which it rests. The compound could not lose the -ι-: it must be formed from στατὀς.

(2) 'well-befriended,' 'popularly supported,' 'admired of many.' This interpretation is derived from the corresponding sense of περίστατος (from Isocrates downward), and ἀπερίστατος 'unsupported,' 'desolate' (Phocyl., Arrian). The form of the word is favourable to this sense.

(3) 'readily besetting' (Vulg. circumstans). There is no exact parallel for such an active sense in compounds of ἵστασθαι, but this interpretation has been most generally adopted; and it is given by Chrysostom as an alternative on the passage, and by other Greek writers.

Theodoret gives a different explanation, 'easily contracted': εὐπερίστατον τῆν ἁμαρτίαν ἐκάλεσεν ὡς εὐκόλως συνισταμένην τε καὶ γινομένην: and Theophylact adds to the two explanations given by Chrysostom yet another: ἥ δε' ἥν εὐκόλως τις εἰς περιστάσεις ἐμπίστει. οὐδὲν γὰρ οὕτς κινδυνῶδες ὡς ἁμαρτία.

Of these interpretations (1) and (2) do not seem to fall in well with the scope of the passage, or with the imagery. It does not seem likely that the writer would choose an epithet for sin which should describe it from the side of its impotence. Nor again is the common estimate or regard of sin that with which the Christian is concerned. It is rather the personal relation of sin to the believer in his 394 τὸν προκείμενον ἡμῖν ἀγῶνα, ²ἀφορῶντες εἰς τὸν τῆς

work that we expect to find noticed. In this connexion the sense of 'readily encircling, besetting, entangling' is singularly appropriate. Nor is there anything contrary to analogy in such a sense. The simple verbal στατός, from which the compound is formed, is used of anything 'standing' (a house, a stone, water): περίστατος would then naturally bear the sense of 'placed, standing round,' as enclosing, confining; and εὗ would express the fatal facility with which this fence of evil custom hems us in. The sin by which we are practically encircled answers to the cloud of witnesses with which God surrounds us for our encouragement.

Περίστατος is found in a sense not unlike this in a fragment of Theopompus (Pamph. fr. 2) περίστατον βοῶσα τὴν κώμην ποιεὶ ('causes the village to stand round her').

(γ) The effort of Christians.

Haying marked our position and preparation as Christians, the writer bids us begin and continue the effort to which we are called with patient endurance.

δι' ὑμομονῆς...ἀγῶνα] For ὑπομονή see c. x. 36 note. The thought of this 'patient endurance' is prominent in the context (v. 2 ὑπέμεινεν, v. 3 ὑπομεμενηκότα, v. 7 εἰς παιδείαν ὑπομένετε).

For διά see 2 Cor. v. 7; Rom. viii. 25. The δι' ὑπομονῆς stands first as colouring τρέχωμεν.

The construction of τρέχειν ἀγῶνα (Lat. strangely, curramus ad propositum nobis certamen) is formed οn τρέχειν δρόμον: miserabile currunt certamen, Stat Theb. iii. 116.

τὸν προκ. ἡμῖν ἀγῶνα] The image of the race is common in St Paul: 1 Cor. ix. 24 ff.; Gal. ii. 2; Phil. ii. 16; iii. 12; 2 Tim. iv. 7. Compare Acts xiii. 25; xx. 24; Rom. ix. 16.

It is found in classical writers: e.g. Eur. Orest. 847 ψυχῆς ἀγῶνα τὸν προκείμενον πέρι δώσων; and in Philo, de agric. §§ 25 ff. (i. 317 ff. M.).

The 'race' is spoken of by the more general title of 'a contest' in regard to the strain and peril which it involves. Comp. Herod, viii. 102 πολλοὺς πολλάκις ἀγῶνας δραμέονται περὶσφέων αὐτέων οἱ Ἕλληνες. Eur. Or. 877 ὁρᾷς...ἀγῶνα θανάσιμον δραμεύμενον. And still, as Chrysostom remarks, the Apostle chooses the image of athletic effort, which is least repellent: οὐκ εἶπε Πυκτεύωμεν, οὐδὲ Παλαίωμεν, οὐδὲ Πολεμῶμεν, ἀλλ' ὁ πάντων κουφότερον ἥν, τὸ τοῦ δρόμου, τοῦτο εἰς μέσον τέθεικεν.

Προκεῖσθαι (proponi) is the usual word in this connexion. God Himself has set our work and our prize before us as ἀγωνοθέτης. Comp. c. vi. 18.

(δ) The aim of Christians.

(2). The encouragement to be drawn from earthly witnesses passes into the supreme encouragement which springs from the contemplation of Christ. Above the 'cloud of witnesses,' who encompass us, is our King, no Roman Emperor dispensing by his arbitrary will life or death to the stricken combatant, but One Who has Himself sustained the struggle which we bear. He Who is 'the captain (author) of our salvation,' 'the righteous Judge' (2 Tim. iv. 8), is also the example and the inspiration of our faith. He in His humanity endured suffering and shame beyond all others and received compensating joy and glory. We therefore may hope by sharing His sufferings to share His glory (Rom. viii. 17 εἴπερ συνπάσχομεν ἵνα καὶ συνδοξασθῶμεν). Compare Thomas a Kempis De imit. iii. 18, 3 Vita tua vita nostra: et per sanctam patientiam ambulamus ad te qui es corona nostra. Nisi tu nos præcessissos et docuisses, quis sequi curaret?.

ἀφορῶντες εἰς] Vulg. aspicientes in, looking away from all that distracts on earth into...not only at the first 395 πίστ€ως άρχηγόν και τελειωτην Ίησονν, $ς άντι της προκ€ΐμ£νης αύτφ χαράς νπ4μ€ΐν€ν σταυρόν αισχύνης

2 + τὸν' στ. D₂.

moment, but constantly during the whole struggle. Contrast v. 1 AroeViwpoc. Christ is always near and in sight. The word does not occur elsewhere in the Ν. T. or in the lxx. (4 Macc. xvii. 10); but see Mr4ffknr c. xi. 26; and compare Arrian, Epict. ii. 19, 29 fir τλτ Bib A(fx>p»rrtt h irorrl μικρψ καί μτγάλψ; and id. iii. 24, 16. Clement uses ar<p((u» tit frequently: 1 Cor. 7, 9; 19 &c.

Theophylact expresses the thought tersely: iaw θίλωμιψ paBuw το τρ4χα9 hi νπομορηΐ vpht top Xpurrov άφορωμρ, Anrrp ol τίχναψ μανΰότοντις vp6t rovt Μασκάλους.

In one form or other the hope of the vision of God has been the support of the saints in all ages: Job xix. 26 f.; Ps. xvii. 15.

τον rijt πίστως...Ίησονρ] Christ in His humanity-Jesus*—is 'the leader and consummator of faith.' To Him our eyes are to be turned while we look away from every rival attraction. From Him we learn Faith. The 'faith' of which the Apostle speaks is faith in its absolute type, of which he has traced the action under the Old Covenant. The particular interpretations, by which it is referred to the faith of each individual Christian, as finding its beginning and final development in Christ; or to the substance of the Christian Creed; are foreign to the whole scope of the passage, which is to shew that in Jesus Christ Himself we have the perfect example—perfect in realisation and in effect—of that faith which we are to imitate, trusting in Him. He too looked through the present and the visible to the future and the unseen. In His human Nature He exhibited Faith in its highest form, from first to last, and placing Himself as it were at the head of the great army of heroes of Faith, He carried faith, the source of their strength, to its most complete perfection and to its loftiest triumph,

This ascription of faith to the Lord is of the highest importance for the realisation of His perfect humanity. Comp. c. v. 8; ii. 13; iii. 2; John v. 19; xi. 41.

Chrysostom (with the Greek Fathers generally) limits the word to our faith: aMt iv four t^f wUrrt /W6V"• aMt φ Apjflw ftη%. The Latin Vulgate translation necessarily led the Western Fathers to the same interpretation.

όρχ. κβΐ rcXfMMifr] Vulg. auctorem et consummatorem (O. L. principem et perfectorem). As 'leader' of Faith, Christ supported unparalleled sufferings in every stage of human life, and as 'finisher,' 'consummator,' He brought Faith to its sovereign power. The phrase has been compared with the Rabbinic HebrewTO» ^ΠΠΟ.

For Αρχηγέ see c. ii. 10 note. Christ is 'leader' and not 'beginner' only.

The word rtXturjt is not found elsewhere in the Ν. T. or in the lxx. or classical writers. It occurs in Greg. Nas. Orat. xl. in bapt. § 44 of the minister who baptises; and in Methodius de Sim. et Anna 5, of God Who admits those who are initiated into the Christian mysteries.

For the emphatic position of Ίησονν at the end of the clause compare ii. 9 note.

It drr\ r. πρ....καταφρ.] The nature of Christ's example is indicated. The joy that was set before Him was accepted as an equivalent (and more than an equivalent) for the sufferings which He endured. The joy was that of the work of redemption accomplished 396 καταφρονήσας, ἐν δεξιᾷ τε τοῦ θρόνου τοῦ θεοῦ κεκάθικεν.

om. τοῦ θεοῦ א. κεκάθικεν אAD₂: ἐκάθισεν S.

through self-sacrifice. The suffering was that of the cross, a death at once most painful and most humiliating.

For the correspondence between the sufferings and the glory of Christ compare ii. 9; Phil. ii. 9 (διό); Is. liii. 11; and for ἀντί v. 16; Matt. xvii. 27; xx. 28. Προκειμένης points to προκείμενον ἀγῶνα (v. 1). For χαρά (not a Pauline idea) see John xv. 11 note.

Σταυρός, which occurs here only in the Epistle, is used without the article, as in Phil. ii. 8, in order to fix attention on the nature of the Death. Elsewhere ὁ σταυρός (Col. i. 20; ii. 14 &c.) expresses the actual fact as well as the specific character of the Passion.

Σταυρόν, Theophylact says, τουτέστιν οὐχ ἀπλῶς θάνατον ἀλλὰ τὸν ἐπονείδιστον, a punishment which Cicero spoke of as 'crudelissimum teterrimumque' (adv. Verr. v. 64). Comp. 1 Cor. i. 18, 23. But what men count shame was seen by Christ in another light From His position, raised infinitely above them, He could disregard their judgment.

ἐν δεξιᾷ τε...κεκάθικεν] The contrast of tenses is significant. He endured...and hath sat down...The fact of suffering is wholly past but the issue of it abides for evermore. Contrast ἐκάθισεν c. viii. 1 note. For the perfect see v. 3 note.

Chrysostom says: ὁρᾷς τὸ ἔπαθλον; ὅπερ καὶ ὁ Παῦλος γράφων φησί (Phil. ii. 9 f.).

Œcumenius sees in the words Christ's power to requite His servants: ἱκανὸς οὖν καὶ ἀμείψασθαι ὑμᾶς ὑπὲρ τῶν δι' αὐτὸν θλίψεων.

It is impossible not to feel the progress of thought in the phrases ἐν δεξιᾷ τῆς μεγαλωσύνης (i. 3), ἐν δ. τοῦ θρόνου τῆς μεγαλ. (viii. i), ἐν δ. τοῦ θεοῦ (x. 12), and here ἐν δ. τ. θρ. τοῦ θεοῦ.

(b) The measure and the end of suffering (3—13).

The example of the triumph of Christ through suffering leads to a further consideration of the work of suffering for the Christian. Suffering is essentially a divine discipline. Under this aspect the author shows that the contemplation of Christ's victory through suffering brings sovereign support in affliction.

(α) The sufferings of the Hebrews were not more than simple chastisements (3—6); and

(β) Chastisement is the discipline of sons (7, 8).

(γ) He then characterises earthly and heavenly discipline (8, 9, 10), in the beginning and the end (11), and

(δ) draws a practical conclusion for the Hebrews in their trial (12, 13).

(α) Sufferings as chastisement (3-6).

Two thoughts are suggested by the consideration of Christ's sufferings (3). The sufferings of the Hebrews were relatively slight (4); and all sufferings which come from God are the wise discipline of a Father (5, 6). So it was (the thought is implied though not expressed here) in some sense which we hardly grasp even in the case of Christ the Son (v. 7 f.).

At this point the image is changed. The thought is no longer of effort but of endurance; of the assault of a powerful adversary which must be met, and not of a struggle voluntarily sought.

Chrysostom notices the use of different forms of consolation: ἔστιν εἰδη παρακλήσεως δύο, ἐναντία ἀλλήλοις εἶναι δοκοῦντα...τὸ μὲν γὰρ ὅταν πολλὰ λέγωμεν πεπονθέναι τινάς...τὸ δὲ ὅταν λέγωμεν ὅτι οὐ μέγα τι πέπονθας...καὶ τὸ μὲν 397 ³ἀναλογίσασθε γὰρ τὸν τοιαύτην ὑπομεμενηκότα ὑπὸ

3 om. τὸν' (τοι. ὑπ.) D₂*. ὑπό: ἀπό D₂*.

τετρυχωμένην τὴν ψυχὴν διαναπαύει...τὸ δὲ ῥᾳθυμοῦσαν αὐτὴν καὶ ὑπρίαν γενομένην ἐπιστρέφει....

³For consider Him that hath endured such gainsaying by sinners against their own selves, that ye fail not through weariness, fainting in your souls: ⁴ye have not yet resisted unto blood, contending against sin; ⁵and have ye forgotten the exhortation that discourseth with you as sons,

My son, regard not lightly the Lord's chastening,

Nor faint when thou art reproved by Him;

For whom the Lord loveth He chasteneth,

And scourgeth every son whom He receiveth?

(3). ἀναλογίσασθε γάρ...] Vulg. Recogitate enim...For consider Him that hath endured...Be patient, the writer says, look to Christ; for I charge you to consider His sufferings. If the eyes are steadfastly turned to Him (ἀφορῶντες) the believer cannot fail to ponder the vision and to estimate the power of His work in relation to Life. That is sufficient in order that Christians may support their afflictions. If the leader bears the brunt of the battle the soldier can follow.

The use of γάρ with imp. implies the result of the comparison.

The word ἀναλογίζομαι does not occur elsewhere in the lxx. or Ν. T. It is common in classical Greek, and expresses in particular the careful estimate of one object with regard to another. Plat. Theæt. p. 186 A (ἀναλ. τὰ γεγονότα...πρὸς τὰ μέλλοντα); Resp. x. 618 c. The use here in respect of a person and not of a thing is remarkable. The writer seems to say 'Consider Christ, reckoning up His sufferings point by point, going over them again and again, not the sufferings on the Cross only, but all that led up to it.' This is to be done once for all (ἀναλογίσασθε not ἀναλογίζεσθε).

τὸν τοιαύτ. ὑπομεμ....ἀντιλογίαν] Him that hath endured such gainsaying, such opposition as shewed itself in the infliction of the most cruel shame and death, in comparison with which your sufferings are insignificant.

For the use of the perfect ὑπομεμενηκότα) in connexion with the abiding results of Christ's work the following passages should be carefully studied:

v. 2 (κεκάθικεν): i. 4 (κεκληρονόμηκεν); ii. 9 (ἡλαττωμένον...ἐστεφανωμένον); 18 (πέπονθεν); iv. 14 (διεληλυθότα); 15 (πεπειρασμένον); vii. 26 (κεχωρισμένος); 28 (τετελειωμένον); ix. 26 (πεφανέρωται).

Compare c. vii. 6 (note) for the use of the perfect generally.

The remarkable reading ὑπὸ τῶν ἁμ. εἰς ἑαυτ. gives the idea expressed in Num. xvi. 38, 'sinners against their own selves.' The definite form. (ὑπὸ τῶν ἁμαρτ. not ὑφ. ἁμαρτ.) describes the representative class in the great crisis of the nation's history. Ἁμαρτάνειν εἰς is the common construction (Luke xv. 28 &c.).

Theodoret strangely joins εἰς αὐτούς with ἀναλογίσασθε: τὶ εἰς αὐτοὺς ἀντὶ τοῦ εἰς ἑαυτούς. λογίσασθε, φησί, παρ' ὑμῖν αὐτοῖς...

For the word ἀντιλογία, which corresponds to Hebrewb1 in Pss. xvii. (xviii.) 44; xxx.(xxxi.) 21, compare Jude 11; John xix. 12; Luke ii. 34; Acts xxviii. 19; Tit. i. 9; ii. 9.

The opposition in words is the beginning of every form and act of opposition. 398 τῶν ἁμαρτωλῶν εἰς ἑαυτοὺς ἀντιλογίαν, ἵνα μὴ κάμητε ταῖς Ψυχαῖς ἡμῶν ἐκλυόμενοι. ⁴Οὕπῳ μέχρις αἵματος ἀντικατέστητε πρὸς τὴν ἁμαρτίαν ἀνταγωνιζόμενοι,

3 ἑαυτὸν

ἑαυτούς א* D₂* (vg) syr vg (αυτους א* ): ἑαυτόν A: αὐτόν S. ἐκλυ.: ἐκλελυμένοι D₂*. 4 οὕπω: + γάρ D₂* (vg) me the.

ἵνα μὴ κάμητε...ἐκλυόμενοι] The final failure comes from continuous weakening. The moral strength is enfeebled little by little (ἐκλυόμενοι as contrasted with ἐκλυθέντες). So it may be that those who, like the Hebrews, had begun well are unable to sustain the long stress of the conflict.

For the use of ἐκλύεσθαι see v. 5; Gal. vi. 9; Matt. xv. 32.

The rhythm of the sentence seems to be decisive for the connexion of ταῖς ψ. ὑ. with ἐκλυόμενοι. Comp. Polyb. xx. 4 ἀνέπεσον ταῖς ψ. Κάμνειν is used absolutely James v. 15.

Theophylact gives the general sense very happily: τὸ ἀναλογίσασθαι τὸν Χριστὸν τονώσει ἡμῶν τὰς ψυχὰς καὶ νευρώσει καὶ οὐκ ἐάσει ἐκλελύσθαι καὶ ἀπαγορεῦσαι πρὸς τὰς θλίψεις.

(4). οὕπω...ἀντικατέστητε...] The sufferings of the Hebrews are contrasted with those of Christ. Their struggle had not yet been to death. At the same time it is implied (οὕπω) that they must be prepared for a deadly encounter.

The statement is in no way opposed to the view that the Epistle was addressed to a Palestinian Church out of which St Stephen and St James had suffered martyrdom. The recollection of what these early witnesses had borne would in fact add point to this exhortation to the second generation of the Church.

πρὸς τὴν ἁμ. ἀνταγων.] The conflict of the Hebrews is spoken of as a conflict with sin rather than sinners (v. 3), in order to emphasise its essential character (even believers are 'sinners') and to include its various forms. Christians had to contend primarily with open enemies whose assaults seem to be contemplated here in μέχρις αἵματος. At the same time there is an inward struggle which cannot be wholly overlooked, though this did not involve literally 'a resistance to blood.'

There is no authority for giving a metaphorical sense to μέχρις αἵματος ('to the uttermost'), and such a sense would be pointless here. Comp. 2 Macc. xiii. 14. The words of Phil. ii. 1 μέχρι θανάτου seem to be present to the thoughts of the writer.

Both the words ἀντικαταστῆωαι and ἀνταγωνίζεσθαι are classical, but the latter does not occur elsewhere in the Greek Scriptures. The balance of the sentence requires πρὸς τὴν ἁμ. to be taken with ἀνταγωνιζόμενοι. The imagery of the arena still floats before the writer's mind. For the simple ἀγωνίζεσθαι see 1 Tim. vi. 12; 2 Tim. iv. 7 (1 Cor. ix. 25); ἐπαγωνίζεσθαι Jude 5.

The personification of sin (ἀνταγωνιζ. πρὸς ἁμ.) is natural and common: James i. 15; Rom. vi. 12 ff. Ἀντικατέστητε οἷον εἰς παράταξιν, εἰς πόλεμον, ὡς καὶ τῆς ἁμαρτίας ἀνθεστώσησ (Œcum.). Sin is one whether it shew itself within, in the Christian himself (v. 1), or without, as here, in his adversaries.

For the difference between ἡ ἁμαρτία and ἁμαρτία see iii. 13; v. 1 (ἡ ἁμ.) and iv. 15; ix. 26 note, 28; x. 6, 8, 18; xi. 25; xiii. 11 (ἁμ.). See also Additional Note on i. 3. 399καὶ ἐκλέλησθε τῆς παρακλήσεως, ἥτις ὑμῖν ὡς υἱοῖς διαλέγεται,

Υἱέ μου, μὴ ὀλιγώρει παιδείας Κυρίου,

μηδὲ ἐκλύου ὑπ' αὐτοῦ ἐλεγχόμενος.

ὅν πὰρ ἀγαπᾷ Κύριος παιδεύει,

μαστιγοῖ δὲ πάντα υἱὸν ὅν παραδέχεται.

5 εκλελησθαιπαρατησπαρακλησεως D₂*. om. μου D₂*. ἐλ. ὑ. αὐ. D₂.

(5). καὶ ἐκλέλησθε τῆς παρακλ....] and have ye forgotten the exhortation (Vulg. consolationis)..? It is doubtful whether the sentence is to be taken interrogatively or affirmatively (and ye have forgotten). The former interpretation gives the most forcible sense. The question pleads against the forgetfulness which it implies; and still it is in form less severe than a statement.

The idea of παράκλησις (as of παράκλητος) goes beyond any single rendering. The divine word, to which appeal is made, is at once an encouragement and a consolation. Sufferings are tempered by the providence of God, and they are a sign of sonship.

Ἐκλανθάνεσθαι occurs here only in the Greek Scriptures. It is in classical writers from Homer downwards.

ἥτις...διαλέγεται] that discourseth with you as sons. The utterance of Scripture is treated as the voice of God conversing with men. Through the written word the Wisdom of God addresses us.

This peculiar use of διαλέγεσθαι does not occur elsewhere in Ν. T., but the personification in Gal. iii. 8 (προἲδοῦσα ἡ γραφή) is even bolder.

For ἥτις see ii. 3 note.

υἱέ μου...] Prov. iii. 11 f. Comp. Job v. 17. Philo quotes the words de congr. erud. grat. § 31 (i. 544 M.) οὕτω τοίνυν ἡ ποιὰ κάκωσις (Deut. viii. 2) ὡφέλιμόν ἐστιν...ἔνθεν δ' ἐμοὶ δοκεῖ τις τῶν φοιτητῶν Μωὒσέως, ὄνομα Εἰρηνικός, ὅς πατρίῳ γλώσσῃ Σαλομὼν καλεῖται, φάναι, Παιδείας θεοῦ, υἱέ, μὴ ὀλιγώρει...οὕτως ἄρα ἡ ἐπίπληξις καὶ νουθεσία καλὸν νενόμισται, ὥστε δι' αὐτῆς ἡ πρὸς θεὸν ὁμολογία συγγένεια γέγνεται. τί γὰρ οἰκειότερον υἱῷ πατρὸς ἥ υἱοῦ πατρί;

In a remarkable passage Epictetus claims for man a divine sonship: διατί μὴ εἴπῃ τις αὐτὸν Κόσμιον (a citizen of the Universe); διατί μὴ υἱὸν τοῦ θεοῦ; διατί δὲ φοβηθήσεταί τι τῶν γινομένων ἐν ἀνθρώποις;...τὸ δὲ τὸν θεὸν ποιητὴν ἔχειν καὶ πατέρα καὶ κηδεμόνα οὐκέτι ἡμᾶς ἐξαιρήσεται λυπῶν καὶ φόβων; (Dissert. i. 9, 6 f.).

μὴ ὀλιγώρει] Vulg. Hebr. Dflpfl regard not lightly. Do not make it of little account; do not neglect to consider its real scope and end.

The verb ὀλιγωρεῖν does not occur again in the Greek Scriptures. For ἐκλύου see v. 3.

(6). μαστιγοῖ] The lxx. read Hebrew3K3, which the Masoretic text points Hebrew3$? (as a father), as if it were some form from Hebrewη#φ 'he was pained.'

For παιδεύειν compare 1 Tim. i. 20.

(β) Chastisement is the discipline of sons (7, 8).

It is for chastening ye endure; it is as with sons God dealeth with you. For what son is there whom his father chasteneth not? ⁸But if ye are without chastening, whereof all have become partakers, then are ye bastards and not sons. 400εἰς παιδείαν ὁπομένετε. ως υἱοῖς ὑμῖν προσφέρεται ὁ θεός. τίς γὰρ υἱὸς ὅν οὐ παιδεύει πατήρ; ⁸εἰ δὲ χωρίς ἐστε παιδείας ἧς μέτοχοι γεγόνασι πάντες, ἄρα νόθοι

7 εἰς παιδείας ὑπομένετε אΑ vg syr vg me the: (παραδ.) εἰς παιδ. | ὑπομείνατε | D₂ (recepit in disciplinam | perseverare d -ate c): εἰ παιδ. ὑπομ. S. τίς γάρ א* A vg the: + ἐστίν א* D₂* syr vg me. 8 νόθροι A.

(7). εἰς π. ὑπομ.] Vulg. in disciplina perseverate. The clause may be either imperative or indicative. The absence of a connecting particle in the next clause favours the latter view. It is for chastening ye endure: it is as with sons God dealeth with you. The divine purpose is unquestionable, but at the same time the efficacy of the discipline depends on the spirit with which it is received. Patient endurance alone converts suffering into a beneficent lesson. Ἐπειδὴ τοσαῦτα ἐπάθετε κακά, νομίζετε ὅτι ἀφῆκεν ὑμᾶς ὁ θεὸς καὶ μισεῖ΄εἰ μὴ ἐπάθετε, τότε ἔδει τοῦτο ὑποπτεύειν (Chrys.). Compare Priscill. x. p. 133 ecce Deus dum corripit diligit, et erudit potius peccati agnitione quam plectit. Comp. 2 Macc. vi. 12.

The difference between παιδεύειν and διδάσκειν is always clearly marked. Παιδεύειν, the habitual rendering of HebrewIP» in the lxx. (about 40 times), suggests moral training, disciplining of the powers of man, while διδάσκειν expresses the communication of a particular lesson. This force of παιδεύειν is to be taken account of in Acts vii. 22; xxii. 3. The training given by a great master is something far more than his teaching.

The word παιδεία is used differently in this verse and the next. Discipline is here regarded as the end, and in the following verse as the means. The corresponding word HebrewΤφύ is used with like variation of meaning: e.g. Prov. xxiii. 12, 13. For εἰς of the end see c. iv. 16; vi. 16. Ὑπομένειν is used absolutely 2 Tim. ii. 12; 1 Pet. ii. 20; James v. 11; Rom. xii. 12.

ὡς υἱ. ὑ. προσφ.] The very fact that you suffer is, if you rightly regard it, an assurance of your sonship. You can recognize in it the dealing of a Father. The clause is independent. The title of privilege (υἱός) is naturally used: comp. ii. 10. The title τέκνον (-να) does not occur in the Epistle.

The use of προσφέρεσθαι in ὑμῖν προσφ. (Vulg. vobis offert se) is not found again in the Greek Scriptures; but it is common in classical writers and in Philo.

It is worth observing again in this connexion that the absolute title of πατήρ is not given to God in the Epistle, except in the quotation i. 5. It is found in all the other groups of Books in the Ν.T.

τίς γὰρ υἱ. ὅν οὐ παιδ.] The words can be rendered either For who is a son whom his father...; or For what son is there whom... The latter construction is more simple and expresses more distinctly the thought of suffering on the part of sons. Apoc. iii. 19 ὅσους ἐὰν φιλῶ ἐλέγχω καὶ παιδεύω.

Comp. Philo de Joseph. § 14 (ii. p. 52 M. τέκνα γνήσια); de vit. Mos., i. § 60 (ii. p. 132 M. υἱοὶ γνέσιοι).

(8). εἰ δὲ χωρίς ἐστε παιδείας...πάντες] The order of the words throws the emphasis on χωρίς. All true sons, all who have ever realised this relation, have been made partakers in chastening. The reference is apparently to divine sonship and not to human.

The use of the compound perfect form μέτοχοι γεγόνασιν (comp. c. iii. 14 note) shews that the chastisement was personally accepted and permanent 401 καὶ οὐχ υἱοί ἐστε. ⁹εἶτα τοὺς μὲν τῆς σαρκὸς ἡμῶν πατέρας εἴχομεν παιδευτας καὶ ἐνετρεπόμεθα. οὐ πολὺ μᾶλλον ὑποταγησόμεθα τῷ πατρὶ τῶν πνευμάτων καὶ

καὶ οὐχ υἱ. ἐ. אAD₂* vg: ἐ. καὶ οὐχ υἱ. S syr vg. 9 εἶτα: εἰ δέ syr vg. πολύ אAD₂*: πολλῷ S. πολὺ + δέ א* D₂*.

in its effects, and not simply a transitory pain (μετέσχον, μέτ. ἐγένoντο). Compare v. 11 (γεγυμνασμένοις); iv. 15 πεπειρασμένον: Matt. v. 10 δεδιωγμένοι.

πὰντες] Notandum autem quia non omnis qui flagellatur filius est, sed omnis qui filius est flagellatur (Primas. after Chrys.).

ἄρα ωόθοι ἐστέ] Vulg. ergo adulteri...then are ye bastards who stand in no recognised position towards their father as heirs to his name and fortune: for their character he has no anxiety as for that of sons: they are without the range of his discipline. Ὥσπερ ἐν ταῖς οἰκίαις τῶν νόθων καταφρονοῦσιν oἱ πατέρες κἆν μηδὲν μανθ νωσι, κἆν μὴ ἔνδοξοι γίνωνται, τῶν δὲ γνησίων ἔνεκεν υἱῶν δεδοίκασι μήποτε ῥᾳθυμήσωσι, τοῦτο καὶ ἐπὶ τοῦ παρόντος (Chrys.). For ἄρα see c. iv. 9 note.

(γ) Characteristics of earthly and heavenly discipline (9—11).

The thought of filial discipline on earth, which has been already introduced (v. 8), is followed out in some detail in order to illustrate the obligations and issues of the discipline of God. The discipline of God answers to greater claims (v. 9), and is directed by higher wisdom to a nobler end (v. 10), than belong to natural parents. And while all discipline alike is painful to bear we are taught by experience to look to its issue (v. 11).

Furthermore we had the fathers of our flesh to chasten us, and we gave them regard: shall we not much rather be in subjection to the Father of spirits and live? ¹°For while they chastened us as it pleased them for a few days, He chastens us for our profit that we may receive of His holiness. ¹¹All chastening for the present seemeth to be not joyous but grievous; but afterward it yieldeth peaceable fruit to them that have been exercised thereby, even the fruit of righteousness.

(9). εἶτα...ἐνετρεπόμεθα] Furthermore we had the fathers of our flesh to chasten us, and we gave them regard...This particle εἶτα has been taken as an interrogative: 'Is it so then that we had...,' according to common classical use, but in this case the following sentence would naturally begin with καί (καὶ oὐ πολὺ μᾶλλον). It is better therefore to regard it as introducing a second argument: further, yet again. In v. 8 the Apostle has shewn the universality of filial discipline: he now shews in what spirit it should be borne, drawing his conclusion from natural experience. There is no exact parallel in the Ν. T. to this use of εἶτα, which is used in enumerations (e.g. 1 Cor. xii. 28; xv. 5, 7) as well as in sequences (e.g. Mk. iv. 28).

The word παιδευτής (Vulg. eruditores) is found again in Rom. ii. 20; Hos. v. 2; Ecclus. xxxvii. 19. It expresses not only the fact of the discipline, but the parental office to exercise it.

Ἐντρέπομαι (Vulg. reverebamur) is found in Luke xviii. 2, 4; xx. 13 (and parallels).

τοὺς τ. σ. ἡ. πατ....τῷ πατ. τ. πν.] The fathers of our earthly, corporeal, being are contrasted with the Father of spirits, the Author not only of our spiritual being but of all spiritual beings (τῶν πνευμ. not τοῦ πν. ἡμῶν). 402 ζήσομεν; ¹°oἱ μὲν γὰρ πρὸς ὀλίγας ἡμέρας κατὰ τὸ

10 οἱ: א*.

Their limited relation to us (τῆς σ. ἡμῶν) is contrasted with His universal power. By our spirit (v. 23) we have connexion with Him and with a higher order. We owe to Him therefore a more absolute subjection than to those from whom we derive the transitory limitations of our nature.

The language is perhaps based upon Num. xvi. 22, xxvii. 16 (lxx.) () θεὸς τῶν πνευμάτων καὶ πάσησ σαρκός (τῶν ἀνθρώπων). Comp. Clem. R. i. 58 ὁ πανεπόπτης θεὸς καὶ δεσπότης τῶν πνευμάτων καὶ Κύριος πάσησ σαρκόσ. id. 59 τὸν παντὸς πνεύματος κτίστην καῖ ἐπίσκοπον (and Lightfoot's note); and Apoc. xxii. 6 ὁ Κύριος, ὁ θεὸς τῶν πνευμάτων τῶν προφητῶν.

οὐ πολὺ μ....καὶ ζήσομεν;] The form of this clause is different from that of the clause to which it corresponds. Instead of saying τῷ δὲ π. τ. πν. οὐχ ὑποταγ.; the writer brings forward the overwhelming superiority of the obligation (οὐ πολὺ μᾶλλον). So also the careful regard (ἐνετρεπόμεθα) due to an earthly parent is contrasted with the complete submission due to God (ὑποταγησόμεθα).

For the use of μέν without δέ following compare Luke xxii. 22; Col. ii. 23.

Such absolute subjection is crowned by the highest blessing (καὶ ζήσομεν). True life comes from complete self-surrender. As the One Son fulfilled His Father's will and lives through Him, so the many sons live through His life in obedience to Him: John vi. 57 (διά), xiv. 15, 19. This life is given on the part of God, but it has to be realised by the individual: 1 John v. 16.

Compare the striking words of Theophylact: καὶ ζήσομεν προσέθηκεν ἵνα δείξῃ ὅτι ὁ ἀνυπότακτος οὐδὲ ζῃ. ἔξω γάρ ἐστι τοῦ θεοῦ ὅς ἐστι ζωή: and Œcumenius: τοῦτο γὰρ ζωὴ τὸ ὑποτετάχθαι θεῷ.

The phrase ὁ πατὴρ τῶν πνευμάτων is quite general, the Father of spirits embodied, disembodied, unembodied. The context, which regards disobedience as possible, scorns to exclude the idea that τὰ πνεύματα means only the spirits in conscious, willing, fellowship with God.

The πνεῦμα corresponds with the σάρξ, in the narrower sense, as an integral element in man's nature. By the latter he is bound to the line of ancestors who determine the conditions of his earthly life (vii. 5, 10 note): by the former he stands in immediate connexion with God.

The Greek Fathers are vague in their interpretation of the phrase, as Chrysostom: τῷ πατρὶ τῶν πνευμάτων. ἥτοι τῶν χαρισμάτων λέγει ἥτοι τῶν εὐχῶν (leg. ψυχῶν) ἥτοι τῶν ἀσωμάτων δυνάμεων. Theophylact adds to χαρισμάτων and ἀσωμάτων δυνάμεων, ἧ, ὅπερ καὶ οἰκειότερον, τῶν ψυχῶν. Theodoret: πατέρα πνευμάτων τὸν πνευματικὸν πατέρα κέκληκεν ὡς τῶν πνευματικῶν χαρισμάτων πηγήν.

The later Latin Fathers speak more decidedly: Pater spirituum, id est creator animarum, Deus omnipotens est, qui bona creavit, primum ex nihilo, deinde vero ex elementis, corpora hominum aliorumque animalium. Animam vero hominis ex nihilo creavit et creat adhuc; non est enim probandum quod anima pars doitatis sit; quoniam deltas increata est, anima autem creatura est. Ideireo autem omnipotentem Deum creatorem animarum appellat, non corporum, cum omnium creator sit quia...anima ...semper a Deo ex nihilo creatur (Primas.).

(10). The method of human discipline is as inferior to the method of 403 δοκοῦν αὐτοῖς ἐπαίδευον, ὁ δὲ ἐπὶ τὸ συμφέρον εἰς τὸ μεταλαβεῖν τὴς ἁγιότητος αὐτοῦ. ¹¹πᾶσα μὲν παιδεία πρὸς μὲν τὸ παρὸν οὐ δοκεῖ χαρᾶς εἶναι ἀλλὰ λύπης, ὕστερον δὲ καρπὸν εἰρηνικὸν τοῖς δι' αὐτῆς

11 δὲ

ἐπαίδευεν ἡμᾶς καὶ τὰ δοκοῦντα αὐτο D₂. συμφέρων A. om. εἰς τό א*.

11 δέ א* Α vg syr vg me: μέν א* : om. D₂*. αὐτῆς: αὐτοῖς D₂*.

he divine discipline as the claims of the one are inferior to the claims of the other.

The clauses in the verse are related inversely:

πρὸς ὀλίγας ἡμέρας

κατὰ τὸ δοκοῦν

ἐπὶ τὸ συμφέρον

εἰς τὸ μεταλαβεῖν τῆς ἁγιότητος αὐτοῦ.

The discipline of the human father is regulated 'according to his pleasure.' Even when his purpose is best, he may fail as to the method, and his purpose may be selfish. But with God, for His part, purpose and accomplishment are identical; and His aim is the advantage of His children. The spiritual son then may be sure both as to the will and as to the wisdom of his Father.

Again the discipline of the earthly father is directed characteristically to the circumstances of a transitory life: (πρὸς ὀλ. ἡμ. 'with a view to a few days,' 'for a few days,' in the final sense of 'for'): that of the heavenly Father has in view the participation of His son in His own eternal nature (comp. 2 Pet. i. 4), 'after His likeness.'

The interpretation of πρὸς ὀλ. ἡμ. (Vulg. in tempore paucorum dierum) simply of the short period of life during which the paternal discipline both of man and God lasts ('for a few days' in the temporal sense of 'for') seems to introduce a thought foreign to the context. To insist on the brevity of human discipline would be to weaken the argument, which rests on general relations. The discipline of the earthly parent is for a short time, and that which the discipline directly regards is short also.

For the use of πρός compare v. 11 (πρὸς τὸ παρόν); 1 Tim. iv. 8 (πρὸς ὀλίγον). Notantur dies non solum ii quos durat ipsa disciplina sed ad quos disciplinæ fructus pertinet (Bengel).

With ἐπὶ τὸ συμφέρον compare 1 Cor. xii. 7 πρὸς τι' συμφέρον. The word (ἁγιότης occurs again 2 Cor. i. 12; μεταλαβεῖν, c. vi. 7. With the general idea compare Philo, Leg. Alleg. i. § 13 (i. 50) φιλόδωρος ὥν ὁ θεὸς χαρίζεται τὰ ἀγαθὰ πᾶσι καὶ τοῖς μὴ τελείοις, προκαλούμενος αὐτοὺς εἰς μετουσίαν καὶ.

So Chrysostom says of our relation to God: φιλούμεθα οὐχ ἵνα λάβῃ ἀλλ' ἵνα δω. And God gives that which He is: 1 Pet. i. 15 f. (Lev. xi. 44); Matt. v. 48.

(11). πᾶσα μὲν παιδ....λύπης] Yet the fruit of discipline is not gained at once. All chastening, the divine no less than the human, seemeth, even though it is not so in its essence, for the present, looking at that only, to be not joyous but grievous. It might have been supposed that divine discipline would be free from sorrow. But this also is first brought under the general law and then considered in itself.

For χαρᾶς (λύπης) εἶναι, see x. 39, note.

ὔστερον δὲ...δικαι.] yet, afterward it yieldeth, as its proper return 404 γεγυμνααμένοις ἀποδίδωσιν δικαιοσύνης. ¹²Διὸ τὰς παρειμένας χεῖρας καὶ τὰ παραλελυμένα γόνατα ἀνορθώσατε, ¹³καὶ τροχιὰς ὀρθὰς ποιεῖτε

13 ποιήσατε

13 ποιεῖτε א* ; ποιήσατε S א* AD₂.

(ἀποδίδωσιν, comp. Αροc. xxii. 2), peaceable fruit to them that have been exercised thereby, even the fruit of righteousness.

The conflict of discipline issues in that perfect peace which answers to the fulfilment of law. Castigator de monstrat se fideliter fecisse: castigatus id agnoscit et gratiam habet: inde pax (Bengel).

In the lxx. ἀποδιδόναι most commonly represents Hebrewa^D (over 50 times), less frequently Hebrewthtf (over 20 times), and Hebrew|D) (21 times). It suggests that there is a claim in response to which something is given. Comp. Acts iv. 33.

For the singular καρπόν see Matt, iii. 8, 10; εἰρηνικός (Vulg. pacatissimum), which is common in the lxx. occurs again James iii. 17. For the perfect γεγυμνασμένοις see v. 8 note; and for the image Chrysostom's note: ὁρᾷς πῶς καὶ εὐφήμῳ ὀνόματι κέχρηται; ἄρα γυμνασία ἐστὶν ἡ παιδεία, τὸν ἀθλητὴν ἰσχυρὸν ἐργαζομένη καὶ ἀκαταγώνιστον ἐν τοῖς ἀγῶσι καὶ ἅμαχον ἐν τοῖς πολέμοις.

The word δικαιοσύνης stands impressively at the end (James ii. 1, τῆς δόξης), explaining and summing up what has been said generally: peaceful fruit—even the fruit of righteousness, that is, consisting in righteousness. Comp. James iii. 18; 2 Tim. iv. 8; c. ix. 15; x. 20. Peace and righteousness both in different ways correspond to the issue of perfect discipline, through which all action becomes the expression of obedience to the divine will. Compare Is. xxxii. 17.

There is a striking parallel to the thought in a saying of Aristotle preserved by Diogenes Laert.: τὴς παιδείας τὰς μὲν ῥίζας εἶναι πικρὰς, γλυκεῖς δὲ τοὺς καρπούς (Diog. Laert v. 18).

(δ) Practical conclusion far the Hebrews in their trial (12, 13).

¹²Wherefore set right the hands that hang down and the palsied knees; ¹³and make straight paths for your feet, that the limb which is lame be not put out of joint, but rather be healed.

(12). διό...] Wherefore since discipline is necessary, painful, and salutary, provide, as you can, that it may be effectual. Strengthen where it is possible those who are called to endure it; and remove from their way stumbling-blocks which can be removed.

The Apostle urges those who were themselves in danger to help others in like peril. Such efforts are the surest support of the tempted.

The figurative language which he borrows from various parts of the 0. T. suggests the manifold strengthening of powers for conflict ('hands') and for progress ('knees'); and also the removal of external difficulties. Αἱ μὲν χεῖρες ἐνεργείας, οἱ δὲ πόδες κινήσεως σύμβολον (Theophylact).

The images are found Is. xxxv. 3; Ecclus. xxv. 23. For παρειμένας and παραλελυμένα compare Deut. xxxii. 36; 2 Sam. iv. 1 (lxx.); for ἀνορθώσατε (Vulg. erigite) Ps. xx. (xix.) 9; Lk. xiii. 13; Acts xv. 16 (Amos ix. 11).

(13). καὶ τροχ....] Vulg. et gressus rectos facite pedibus vestris. The phrase is taken from Prov. iv. 26 ὀρθὰς τροχιὰς ποίει σοῖς ποσὶ καὶ τὰς ὁδούς σου κατεύθυνε (HebrewvP ?l?9 D?9 i.e. make plain (straight) the path of thy foot). The words may be rendered 'make straight paths for your feet' 405 τοῖς ποσὶν ὑμῶν, ἵνα μὴ τὸ χωλὸν ἐκτραπῇ, ἰαθῇ δὲ μᾶλλον. ¹⁴Εἰρήνην διώκετε μετὰ πάντων,καὶ τὸν

i.e. for the feet of the whole society to tread in; or 'with your feet,' as giving a good example to others. Chrysostom says apparently in the latter sense: ὀρθά, φησί, βαδίζετε ὥστε μὴ ἐπιταθῆναι τὴν χωλείαν; and this is the meaning given by the Latin Vulgate. But the context favours the first rendering. The thought seems to be that of a road prepared to walk in without windings or stumbling-blocks: Matt. iii. 3.

For the image generally compare Philo, de migrat. Abr. § 26 (i. p. 458 M.).

The word τροχιά (orbita, wheel-track) is found in lxx. only in the book of Proverbs as the translation of Hebrew?|φΡ (ii. 15; iv. 11; v. 6, 21).

The common reading (ποιήσατε) gives an accidental hexameter.

ἵνα μὴ τὸ χ.] that the limb which is lame be not put out of joint. The more exact form would be ἵνα τὸ χ. μὴ ἐκτρ., but the negative is attracted (as it were) to the final particle. Comp. 1 Tim. vi. 1. By τὸ χωλόν (Vulg. claudicans) the Apostle describes the lame member in the Church, who is unable to stand or walk firmly on his way. Compare 1 K. xviii. 21. The 'halting' of the Hebrews 'between two opinions' is the characteristic type of their weakness.

The word ἐκτρέπεσθαι is elsewhere found in the Greek Scriptures in the sense of 'being turned out of the way'; and it is commonly so interpreted here (Vulg. erret); but there is no obvious fitness in adding to 'lameness' the idea of 'straying,' and the sense 'put out of joint' has adequate support, and the addition of ἰαθῇ, which has no connexion with 'straying,' seems to require it. Hippocr. de offic. med. vi. p. 745 H. (in discussing the treatment of injured limbs) θέσις δὲ μαλθακή, ὁμαλή, ἀνάρροπος τοῖσιν ἐξέχουσι τοῦ σώματος, οἷον πρέρνῃ καὶ ἰσχίῳ, μήτε ἀνακλᾶται μήτε ἐκτρέπεται (?-ηται).

(2) 14—17. The necessity of peace and purity.

The special exhortations which arose directly from circumstances of trial and discipline lead on to directions of a general character. The duty of mutual help (v. 13) naturally suggests the consideration of the power of mutual influence (vv. 14—18); and this, in the actual state of society, gives occasion to a solemn warning as to the irremediable consequences of faithlessness (v. 17).

¹⁴Follow after peace with all men, and the sanctification without which no man shall see the Lord; ¹⁵looking carefully lest there be any man that falleth back from the grace of God; lest any root of bitterness springing up trouble you, and through this the many be defiled; ¹⁶lest there be any fornicator, or profane person as Esau, who for one mess of meat sold his own birthright. ¹⁷For ye know that even afterward, when he wished to inherit the blessing, he was rejected—for he found no place for repentance—though he sought it diligently with tears.

(14). εἰρ. διώκ....καὶ τὸν ἁγ....] Ρs. xxxiv. 14; 1 Pet. iii. 11; Rom. xii. 18. The writer extends his view to the wider relations of life; and the two commands which he gives express the aim and the necessary limitation of the Christian's intercourse with 'the world.' The Christian seeks peace with all alike, but he seeks holiness also, and this cannot be sacrificed for that.

The parallel with Rom. xii. 18 suggests that πάντων must not be limited in any way. On the other hand the next verse takes account only of members of the Christian society. But 406 ἁγιασμόν, οὖ χωρὶς οὐδεὶς ὄψεται τὸν κύριον, ¹⁵ἐπτισκοποῦντες μή τις ὑστερῶν ἀπὸ τῆς χάριτος τοῦ θεοῦ,

14 κύριον: θεόν d (vg). 15 + ἵνα' μήτις D₂*.

the thought of ἁγιασμός supplies a natural transition from a wider to a narrower view. The graces of purity and peacemaking are the subjects of two successive beatitudes: Matt. v. 8, 9.

The use of διώκετε marks the eagerness and constancy of the pursuit. Compare 1 Pet. iii. 11 (Ps. xxxiv. 15) ζητησάτω εἰρήνην καὶ διωξάτω αὐτήν (HebrewWTO). Elsewhere the metaphorical use of the word in the Ν. T. is confined to St Paul. διώκετε, τουτέστι καὶ πόρρω οὖσαν τὴν εἰρήνην σπουδάζετε καταλαβεῖν (Theophlct.).

For τὸν ἁγιασμόν (Vulg. sanctimoniam) compare v. 10; Rom. vi. 16, 22. The definite article (again only 1 Thess. iv. 3) marks the familiar Christian embodiment of the virtue. (Contrast the anarthrous εἰρήνην.)

The word ἁγιασμός is peculiar to Biblical and Ecclesiastical Greek. It occurs rarely in the lxx. (not in Lev. xxiii. 27 according to the true reading). On the idea see c. ix. 13, note. Perhaps it may be most simply described as the preparation for the presence of God. Without it no man shall see the Lord, that is, Christ, for whose return in glory believers wait: c. ix. 28. For ὄψεται see Matt. v. 8; 1 John iii. 2; 1 Cor. xiii. 12; Ex. xxxiii. 19 ff. (Judg. xiii. 22); and for τὸν κύριον, c. viii. 2 note.

(15), (16). The conditions of social intercourse impose upon Christians the obligation of constant watchfulness lest the unchristian element should communicate its evil to the Church.

The three clauses μή τις ὑστ. ἀπό..., μή τις ῥίζα..., μήτις πόρνος... are in some sense bound together by the use of a finite verb in the second only. At the same time the element of evil is presented in successive stages of development. At first it is want of progress: this defect spreads as a source of positive infidelity: at last there is open contempt of duties and privileges.

The first and third clauses may be treated as parallel with the second, so that ἐνοχλῇ is taken with all three; or (which seems a simpler construction) may be supplied in them, so that they become independent clauses: 'lest there be any among you falling short...lest there be among you any fornicator...' In Deut xxix. 18 the verb expressed is ἐστίν: 'whether there be....'; but ἐνοχλῇ more naturally suggests here.

(15) ἐπισκοποῦντες μή τις ὑστ....] (1 Pet. v. 2; not in lxx. Vulg. contemplantes.)

The word ἐπισκοποῦντες expresses the careful regard of those who occupy a position of responsibility (as a physician, or a superintendent). Each Christian shares this in due degree. Μὴ τοίνυν πάντα ἐπὶ τοὺς διδασκάλους ἐπιρρίπτετε. μὴ πάντα ἐπὶ τοὺς ἡγουμένους. δύνασθε καὶ ὑμεῖς, φησίν, ἀλλήλους οἰκοδομεῖν (Chrys.). Μὴ μόνον δὲ ἑαυτπων ἀλλὰ καὶ ἀλλήλων ἐπιμελεῖσθε, καὶ τὸν κλονούμενον ὑπερείδετε καὶ τὸν χειραγωγίας δεόμενον ἰατρεύσατε (Theodt.).

In ὑστερεῖν ἀπὸ τῆς χ. τ. θ. the idea seems to be that of falling behind, not keeping pace with the movement of divine grace which meets and stirs the progress of the Christian (c. v. 11). The present participle describes a continuous state and not a single defection.

The construction ὑστερεῖν ἀπό τινος marks a 'falling back' from that with which some connexion exists, implying a moral separation, while ὑστερεῖν 407 Μή τις ῥίζα πικρίας ἄηω φύουσα ἐηοχλῇ καὶ δι' αὐτῆς μιανθῶσιν οἱ πολλοί, ¹⁶μή τις πόρνος ἥ βέβηλος ὡς Ἠσαῦ,

15 διὰ ταύτης

δι' αὐτῆς A: διὰ ταύτης אD₂. οἱ πολλοί אA: πολλοί S D₂.

τινος expresses actual defect only, a falling short of.

Compare Eccles. vi. 2 (lxx.) οὐκ ἔστι ὑστερῶν τῇ ψυχῇ αὐτοῦ ἀπὸ παντὸς οὖ ἐπιθυμεῖ. Compare Ecclus. vii. 34 μὴ ὑστέρει ἀπὸ κλαιόντων.

Thoophylact applies the words to Christians as fellow-travellers on a long journey: καθάπερ ὁδὸν τινα μακρὰν ὁδευόντων αὐτῶν ἐν συνοδίᾳ πολλῇ, φησί, Βλέπετε μή {whether) τις ἀπέ.

μή τις ῥ. π....ἐνοχλῇ] The image is taken from Deut. xxix. 17 f. The original connexion points to the perils of allurements to serve strange gods.

The 'root' is personal (1 Macc. i. 10 ῥίζα ἁμαρτωλὸς Ἀντ. Ἐπιφ.) and not doctrinal: a pernicious man and not a pernicious opinion. Compare Acts viii. 23.

The phrase 'root of bitterness' (as distinguished from 'bitter root') expresses the product and not simply the quality of the root itself. Oὐκ εἶπε πικρά ἀλλὰ πικρίας, τὴν μὲν γὰρ πικράν ῥίζαν ἔστι καρποὺς ἐνεγκεῖν γλυκεῖς, τὴν δὲ πικρίας ῥίζαν...οὐκ ἔστι πη γλυκὺν ἐνεγκεῖν καρπόν (Chrys.).

The clause ἄνω φύουσα adds a vivid touch to the picture. The seed, the root, lies hidden and reveals its power slowly (φύειν Lk. viii. 6, 8).

For the image compare Ign. Eph. 10 ἵνα μὴ τοῦ διαβόλου βατάνη τις εὑρεθῇ ἐν ὑμῖν. id. Trall. 6; Ρhilad. 1.

The word ἐνοχλεῖν occurs again in N. T. in Luke vi. 18. The pres. conj. ἐνοχλῇ leaves it uncertain whether the fear of such a present evil is actually realised. [The strange coincidence of letters between ενοχλη and ενχολη of Deut. xxix. 18 cannot escape notice.]

μιανθ. οἱ πολλοί] the many be defiled. The poisonous influence spreads corruption through the society.

For μιαίνειν see Tit. i. 15 (2 Pet. ii. 10, 20); and for oἱ πολλοί—the many, the mass of men, the body considered in its members—Matt. xxiv. 12; Rom. v. 15, 19; xii. 5; 1 Cor. x. 17, 33; 2 Cor. ii. 17.

(16). μή τις πόρνος ἧ βέβ. ὡς Ἠσαῦ...] A question has been raised whether both πόρνος and βίβηλος are connected with Ήσαῦ, or the latter only. The second view seems unquestionably to be right. Esau is presented in Scripture as the type of a 'profane' man, but he does not appear as πόρνος either literally or metaphorically. The later Jewish traditions can hardly have a place here. And, yet again, the words of explanation which follow justify the epithet βέβηλος, but they do not extend further. They imply therefore that πόρνος does not refer to him.

Another question arises whether πόρνος is to be taken literally or metaphorically, of moral or religious impurity. The word occurs again c. xiii. 4 in the literal sense, and it is found only in this sense elsewhere in the Ν. T., though it naturally occurs in close connexion with idolatry: 1 Cor. vi. 9; Apoc. xxi. 8; xxii. 15. The literal sense therefore is to be kept here as following out the thought of ἁγιασμός (v. 14). The obstacles to holiness are gathered up under two heads, those which centre in the man himself, and those which concern his view of the divine gifts. A man may fail by personal impurity; he may fail also by disregard of the blessings of God. Esau is a characteristic 408 ὅs ἀντὶ βρώσεως μιᾶς ἀπέδετο τὰ πρωτοτόκια ἑαυτοῦ. ¹⁷ἵστε γὰρ ὅτι καὶ μετέπειτα θέλων κληρονομῆσαι τὴν εὐλογίαν ἀπεδοκιμάσθη, μετανοίας γὰρ τόπον οὐχ εὗρεν, καίπερ

16 om. ὅς D₂*. ἑαυτοῦ א* AC: αυτου א* D₂*. 17 θέλων: λέγων D₂*.

example of the latter form of sin, as one who by birth occupied a position of prerogative which he recklessly sacrificed for an immediate and sensuous pleasure. The Hebrews, on their part, might also barter their blessings as firstborn in the Church for the present outward consolations of the material Temple service. Peace with Judaism might be bought at the price of Christian holiness.

The use of βέβηλος in the Ν. T. is limited: 1 Tim. i. 9; iv. 7; vi. 20; 2 Tim. ii. 16; comp. Matt. xii. 5; Acts xxiv. 6. The word describes a character which recognises nothing as higher than earth: for whom there is nothing sacred: no divine reverence for the unseen.

Esau appears in Scripture as the embodiment of this character. For one mess of meat (Yulg. propter unam oscam), not only for a transitory and material price, but that the smallest, he sold his own birthright (τὰ πρωτοτόκια ἑαυτοῦ).

The language of the original narrative (Gen. xxv. 33 f.) is singularly expressive of the thoughtlessness of Esau, Hebrew'il ^il DR1 ψψ&}, καὶ ἔφαγε καὶ ἔπιε καὶ ἀναστὰς ῷχετο καὶ ἐφαύλισεν Ἠσαῦ τὰ πρωτοτόκια.

For the double portion of the firstborn see Deut. xxi. 17 (1 Chron. v. 1).

(17). The neglect of privileges and responsibilities brings irreparable consequences.

ἵστε γὰρ...ἀπεδοκιμάσθη] For ye know that even afterward, when he wished to inherit the blessing, he was rejected, Vulg. Scitote enim quoniam et postea...reprobatus est. The form ἵστε, which is very rare in the Ν. T. (Eph. v. 5; James i. 9) is ambiguous.

It may be (as Vulg.) imperative; but the indicative makes an impressive appeal to the history with which the Hebrews were familiar.

The consequences of Esau's act reached farther than he had cared to look (even afterward). In spite of his impulsive disregard of divine things he retained still some sense of God's promise, and sought to secure what had naturally belonged to him. Thus his profane irreverence was seen in a new form. He paid no heed to his own act, but wished to occupy the position which he had voluntarily abandoned. He had sold the right of the first-born and yet, as if that were a trivial thing, he claimed to inherit the blessing which belonged to it. The use of κληρονομῆσαι emphasises his sin. He asserted the prerogative of birth, a gift of God, when he had himself recklessly surrendered it.

ἀποδοκιμάζειν] he was rejected by his father who confirmed the blessing which he had unknowingly given to Jacob. Isaac spoke what was indeed the judgment of God (Gen. xxvii. 33, 37): δῆλον γὰρ ὅτι καὶ ὁ πατὴρ κατὰ θεὸν ἀπεδοκίμασεν αὐτόν (Theophlct.).

For αποδοκιμάζειν see 1 Pet. ii. 4; Luke xix. 22.

μετ. γὰρ τ. οὐχ εὗρεν] for he found no place of repentance. The son who had sacrificed his right could not undo the past, and it is this only which is in question. No energy of sorrow or self-condemnation, however sincere, could restore to him the prerogative of the first-born. The consideration of the forgiveness of his sin against God, as distinct from the reversal of the temporal consequences of his sin, lies wholly without the argument.

409

The clause is to be taken parenthetically: Esau was rejected—his claim to the blessing was disallowed—for he found no place of repentance—though he sought the blessing earnestly with tears. Equally abrupt parentheses are found v. 21; xiii. 17.

'A place of repentance' is an opportunity for changing a former decision so that the consequences which would have followed from it if persisted in follow no longer. The repentance in such a case corresponds with the particular effects under consideration. It would be equally true to say that in respect of the privileges of the first-born which Esau had sold, he found no place for repentance, and that in respect of his spiritual relation to God, if his sorrow was sincere, he did find a place for repentance.

The phrase locus pœnitentiæ is so used by the Roman jurists. A passage quoted by Wetstein (Ulpian ap. Corp. J. C. Dig. @xl. Tit. vii. 3 § 13) is instructive, and offers a close parallel. A slave is to have his freedom if he pays ten aurei to his master's heir on three several days. He offers them the first day and they are refused; and again on the second and third days with the same result. The heir has no power of refusing to receive the payment, and therefore the slave, having done his part, is free. But a case is proposed where the slave has only ten aurei in all. They have been refused on the first and second days: will they avail for the third payment? The answer is in the affirmative: puto sufficere hæc eadem et pœnitentiæ heredi locum non esse: quod et Pomponius probat.

The last words of Pliny's letter to Trajan on the Christians are: ex quo facile est opinari quæ turba hominum emendari possit, si sit locus pœnitentiæ (Epp. x. 97). Comp. Liv. xliv. 10.

Μετανοίας τόπος is found Wisd. xii. 10 κρίνων κατὰ βραχὺ ἐδίδους τόπον μετανοίας. Clem. ad Cor. i. 7 μετανοίας τόπον ἔδωκεν ὁ δεσπότης τοῖς βουλομένοις ἐπιστραφῆναι ἐπ' αὐτόν. Tat. c Græc. 15 ἡ τῶν δαιμόνων ὑπόστασισ οὐκ ἔχει μετανοίας τόπον. τῆς γὰρ ὕλης καὶ τὴς πονηρίας εἰσὶν ἀπαυγάσματα Constit. Apost. ii. 38; v. 19. Comp. Acts xxv. 1 τόπος ἀπολογίας.

The rendering 'he (Esau) found in Isaac no place for change of mind, though he sought it (the change of mind) earnestly—that is, he found his father firmly resolved to maintain what he had said,—is equally against the language and the argument.

The αὐτήν in the last clause can only be referred to εὐλογίαν. The phrase ἐκζητεῖν μετάνοιαν would be very strange, and if the writer had wished to express this form of thought, he would have said αὐτόν with reference to μετανοίας τόπον, so that the object of ἐκζητεῖν and εὑρίσκειν might be the same. The reference to εὐλογίαν on the other hand seems to be pointed by μετὰ δακρύων ἐκζ. Gen. xxvii. 38 ἀνεβόησεν φωνῇ Ἠσαῦ καὶ ἔκλαυσεν.

(3) 18—29. The character and obligations of the New Covenant.

This section forms a solemn close to the main argument of the Epistle. It offers a striking picture of the characteristics of the two Covenants summed up in the words 'terror' and 'grace'; and at the same time, in harmony with the whole current of thought, it emphasises the truth that greater privileges bring greater responsibility. The section falls into two parts:

(a) The contrast of the position of Christians with that of the Israelites at the giving of the Law (18—24); and

(b) The duties of Christians which flow from their position (25—29).

(a) The contrast of the position of Christians with that of the Israelites at the giving of the Law (18—24).

The writer first describes (a) the scene at Sinai; and then he describes 410 μετὰ δακρύων ἐκζητήσας αὐτήν. ¹⁸Οὐ γὰρ προσεληλύθατε ψηλαφωμένῳ καὶ κεκαγμένῳ πυρὶ καὶ γνόφῳ

18 ψηλαφ. אΑC vg syr vg me the: + ὅπει S D₂ (om. d). καὶ κεκαυμένῳ: κεκαλυμμένῳ D₂*.

(β) the position of Christians (22—24).

¹⁸For ye are not come to a material and kindled fire, and to blackness, and darkness, and tempest, ¹⁹and the sound of a trumpet, and the voice of words; which voice they that heard intreated that no word more should be spoken to them: ²°for they could not bear that which was enjoined, If even a beast touch the mountain it shall be stoned; ²¹and, so fearful was the appearance, Moses said, I exceedingly fear and quake.

²²But ye are come to mount Zion, and to the city of the Living God, a heavenly Jerusalem, and to innumerable hosts of angels ²³in festal assembly, and to the church of the firstborn, enrolled in heaven, and to the God of all as Judge, and to spirits of just men made perfect, ²⁴and to the Mediator of a new Covenant even Jesus, and to the blood of sprinkling that speaketh better than Abel.

(α) The scene at Sinai (18—21).

The description is designed to bring out the awfulnees of the whole revelation which attended the making of the Old Covenant. Step by step the writer advances from the physical terrors by which it was accompanied (18—20) to the confession of the Lawgiver himself (21), who alone of all prophets was allowed to speak to God face to face.

(18) ff. The peril of disregarding the Christian privileges, which have been indicated in the last section, is proportioned to their greatness. Therefore the Apostle says,'Endure, advance, aim at the highest purity, cherish the loftiest view of divine things, for ye are not come to a vision of outward awfulness, but ye are come to mount Zion. You stand in view of heavenly glories immeasurably nobler than the terrors of Sinai. If then the people who were admitted to that revelation were charged to make every external preparation (Ex. xix. 14 f.), much more must you prepare yourselves spiritually.

(18). οὐ γὰρ προσελ. ψηλ. καὶ κεκ. π.] For ye are not come to a material (palpable) and kindled fire...Vulg. Non enim accessistis ad tractabilem et accensibilem (d ardentem et tractabilem) ignem. The position once taken (προσήλθετε Deut. iv. 11) is presented as still retained. In this respect Christians were differently circumstanced from those who heard the Law at Sinai. The Jews were forbidden to draw near: Christians shrank back when they were invited to approach. For the word προσελθεῖν see iv. 16 note.

The scene of the old legislation is described simply as 'a palpable and kindled fire and blackness...' The earthly, local, associations of the divine epiphany fall wholly into the background. That which the writer describes is the form of the revelation, fire and darkness and thunder, material signs of the nature of God (v. 29). Thus every element is one which outwardly moves fear; and in this connexion the mention of Sinai itself may well be omitted. The mountain is lost in the fire and smoke. It was, so to speak, no longer a mountain. It becomes a manifestation of terrible majesty, a symbol of the Divine Presence.

The fire is outward, material, derivative. It is palpable, to be 'felt,' like the darkness of Egypt (Ex. x. 21 γενηθήτω σκότος...ψηλαφητὸν σκότος), 411 καὶ ζόφῳ καὶ θγέλλῃ ¹⁹καὶ σάλπιγγος ἤχῳ καὶ φωνῇ ῥημάτων, ἧς οἱ ἀκούσαντες παρῃτήσαντο προστίθηναι αὐτοῖς λόγον. ²°οὐκ ἔφερον γὰρ τὸ δαστελλόμενον. Κἄν θηρίον

19 μὴ

ζόφῳ א* ACD₂*: σκότῳ א*.

19 om. μή א*. προσθεῖναι Α.

and has been kindled from some other source. So Philo speaks of πυρὸς οὐρανίου φορᾷ καπνῷ βαθεῖ τὰ ἐν κόκλῳ συσκιόζοντος (de decal. § 11, ii. 187). The use of the partic. ψηλαφώμενος brings out that which was felt in actual experience as distinguished from the abstract nature of the object.

Chrysostom says τί τὸ ψηλαφώμενον πῦρ πρὸς τὸν ἀψηλάφητον θεόν; ὁ θεὸς γὰρ ἡμῶν, φησίν, πῦρ καταναλίσκον (ν. 29).

Primasius expands this thought well: Non enim accessistis ad tractabilem et accessibilem (l. *accensibilem) ignem, id est, non accessistis ad visibile et palpabile lumen ignis, quod visu corporeo tractari possit, sicut de veteri Judaico populo legimus; sed ad invisibilem et incomprehensibilem Deum.

καὶ γνόφῳ...] The several features of the awful manifestation are taken from Deut. iv. 11; v. 22; Ex. xix. 16 ff. The 'blackness' 'thick darkness' (ὁ γνόφος, HebrewψΤ&amp) was that into which Moses entered 'where God was' (Ex. xx. 21). Comp. Philo, de mut. nom. § 2, i. 579; de vit. Moys. i. § 28, ii. 106.

(19). καὶ σάλπ. ἥχῳ...] The 'sound of a trumpet' is mentioned in Ex. xix. 16; xx. 18; αἱ δὲ σάλπιγγες ὡς βασιλέως παρόντος. τοῦτο γὰρ καὶ ἐν τῇ δευτέρᾳ παρουσίᾳ ἔσται (ŒŒcum.). Comp. Matt. xxiv. 31; 1 Thess. iv. 16. *Ἠχος occurs again Lk. iv. 37; Acts ii. 2. The 'voice of words' is mentioned in Deut. iv. 12.

ἧς (sc. φωνῆς) oἱ ἀκλύσαντες] Even that which was most intelligible, most human, the articulate voice, inspired the hearers with overwhelming dread: which voice they that heard intreated that no word more should be spoken to them, that is by God Himself, but only through Moses (Ex. xx. 19).

For παρῇτήσαντο see v. 25; Acts xxv. 11; 1 Tim. iv. 7; 2 Tim. ii. 23. The word admits the construction with and without a negative particle (παραιτεῖσθαι προστεθῆναι and παραιτ. μὴ προστεθῆναι). For the former compare Lk. xxiii. 2; Rom. xv. 22; and for the latter 1 John ii. 22; Gal. v. 7. By αὐτοῖς must be understood τοῖς ἀκούσασιν not τοῖς ἀκουσθεῖσιν, the hearers not the words.

(20). οὐκ ἔφερον...] for they could not bear that which was enjoined....Vulg. non enim portabant quod dicebatur. Ex. xix. 12 f. The most impressive part of the whole command is taken to convey its effect: If even a beast...

The form in which the command is conveyed (τὸ διαστελλόμενον) presents it as ringing constantly in their ears (quod dicebatur). The word διαστέλλεσθαι does not occur again in the Epistles; elsewhere in the Ν. T. it is only used in the midd. sense: Mk. vii. 36; viii. 15 &c.

(21). The fear which was felt by the people was felt also by the Lawgiver himself.

And—so fearful was the appearance—Moses said...The parenthesis (see v. 17) is in the style of the writer. The variety and living fulness of the vision presented to Moses is expressed by the form τὸ φανταζόμενον. The word φαντάζεσθαι occurs nowhere else in the N. T. Comp. Wisd. vi. 17 (Matt. xiv. 26 φάντασμα). 412 θίγῃ τοῦ ὅρους, λιθοΒοληθήσεται. ²¹καί, οὕτω φοβερὸν ἧν τὸ φανταζόμενον, Μωυσῆς εἶπεν ΈκφοΒός εἰμι καὶ ἔντρομος. ²²ἀλλὰ προσεληλύθατε Σιὼν ὄρει καὶ

20 λιθοβ.: + ἥ βολίδι κατατοξευθήσεται S. 21 oὔτω: ου D₂*. ἧν: η א*. om. εἰμι א*. ἔντρομος ACM₂: ἔκτρομος אD₂. 22 ἀλλά: οὐ γάρ A.

ἔκφοβός εἰμι...] Similar words were used by Moses in connexion with the worshipping of the golden calf Deut. ix. 19; but it is hardly possible that the writer of the Epistle transferred these directly to the scene at the giving of the Law, when the fear was due to circumstances essentially different. It is more likely that he refers to some familiar tradition in which the feelings of Moses were described in these terms.

(β) The position of Christians (23-24).

The view which the Apostle gives of the position is marvellously full. The arrangement of the details is beset with great difficulties; but, on the whole, that which is most symmetrical appears to be the best. Thus the clauses are grouped in pairs

προσεληλύθατε

Σιὼν ὅρει, καὶ

πόλει θεοῦ ζῶντος, Ἰερουσαλὴμ ἐπουρανίῳ

καὶ μυριάσιν ἀγγέλων πανηγύρει, καὶ

ἐκκλησίᾳ πρωτοτόκων, ἀπογεγραμμένων ἐv oὐρανοῖς.

καὶ κριτῇ, θεῷ πάντων, καὶ

πνεύμασι δικαίων τετελειωμένων,

καὶ διαθήκης νέας μεσίτῃ, Ίησοῦ, καὶ

αἵματι ῥαντισμοῦ, κρεῖττον λαλοῦντι παρὰ τὸν Ἄβελ.

According to this arrangement the development of thought may be presented in the following form:

I. The Christian Revelation seen in its fulfilment: from the divine side (22, 23 a).

(α) The scene.

(a) The Foundation.

(b) The Structure.

(β) The persons.

(a) Angels.

(b) Men.

II. The Christian Revelation seen in its efficacy: from the human side (23 b, 24).

(α) The judgment: earthly life over.

(a) The Judge.

(b) Those who have been perfected.

(β) The gift of grace: earthly life still lasting.

(a) The Covenant.

(b) The Atonement.

There is, it will be noticed, a complete absence of articles. The thoughts are presented in their most abstract form.

Theodoret sums up admirably the contrasts between the Old and the New; ἐκεῖ, φησί, δέος, ἐνταῦθα δὲ ἑορτὴ καὶ πανήγυρις. καὶ ἐκεῖνα μὲν ἐv τῇ γῇ, ταῦτα δὲ ἐv τοῖς oὐρανοῖς. ἐκεῖ χιλιάδες ἀνθρώπων, ἐνταῦθα δὲ μυριάδες ἀγγέλων. ἐκεῖ ἄπιστοι καὶ παράνομοι, ἐνταῦθα ἐκκλησία πρωτοτόκων ἀπογεγραμμένων ἐv τοῖς oὐραvoῖς καὶ πνεύματα δικαίων τετελειωμένων. ἐκεῖ διαθήκη παλαιά, ἐνταῦθα καινή. ἐκεῖ δοῦλος μεσίτης, ἐνταῦθα υἱός. ἐκεῖ αἷμα ἀλόγων, ἐνταῦθα αἷμα ἀμνοῦ λογικοῦ.

(22) ff. ἀλλὰ προσελ....] Ye are not brought face to face with any repetition of the terrors of Sinai; but ye are even now still standing in a heavenly presence, not material but spiritual, not manifested in elemental powers but in living hosts, not finding expression in threatening commands but in means of reconciliation, inspiring not fear but hope. Yet, it is 413 πόλει θεοῦ ζῶντος, Ἰερουσαλὴμ ἐπουρανίω, καὶ μυριάσιν ἀγγέλων, ²³παυηγύρει καὶ ἐκκλησίᾳ πρωτοτόκων

καὶ πόλει: πόλει (d). ἑπουρ. Ἰερ. D₂*. ἐπουρανίων Α*. μυριάσιν: μυρίων ἁγίων D₂*: μυριάδων vg.

implied, that the awfulness of the portion is not less but greater than that of the Israelites.

For προσεληλύθατε see v. 18.

Ἐκεῖνοι οὐ προσῆλθον ἀλλὰ πόρρωθεν εἱστήκεισαν. ὑμεῖς δὲ προσεληλύθατε. ὁρᾷς τὴν ὑπεροχήν; (Theophlct). In one sense the heavenly Jerusalem is already reached: in another sense it is still sought for: xiii. 14.

(a) The scene to which Christians are come (22 a).

(22) a. Σιὼν ὅρει...ἐπουρ.] Over against 'the material and kindled fire' of Sinai is set the mountain and city of God, His palace and the home of His people, shewn by images in the earthly Zion and Jerusalem. In this heavenly, archetypal, spiritual mountain and city, God is seen to dwell with His own. He is not revealed in one passing vision of terrible Majesty as at the giving of the Law, but in His proper 'dwelling-place' Zion is distinctively the 'acropolis,' the seat of God's throne, and Jerusalem the city. Sometimes Zion alone is spoken of as the place where God exercises sovereignty and from which He sends deliverance. Ps. ii. 6; xlviii. 2; i. 2; lxxviii. 68; cx. 2; (iii. 4; xv. 1); Is. xviii. 7; sometimes Zion and Jerusalem are joined together: Mic. iv. 1 ff.; Joel ii. 32; Amos i. 2.

In the spiritual reality Mount Zion represents the strong divine foundation of the new Order, while the City of the Living God represents the social structure in which the Order is embodied. God—Who is a Living God (c. iii. 12 note)—does not dwell alone, but surrounded by His people. His Majesty and His Love are equally represented in the New Jerusalem.

For the idea of the Heavenly Jerusalem, compare Apoc. xxl. 2, 10 (ἡ ἁγία Ἰερουσαλήμ. Is. iii. 1); iii. 12 (ἡ καινὴ Ἰερ.); Gal. iv. 26 (ἡ ἄνω Ἰερ.). This is 'the city which hath the foundations' (xi. 10), for which Αbraham looked; and for which we still seek (c. xiii. 14). It is like 'the good things' of the Gospel, in different aspects future and present. For ἐπουράνιος see c. iii. 1 note.

Compare Philo de somn. ii. § 38 (ii. 691) ἡ δὲ τοῦ θεοῦ πόλις ὑπὸ Ἑβραίων Ἰερουσαλὴμ καλεῖται, ἧς μεταληφθὲν τὸ ὅνομα ὅρασίς ἐστιν εἰρήνης (Clem. Al. Strom. i. 5, 29; Orig. Hom. in Jos. xxi. 2).

Chrysostom suggestively contrasts the city with the desert of Sinai (ἐκεῖ ἕρημος ἧν, ἐνταῦθα πόλις). So Theophylact, a little more fully: ἀντὶ τοῦ Σινᾶ ἔχομεν Σιὼν ὅρος νοητόν, καὶ πόλιν νοητὴν Ἰερουσαλήμ. τουτέστιν αὐτὸν τὸν οὐρανόν, οὐκ ἕρημον ὡς ἐκεῖνοι See also Additional Note on xi. 10.

(β) The persons to whom Christians are come (22 b, 23 a).

(22) b. καὶ μθρ....καὶ ἐκκλησίᾳ] The description of the scene of the Divine Kingdom to which Christians are come is followed by a description of the representative persons who are included in it, with whom believers are brought into fellowship. These are angels and men, no longer separated, as at Sinai, by signs of great terror, but united in one vast assembly.

The exact construction of the words which describe the two bodies who constitute the population of the heavenly city is disputed and uncertain.

They have been arranged:

(1) μυριάσιν ἀγγέλων πανηγύρει, καὶ ἐκκλησίᾳ...

(2) μυριάσιν ἀγγέλων, πανηγύρει καὶ ἐκκλησίᾳ...

414

continue μυριάσιν, ἀγγέλων πανηγύρει κακὶ ἐκκλησίᾳ...

The main difference lies in the connexion of παρήγυρις. Is this to be taken with that which precedes, or with that which follows? Ancient authority is uniformly in favour of the first view. The Greek mss.@, which indicate the connexion of words (including AC), uniformly (as far as they are recorded) separate πανηγύρει from καὶ ἐκκλ. πρωτοτ. So also the Syriac and Latin Versions; and by implication Origen, Eusebius, Basil (d multitudinem angelorum frequentem, Vulg. multorum millium angelorum frequentiam).

This construction is favoured also by the general symmetry of the arrangement, which seems to be decidedly unfavourable to the combination of πανηγύρει καὶ ἐκκλησίᾳ.

But if this general division be adopted, a further question arises. Is ἀγγέλων to be taken with μυριάσιν or with πανηγύρει? The decision is not without difficulty. The rhythm of the sentence appears to require that μυριάσιν ἀγγέλων should go together, though πανηγύρει sounds harsh by itself. Still, in spite of this harshness, this construction seems to be the best upon the whole. Thus παρηγύρει colours the whole clause: 'and countless hosts of angels in festal assembly.' The Syriac and Latin translations and the variant of D are probably endeavours to express the thought simply. If indeed there were more authority for μυριάδων, which would most naturally be changed, this reading would deserve great consideration.

If μυριάσιν be taken absolutely, it may be explained either by ἀγγέλων πανηγύρει ('innumerable hosts, even a festal assembly of angels') or by ἀγγέλων πανηγύρει......ἐν οὐραωοῖς ('innumerable hosts, even a festal assembly of angels and church of firstborn...'). But it seems that the special thought of παρήγυρις accords better with the angelic company alone.

The phrase μυριάσιν ἀγγέλων is probably used with direct reference to the ministration of the angels at the giving of the Law (Deut. xxxiii. 2), and in the manifestations of the Lord for judgment (Dan. vii. 10; Jude 14). Such associations give force to the addition πανηγύρει. These countless hosts are not now messengers of awe, as then, but of rejoicing. At the consummation of Creation, as at the Creation itself (Job xxxviii. 7), 'they shout for joy.'

Tho word πανήγυρις, which was used specially of the great national assemblies and sacred games of the Greeks (Thuc. i. 25; v. 50) occurs here only in Ν. T. It is used rarely in the lxx. version of the prophets for HebrewTgtD (commonly ἑορτή) (Ezech. xlvi. 11; Hos. ii. 13 (11); ix. 5); and for Hebrewffffl (Amos v. 21). It is also used by Symmachus for Hebrew2Π. The suggestion is that of the common joy of a great race.

Philo uses the word in connexion with the thought of the reward of victorious self-control: κάλλιστον ἀγῶνα τοῦτον διάθλησον καὶ σπούδασον στεφανωθῆωαι κατὰ τῆς τοὺς ἄλλους ἅπαντας νικώσης ἡδονῆς καλὸν καὶ εὐκλεᾶ στέφανον, ὅν οὐδεμία πανήγυρις ἀνθρώπων ἀχώρησε (Leg. Alleg. ii. § 26; i. 86 Μ.).

The notes of the Greek Commentators are worth quoting (comp. Theodt. supr.):

καὶ μυριάσιν ἀγγέλων πανηγύρει. ἐνταῦθα τὴν χαρὰν δείκνυσι καὶ τὴν εὐφροσύνην ἀντὶ τοῦ γνόφου καὶ τοῦ σκότους καὶ τὴς θυέλλης (Chrys.).

καὶ μυριάσιν ἀγγέλων. ἀντὶ τοῦ Ἰουδαϊκοῦ λαοῦ ἄγγελοι πάρεισι. καὶ πανηγύρει, φησίν, ἐν μυριάσιν ἀγγέλων ὑπαρχούσῃ (Œcumen.).

καὶ μυριάσιν ἀγγέλων πανηγύρει. ἀντὶ τοῦ λαοῦ ἔχομεν ἡμεῖς ἀγγέλων μυριάδας. άντὶ τοῦ φόβου χαράν, τοῦτο γὰρ δηλοῦται διὰ τοῦ πανηγύρει. ἔνθα γὰρ πανήγυρις ἐκεῖ χαρά. ἡ πανήγυρις οὖν 415 αὔτη ἐv μυριάσιν ἀγγέλων συνίσταται (Theophlct.).

ἐκκλησίᾳ...ἐν οὐραωοῖς] The second constituent body in the divine commonwealth is the 'church of the first born.' This represents the earthly element (men) as the former the heavenly element (angels). Men are described as a 'church,' a 'congregation,' gathered for the enjoyment of special rights, even as the angels are assembled for a great festival; and they are spoken of as 'firstborn,' enjoying the privileges not only of sons but of firstborn sons.

The word ἐκκλησία occurs again in the Epistle in c. ii. 12 (lxx.). The thought in each case is that of the people of God assembled to exercise their privileges and to enjoy their rights.

It is worthy of notice that while the word occurs only in two places in the Gospels (Matt. xvi. 18; xviii. 17), it is used in the former place in the sense of the universal church and in the latter of a special church. Both senses are found in the Acts (e.g. ix. 31; viii. 1) and in the Epistles of St Paul (e.g. Eph. i. 22; Col. iv. 16). In the Apocalypse, St James (v. 14) and 3 John the word is used only in the special sense.

πρωτοτόκων] Vulg. primitivorum. In the divine order not one son only but many enjoy the rights of primogeniture, the kingdom and the priesthood (Apoc. i. 6). Perhaps there is still some faint reminiscence of the reckless sacrifice of his birthright (v. 16 πρωτοτόκια) by Esau.

The term 'firstborn' here appears to describe a common privilege and is not used in relation to the circumstances of earth, as of the dead compared with the living. Christian believers in Christ, alike living and dead, are united in the Body of Christ. In that Body we have fellowship with a society of 'eldest sons' of God, who share the highest glory of the divine order. Thus the idea of the Communion of Saints gains distinctness. The word suggests still another thought The 'firstborn' in Israel were the representatives of the consecrated nation. We may then be justified in regarding these, the firstborn in the Christian Church, the firstborn of humanity, as preparing the way, in Him Who is 'the Firstborn' (c. i. 6), for many brethren. Through them Creation enters on the beginning of its consummation (comp. Apoc. i. 5; Col. i. 15; Rom. viii. 29).

The Greek Commentators are vague in their interpretation of the word.

Τἰνας δὲ πρωτοτόκους καλεῖ λέγων καὶ ἐκκλησίᾳ πρωτοτόκων; πάντας τοὺς χοροὺς τῶν πιστῶν. τοὺς αὐτοὺς δὲ καὶ πνεύματα δικαίων τετελειωμένων καλεῖ (Chrys.).

ἐπειδὴ κοινός ἐστε πατὴρ πάντων ὁ θεός, πάντες μὲν ἄνθρωποι υἱοί εἰσιν αὐτοῦ κοινῶς, πρωτότοκοι δὲ τούτων οἱ πιστεύσαντες καὶ ἄξιοι τῆς κατὰ πρόθεσιν (al. προαίρεσιν) υἱοθεσίας. ἥ καὶ πάντες μὲν ἀπλῶς oἱ πιστεύσαντες υἱοί, πρωτότοκοί δὲ οἱ εὐάρεστοι καὶ τῶν πρεσβείων ἐv λόγῳ καὶ πολιτείᾳ ἠξιωμένοι παρὰ θεῷ (Theophlct).

These 'firstborn' are described as enrolled in heaven (Vulg. qui conscripti (d professi) sunt in cœlis). The same image of the enrolment of citizens on the register of the city, as possessed of the full privileges of the position, is found in the O. T.: Ex. xxxii. 32 f.; Ps. lxix. 28; Is. iv. 3; Dan. xii. 1. Compare Luke x. 20 (ἐvγέγραπται); Apoc. xiii. 8; xvii. 8 (γέγραπται); iii. 5; Phil. iii. 20 (τὸ πολίτευμα ἐv οὐρ. ὑπάρχει); Ρs. lxxxvii. 4 ff. Herm. Vis. i. 3 (with Gebhardt and Harnack's note); Sim. ii. 9. For the word 'aπογράφeσθαι see Luke ii. 1 ff.

Herveius has a striking remark: cum pluribus major erit beatitudo, ubi unusquisque de alio gaudebit sicut de seipso.

The word πρωτότοκοι appears to be wholly inapplicable to angels, nor could they be described as 'enrolled in heaven.' 416 ἀπογεγραμμένων ἐv οὐρανοῖς, καὶ κριτῇ θεῷ πάντων, καὶ πνεύμασι δικαίων τετελειωμένων, ²⁴καὶ διαθήκης νέας

23 ἀπογεγρ. ἐν οὐρ.: ἐν οὐρ. ἀπογεγρ. S. πνεύματι D₂* (d). δικαίων τετελειωμένων א* ACM₂: δικ. τεθεμελιωμένων D₂* (d): τελίων δεδικαιωμένοις א*.

(23) b, 24. From the contemplation of the divine order in its ideal glory the Apostle goes on to describe it in relation to men and the conflicts of life, (α) when the struggle is over, and (β) while it is yet being maintained. Thus the point of sight now becomes human, and the two great ideas of judgment and redemption come into prominence. The Judge is the universal sovereign, and spirits of just men made perfect witness to His mercy. The Mediator is one truly man, Jesus, and His blood calls not for vengeance but for pardon.

(a) The judgment when life is over.

(23) b. κριτῇ θεῷ πάντων] to the God of all as Judge. The order appears to be decisive against the common rendering 'God the Judge of all' though the Greek Commentators take the words so; and on the other hand the simple phrase θεὸς πάντων is unusual in place of ὁ ὥν ἐπὶ πάντων, or παντοκράτωρ. But there is a certain parallelism between κριτής, διαθήκης vέας μεσίτης, and θεὸς πάντων, Ίησοῦς. He to Whom we draw near as Judge is God of all His judgment is universal, not of one race only or of one order of being. It seems best to take πάντων as neuter.

The word κριτής retains something of its widest meaning (Acts xiii. 20). The action of the Judge is not to be limited to punishment only. The Divine Judgment is the manifestation of right, the vindication of truth, an object of desire for believers, though the light in which it is revealed (John iii. 19) is fire also (comp. v. 29). Δικαστής strictly has reference to a legal and technical process: Acts vii. 27, 35 (not Lk. xii. 14); 1 Sam. viii. 1; Wisd. ix. 7. Christians 'in Christ' can draw near to the Judge.

καὶ πνεύμασι δικ. τετελ.] The judgment—the revelation of that which is—has been in part triumphantly accomplished. We realise the presence of the Judge, and also of those for whom His work has been fulfilled in righteousness. These are spoken of as 'spirits,' for in this passage the thought is no longer, as in the former clauses, of the complete glory of the divine commonwealth, but of spiritual relations only; not of the assembly in its august array, but of the several members of it in their essential being.

The departed saints are therefore spoken of now as 'spirits,' not yet 'clothed upon' (2 Cor. v. 4). Comp. 1 Pet. iii. 19 τοῖς ἐν φυλακῇ πνεύμασιν. The word ψυχή—the principle of human life—is used in a similar manner: Wisd. iii. 1 (δικαίων ψνχαὶ ἐv χειρὶ θεοῦ); Apoc. vi. 9 ff. We have no warrant to draw any deductions from these glimpses of disembodied humanity, nor indeed can we apprehend them distinctly. We can feel however that something is yet wanting to the blessedness of the blessed.

But while the work of Christ is as yet uncompleted in humanity, though 'the righteous' are spoken of as spirits only, yet they are essentially 'made perfect.' They have realised the end for which they were created in virtue of the completed work of Christ. When the Son bore humanity to the throne of God—the Father—those who were in fellowship with Him were (in this sense) perfected, but not till then: c. xi. 40. In this connexion reference may be made to the impressive picture of 'the 417 μεσίτῃ Ἰησοῦ, καὶ αἵματι ῥαντισμοῦ κρεῖττον λαλοῦντι

24 μεσίτης D₂*. κρεῖττον: κρείττονα S.

harrowing of hell' by Christ in the Gospel of Nicodemus: cc. xxi. ff.

For the general idea of τελειοῦσθαι see ii. 10; vii. 11; x. 14 (notes).

With this conception of the righteous man gaining his perfection in Christ contrast the Rabbinic conception of 'the perfect righteous man' who fulfils all the Law: Weber Altsynag. Theol. 278 f.

For δίκαιος see x. 38 (lxx.); xi. 4.

The verb δικαιοῦν is not found in the Epistle.

Primasius reading ad spiritum (πνεύματι) explains it of the Holy Spirit: per quem justi creantur omnes in baptismate, accipientes ab ille remissionem omnium peccatorum.

(β) The support while the struggle lasts.

(24). καὶ διαθ. ν. μεσ. Ἰ. καὶ...Ἄβελ] For some the struggle of life is over: by some it has still to be borne. In these last two clauses the spiritual covenant is shown in relation to those whose work has yet to be completed.

Their assurance lies in the facts that He through Whom the covenant is established has perfect sympathy with them as true man; and that the blood through which it was ratified is an energetic power of purifying life.

The work of Jesus, the author and perfecter of faith (v. 2), is placed in these respects in significant connexion with that of Moses, the mediator of the first covenant, the deliverer from Egyptian bondage, and that of Abel the first martyr of faith (xi. 4).

διαθ. νέας μεσίτῃ Ἰ.] This is the only place in which διαθήκη vέα occurs in N. T.; compare διαθήκη καινή c. viii. 8, 13 (lxx.); ix. 15.

For the contrast of νέος and καινός see Col. iii. 10 (and Lightfoot's note).

The Covenant is spoken of as νέα in regard of its recent establishment, and not as καινή in regard of its character.

The Covenant was in relation to the Hebrews 'new' in time and not only 'new' in substance. Christians had just entered on the possession of privileges which the elder Church had not enjoyed.

For μεσίτης compare c. viii. 6 note; and for the force of the human name Ἰησοῦς see c. iii. 1 note; and for the order c. ii. 9 note; v. 2.

καὶ αἵμ. ῥαντ....λαλοῦντι] Vulg. et sanguinis sparsionem loquentem. There is a voice to be heard here also as at Sinai (v. 19), but not terrible like that.

The blood—'the life'—is regarded as still living. This thought finds expression in the first record of death (Gen. iv. 10), but the voice 'of the blood of Jesus' is doubly contrasted with the voice of the blood of Abel. That, appealing to God, called for vengeance, and making itself heard in the heart of Cain, brought despair; but the blood of Christ pleads with God for forgiveness and speaks peace to man.

For ῥαντισμός compare c. ix. 19 f.; x. 22 (ῥεραντισμένοι τὰς καρδίας); 1 Pet. i. 2 ῥαντίσματὸν αἵματος Ἰησοῦ. Barn. v. l ἵνα τῇ ἀφέσει τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ἁγνισθῶμεν ὅ ἐστιν ἐν τῷ αἵματι τοῦ ῥαντίσματος αὐτοῦ. For the idea of Blood in Scripture see Addit. Note on 1 John i. 7.

παρὰ τὸν Ἄ.] better than Abel. Comp. c. xi. 4 ἀποθανὼν ἔτι λαλεῖ. It seems more natural to take the words thus quite simply than to render them 'better than that (the blood) of Abel' (παρὰ τὸ Ἄ. L and some @mss.@).

Kρεῖττον is an adverb as in 1 Cor. vii. 38 (Winer, p. 580). For κρ. παρά see c. ix. 23; i. 4 note.

(b) The duties of Christians which flow from their position (25—29).

The picture of the position of Christians has been drawn. Its dangers 418 παρὰ τὸν Ἄβελ. ²⁵Βλέπετε μὴ παραιτήσησθε τὸν λαλοῦντα. εἰ γὰρ ἐκεῖνοι οὐκ ἐξέφυγο ἐπὶ γῆς

25 λαλοῦντα + ὑμῖν D₂ the. ἐξέφυγον א* ΑC: ἔφυγον א* M₂. ἐπὶ γ. παρ. τόν א* ACD₂M₂: τὸν ἐπὶ γ. παρ. S א*. γῆς: + τῆς'γῆς S.

and glories have been set forth. The last application now follows.

The section consists of two parts. In the first (α) the writer emphasises the responsibility of Christians in respect of their position towards a final revelation (25—27); and then (β) he makes a practical appeal (28, 29).

²⁵See that ye refuse not him that speaketh. For if they escaped not, when on earth they refused him that dealt with them, much less shall we escape who turn away from him that dealeth with us from heaven. ²⁶Whose voice shook the earth then, but now he hath promised saying Yet once more will I make to tremble not only the earth but also the heaven. ²⁷And the word, Yet once more, signifieth the removal of the things which are shaken, as of things that have been made, that the things may abide which are not shaken.

²⁸Wherefore let us, as receiving a kingdom that cannot be shaken, feel thankfulness (or have grace), whereby we may offer service to God, as is well-pleasing, with reverence and awe; ²⁹for our God is a consuming fire.

(α) 25—27. The punishment of the Israelites may remind Christians of their responsibility. They rejected an earthly dispensation. He who speaks to us is 'from heaven' (25). The shaking of the earth then was but a symbol of the shaking of earth and heaven now (26), which is final, as introducing an order which cannot be shaken (27).

(25). βλέπετε μὴ παραιτ. τὸν λαλ.] See that ye refuse not him that even now is speaking. The warning springs directly from the contemplation of the picture which the Apostle has drawn. The absence of a connecting particle gives greater force to the appeal: 'you know what lies before us: see that you do not disregard it.'

For βλέπετε compare c. iii. 12; and for παραιτήσησθε v. 19 note.

The words which follow (εἰ γὰρ...ἀποστρεφόμενοι) are really a parenthesis; so that τὸν λαλοῦντα goes closely with οὖ ἡ φωνή (v. 26). However the intervening words may be interpreted, the speaker, through whatever agency, is God. He Who 'spake in a Son' (c. i. 2) still speaks in Him.

εἰ γὰρ...ἐπὶ γῆς...τὸν χρημ....ἀποστρ.] For if they—the people of the Exodus whose history has just been recalled to us—escaped not the consequences of their want of faith when on earth they refused him that dealt with them, much less shall we escape who are turning away from him that dealeth with us from heaven. The long sufferings in the wilderness witnessed to the punishment of that unbelief which made the people rescued from Egypt unfit and unwilling to hold converse with God. Their sin was not in the request that Moses only should speak to them (Deut. v. 28), but in the temper which made the request necessary (Deut. v. 29).

The position of ἐπὶ γῆς, when τόν is transferred according to the true reading, makes it impossible to take the words exclusively with τὸν χρηματίζοντα (as in τὸν ἐπὶ γῆς χρηματίζοντα). They qualify the whole clause which follows: If they escaped not when on earth (having their position on earth) they refused (begged no longer to hear) him that dealt with them....The scene and the conditions 419 παραιτησάμενοι τὸν χρηματίζοντα, πολὺ μᾶλλον ἡμεῖς οἱ τὸν ἀπ οὐρανῶν ἀποστρεφόμενοί. ²⁶οὖ ἡ φωνὴ τὴν

25 οὐρανοῦ

πολύ אACD₂*: πολλῷ S. ἡμεῖς: ὑμεῖς C. οὐρανῶν אACD₂: οὐρανοῦ Μ₂. 26 ἡ φ.: φ. M₂.

of the revelation, the trial and the failure, were earthly, on earth.

The corresponding phrase ἀπ' οὖρανῶν expresses only the position of the revealer and not that of those to whom the revelation is given. Hence it is limited by its place to Him (τὸν ἀπ' οὐρ.).

For ἐκεῖνοι see c. iv. 2.

The word παραιτησάμενοι (when they refused...) takes up παρῃτήσαντο in v. 19. The object then was not the voice of Moses but the voice of God. It seems to follow necessarily therefore that the object here (τὸν χρηματίζοντα) most be God and not the minister of God. Thus the contrast is not between the two mediators Moses and Christ, but between the character of these two revelations which God made, 'on earth' and 'from heaven.'

For χρηματίζοντα compare c. viii. 5 (κεχρ. Μωυσῆς); xi. 7. The word appears to be specially chosen to describe the manifold circumstances connected with the giving of the Law.

π. μ. ἡμεῖς (sc. οὐκ ἐκφευξούμεθα) οἱ τὸν ἀπ' οὐρ. ἀποστρ.] The form in which this supposition is expressed is remarkable. The writer does not say 'if we turn away from him' (τὸν ἀπ' οὐρ. ἀποστρ.), nor yet 'after turning away from' (ἀποστρεφέντες 2 Tim. i. 15). He looks upon the action as already going on, and does not shrink from including himself among those who share in it: 'we who are turning away,' if indeed we persevere in the spirit of unfaithfulness.

The phrase τὸν ἀπ' οὐρανῶν (him that dealt and dealeth with us from heaven) is left in an undefined and general form as including the work of the Son on earth and altar. He was glorified, through Whom the Father speaks. His revelation was 'from heaven' in both cases.

In one sense God 'spake from heaven' when He gave the Law (Ex. xx. 22; Deut. iv. 36), but His voice even then was 'of earth.'

For ἀποστρεφόμενοι compare Tit. i. 14; Matt. v. 42; 2 Tim. i. 15.

The tense stands in marked contrast with that used in the former clause (παραιτησάμενοι, ἀποστρεφόμενοι). The action if commenced was not yet completed.

(26). oὗ ἡ φωνή...] The words go back to v. 25 τὸν λαλοῦντα Ex. xix. 18 f. (Hebr.). Ὁρᾷς ὅτι τότε ὁ λαλῶν αὐτὸς ἧν ὁ ωῦω ἀπ' οὐρανοῦ χρηματίζων ἡμῖν (Theophlct.).

For ἐσάλευσεν compare Ex. xix. 18 (Hebr.); Judges v. 4 f. γῆ ἐσείσθη...ὅρη ἐσαλεύθησαν. Ps. cxiv. 7 (lxx.) ἀπὸ προσώπου κυρίου ἐσαλεύθη ἡ γῆ. The word is used of violent elemental convulsions (e.g. Matt. xxiv. 29).

ωῦω δὲ ἐπήγγ.] Hagg. ii. 6. But now, in relation to the Christian order as distinguished from that of Sinai (τότε), He hath promised, whose voice then shook the earth....

The former outward 'shaking' was the symbol of a second 'shaking' far more extensive and effective. Heaven and earth will at last be moved that men may contribute to the fulfilment of the divine purpose. And the announcement of this final catastrophe of the world, however awful in itself, is a 'promise,' because it is for the triumph of the cause of God that believers look.

The prophecy of Haggai (ii. 6 ff., 420 γῆν ἐσάλευσεν τότε, νῦν δὲ ἐπήγγελται λέγων Ἔτι ἅπαξ ἐγὼ σείσω οὐ μόνον τὴν γῆν ἀλλὰ καὶ τὸν οὐρανόν. ²⁷τὸ δὲ Ἔτι ἅπαξ δηλοῖ [τὴν] τῶν σαλευομένων μετάθεσιν ὡς πεποιημένων, ἵνα μείνῃ τὰ μὴ σαλευόμενα.

ἔτι: ὅτι ἕτι Μ₂. ἐγῶ ἅπαξ D₂. σείσω אACM₂ vg syr vg me the: σείω S D₂. +λέγει D₂*. 27 τὴν τῶν σαλ. א* AC: τῶν σαλ. τήν S א*: om. D₂* M₂. om. ἵνα...σαλ. A.

21 ff.) deals with two main subjects, the superior glory of the second temple in spite of its apparent poverty: the permanent sovereignty of the house of David in spite of its apparent weakness. The prophet looks forward from the feeble beginnings of the new spiritual and national life to that final manifestation of the majesty and kingdom of God in which the discipline begun on Sinai is to have an end. He naturally recals in thought the phenomena which accompanied the giving of the Law; and foreshadows a correspondence between the circumstances of the first and the last scenes in the divine revelation. That which was local and preparatory at Sinai is seen in the consummation to be universal.

The quotation is adapted from the lxx. ἔτι ἅπαξ ἐγὼ σείσω τὸν oὐρανὸν καὶ τὴν γῆν καὶ τὴν θάλασσαν καὶ τὴν ξηράν. The interpretation of the words עוד אחת מְעַט תיא ני rendered by ἔτι ἅπαξ is doubtful; but in any case the lxx. gives the main thought. The character of this 'shaking' compared with that which foreshadowed it marks it as final.

For ἐπήγγελται compare Rom. iv. 21; Gal. iii. 19 (to whom He hath given the promise).

(27). τὸ δέ Ἕτι ἅπαξ] And the word Yet once more.... Vulg. Quod autem...dicit. The use of this phrase shews that the second 'shaking' will be final. No other is to follow. All then that admits of being shaken must be for ever removed.

For ἅπαξ see c. vi. 4 n.; ix. 26 ff.; and for δηλοῖ, c. ix. 8 note.

τῆν τῶν σαλευομένων...πεπ.] the removal of the things which are being shaken as of things that have been made. The convulsion is represented as in accomplishment. It is not simply possible. This vivid feature is lost in the Latin mobilium (Vulg.).

ὡς πεποιημένων] The visible earth and heavens are treated as transitory forms, which only represent in time the heavenly and eternal. As the material types of spiritual realities they are spoken of characteristically as 'made' and so as being liable to perish. The 'invisible' archetypes are also, as all things, 'made' by God: Is. lxvi. 22. They are not imperishable in themselves, but they abide in virtue of the divine will, which they are fitted peculiarly to express as being spiritual.

For μετάθεσις compare vii. 12 (xi. 5). The word only occurs in this Epistle in the Ν. T. In the lxx. it is found only in 2 Macc. xi. 24. The verb occurs Acts vii. 16; Gal. i. 6; Jude 4; c. vii. 12; xi. 5.

A similar idea is expressed by St John and St Paul. 1 John ii. 8; 17 (παράηεσθαι); 1 Cor. vii. 31 (παράγει).

ἵνα μείηῃ] The abiding of the eternal is naturally presented as the object of the removal of the temporal. By this the eternal is shewn as it is. The veils in which it was shrouded are withdrawn.

τὰ μὴ σαλ.] Vulg. quæ sunt immobilia (ἀσάλευτον v. 28, immobile), 421 ²⁸Διὸ βασιλείαν ἀσάλευτον παραλαμβάνοντες ἔχωμεν

28 ἔχωμεν ACD₂M₂ syr vg me: ἔχομεν א d vg (comp. v. 1 Tischdf.).

all that stands undisturbed in the present trial. The 'shaking' is looked upon as already taking place.

For μείνῃ see c. x. 34; xiii. 14.

The crisis to which the writer of the Epistle looks forward is, speaking generally, the establishment of the 'heavenly,' Christian, order when the 'earthly' order of the Law was removed. He makes no distinction between the beginning and the consummation of the age then to be inaugurated, between the catastrophe of the fall of Jerusalem and the final return of Christ: the whole course of the history of the Christian Church is included in the fact of its first establishment. It is impossible to say how far he anticipated great physical changes to coincide with this event. That which is essential to his view is the inauguration of a new order, answering to the 'new heavens and the new earth' (Is. lxv. 17; Apoc. xxi. 1).

Signs in nature however did accompany the Birth and Death of Christ.

The representation of great spiritual changes under physical imagery occurs elsewhere both in the Old and New Testaments: Is. lxv.; Matt. xxiv.; 2 Peter iii.; Apoc. xx.; xxi.

Many recent writers have connected πεποιημένων with ἵνα: 'so made that...,' 'made to the end that....' According to this view the transitory is treated as the preparation for the continuance of that which abides. The thought itself is important; but it does not seem to lie in the context, which does not deal directly with the purpose of that which passes away.

(β) 28, 29. The consideration of the position in which the Hebrews were placed issues in a practical appeal.

(28). διὸ βασ....] Wherefore, seeing that this great catastrophe, this revelation of the eternal, is imminent, let us as receiving a kingdom that cannot be shaken...The thought of the 'kingdom' lies in the second part of Haggai's prophecy, which the quotation naturally suggested to the readers. The 'shaking' of which the prophet spoke, and which was now being fulfilled, was designed to issue in an eternal sovereignty of the house of faith.

The mention of the Divine Kingdom is comparatively rare in the Epistles. In the Gospels and Acts the phrase is always definite, 'the kingdom,' 'the kingdom of heaven,' 'the kingdom of God,' 'the Father's kingdom ' (ἡ βασιλεία, ἡ β. τῶν οὐρανῶν, ἡ β. τοῦ θεοῦ, ἡ β. τοῦ πατρός), and by implication 'the kingdom of the Son of man' (comp. Lk. xxii. 29 διέθετό μοι βασιλείαν). The phrase 'the kingdom of God' (ἡ β. τοῦ θ.) occurs: 2 Thess. i. 5; 1 Cor. iv. 20; Rom. xiv. 17; Col. iv. 11: comp. 1 Thess. ii. 12. Elsewhere we have 'the kingdom of Christ and God' (Eph. v. 5 ἐν τῇ β. τοῦ χριστοῦ καῖ θεοῦ); and 'the eternal kingdom of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ' (2 Pet. i. 11 ἡ αἰώνιος β. τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν καὶ σωτῆρος Ί. Χρ.; comp. 1 Cor. xν. 24; Col. i. 13; 2 Tim. iv. 1, 18); and 'the kingdom which was promised' (James ii. 5). In other places the anarthrous form βασιλεία θεοῦ is used in the phrase, κληρονομεῖν β. θ.: 1 Cor. vi. 9 f.; xv. 50; Gal. v. 21, where it is natural that emphasis should be laid on the character of that which men looked to receive.

παραλαμβάνοντες] receiving from the hands of God as His gift. Believers are already entering upon the kingdom (c. iv. 3); and this kingdom is described as 'immovable' (ἀσάλευτον) and not simply as 'not moved' in the crisis which the Apostle pictures. 422 χάριν, δι' ἧς λατρεύωμεν εὐαρέστως τῷ θεῷ μετὰ εὐλαβείας καὶ δέους, ²9καὶ γὰρ ὁ θεὸς ἡμῶν πῦρ καταναλίσκον.

λατρεύωμεν ACD₂ vg: λατρεύομεν אM₂. εὐαρέστως: εὐχαρίστως D₂*. εὐλαβείας καὶ δέους א* ACD₂* syr vg me the: εὐλ. καὶ αἰδοῦς א* M₂: αἰδοῦς καὶ εὐλ. S vg. 29 καί: κύριος D₂(d).

Comp. Dan. vii. 18 παραλήψονται τὴν βασιλείαν ἅγιοι ὑψίστου, after the four kingdoms of force had been removed; Col. iv. 17 π. διακονίαν.

ἕχωμεν χάριν] Vulg. habemus (ἕχομεν) gratiam. The use of the phrase χάριν ἔχειν elsewhere in the Ν. T. is strongly in favour of the sense let us feel and shew thankfulness to God': Luke xvii. 9; 1 Tim. i. 12; 2 Tim. i. 3. This sense is supported by Chrysostom (oὐ μόνον οὐκ ὀφείλομεν ἀποδυσπετεῖν ἐπὶ τοῖς παραῦσιν ἀλλὰ καὶ χάριν αὐτῷ μεγίστην εἰδέναι ἐπὶ τοῖς μέλλουσι), Œcumenius and Theophylact. And, though at first sight there is something strange in the idea that thankfulness is the means whereby we may serve God, we are perhaps inclined to forget the weight which is attached in Scripture to gratitude and praise. It is the perception and acknowledgement of the divine glory which is the strength of man. The sense of love to the motive for proclaiming love. Ps. 11 14 f.

At the same time in 3 John 4, ἔχειν χάριν is used in the sense of 'having a gracious favour.' Thus there is nothing absolute in usage against giving to the words here the sense 'let us have (i.e. realise) grace.' The gift of God is certain, but we must make it our own. Comp. iv. 16 ἵνα...χ. εὔρωμεν, xiii. 9 καλὸν γὰρ χάριτι βεβαιοῦσθαι. This sense is given by the Peshito and by the Latin Fathers. Gratiam dicit fidem rectam, spem certam, caritatem perfectam, cum operatione sancta, per quæ debemus Deo servire cum metu, timentes ilium ut Deum et judicem omnium, et cum reverentia diligentes eum ut patrem (Primas.).

For the sense of ἔχωμεν in this case see Rom. v. 1.

δι' ἧς λατρεύωμεν] The verb λατρεύωμεν is attracted to ἔχωμεν, 'let us thank God, and by that gratitude let us serve Him' (λατρ. τῷ θεῷ); ἐὰν γὰρ ὧμεν εὐχάριστοι τότε καὶ λατρεύομεν εὐαρέστως καὶ ὡς εἰδότες ποῖον δεςπότην ἔχομεν (Theophlct.). The saints, though kings, shall serve: Αροc. vii. 15; xxii. 3.

εὐρέστως] c. xiii. 21 (τὸ εὐάρεστον). Elsewhere εὐάρεστος occurs in the Ν. T. only in St Paul (eight times), and except in Tit. ii. 9 (δούλους δεσπόταις εὐαρέστους) always of divine relations.

μετὰ εὐλαβ. καὶ δέους] Vulg. cum metu et reverentia (O. L. verecundia). The mention of δίος here, a word which does not occur again in the N. T., arises out of the context. Comp. Phil. ii. 12; 1 Pet. i. 17.

The common reading μετὰ αἰδ. καὶ εὐλ. occurs in Philo, Leg. ad Cai. § 44 (ii. 597 M.). For εὐλάβεια, see iv. 7 note.

(29). καὶ γὰρ...] for indeed....See iv. 2 note.

ὁ θεὸς ἡμῶν] The significant addition of ήμ»ρ extends the description of the God of the revelation from Sinai to the God of the new revelation. In other respects there may be a wide chasm between the Law and the Gospel; but the One God of both is in His very nature in relation to man as He is, and not in one manifestation only, 'a consuming fire.' He purifies by burning up all that is base in those who serve Him,

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and all that Is unfit to abide in His Presence: Mal. iii. 2 f. (Is. iv. 4); Mal. iv. 1. Comp. Matt. iii. 12.

With ὁ θεὸς ἡμῶν contrast ὁ θεός (Additional Note on 1 John iv. 8).

The image occurs several times in the O. T.; Deut. iv. 24; Is. xxxiii. 14. Comp. Deut. ix. 3; Ex. xxiv. 17.

The Latin Fathers develop the thought: Deus omnipotens ignis appellatur non ut materiam quam fecit consumat, sed quam exterius homo attrahit, rubiginem scilicet peccatoram; non enim illud consumit quod ipse fecit sed quod malitia hominum intulit (Primas.).

Ignis quatner sunt officia, id est quoniam purgat et urit et illuminat et calefacit, sicque Spiritus sanctus purgat sordes vitiorum, et urit renes et cor ab humore libidinum, illuminat mentem notitia veritatis, et calefacit incendio caritatis (Herv.).

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*Additional Note on* xii. 2. *The Christology of the Epistle.*

The view of the Person and Work of Christ which is given in the Epistle to the Hebrews is in many respects more comprehensive and far-reaching than that which is given to the other Books of the New Testament. The writer does not indeed, like St John, trace back the conception of the Personality of the Lord to immanent relations in the Being of a Living God. He does not, like St Paul, distinctly represent each believer as finding his life 'in Him' and so disclose the divine foundation of the solidarity of the human race. But both thoughts are implicitly included in his characteristic teaching on the High-priestly office of Christ through which humanity reaches the end of creation.

In the following note I wish to offer for connected study the passages of the Epistle in which the author deals with The Divine Being of the Son (i), and with The work of the Incarnate Christ (ii); but before doing this it is necessary to observe that he recognises one unchanged Personality throughout in Him through Whom finite beings were called into existence and under Whom they find their final peace.

This fundamental truth finds complete expression in the opening paragraph (comp. pp. 17, 18). From first to last, through time to that eternity beyond time which we have no powers to realise, One Person fulfils the will of God:

ὁ θεὸς ἐλάλησεν ἡμῖν ἐν υἱῷ

ὄν ἔθηκεν κληρονόμον πάντων

δι' οὖ καὶ ε'ποίησεν τοὺς αἰῶνας.

And when we contemplate Him in His Nature and His Work there is the same unbroken continuity through changes which to our eyes interrupt or limit His activity:

ὁς ὥν

ἀπαύγασμα τῆς δόξης καὶ

χαρακτὴρ τῆς ὑποστάσεως αὐτοῦ

φέρων τε τὰ πάντα τῷ ῥήματι τῆς δυνάμεως αὐτοῦ

καθαρισμὸν τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ποιησάμενος

ἐκάθισεν ἐν δεξιᾷ τῆς μεγαλωσύνης.

One Person is the agent in creation, the medium of revelation, the heir of the world. One Person makes God known to us in terms of human life, and bears all things unceasingly to their proper goal, and 'having made purification of sins' waits for that issue which man's self-assertion has delayed.

The same thought is traced in the Ο. T. where the Son is spoken of as King and Creator (i. 8—12). And it appears in its simplest form in the combination of the two contrasted Names 'Jesus' and 'the Son of God' (iv. 14 note; compare xiii. 20 τὸν κύριον ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦν with 1 Cor. xii. 3; Rom. x. 9); and again in the abrupt and unique phrase, c. xiii. 8, Ἰησοῦς Χριστὸς ἐχθὲς καὶ σήμερον ὁ αὐτὸς καὶ εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας.

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i. The Divine Being (Nature and Personality) of the Son.

(1) In relation to God.

The Divine Being of the Son in relation to God is presented (a) by the Divine use of the general titles 'Son,' 'the Son,' 'the Firstborn'; and (b) by the definite description of His nature and work.

(a) The use of the anarthrous title 'Son,' which emphasises the essential nature of the relation which it expresses, is characteristic of the Epistle (i. 2 note, 5 [comp. v. 5]; iii. 6; v. 8; vii. 28 note; comp. p. 34). The form occurs elsewhere in the Epistles only in Rom. i. 4 ὁρισθέντος υἱοῦ θεοῦ (comp. John xix. 7 υἱὸν θεοῦ).

This title is defined by the personal titles 'the Son' (i. 8), 'the Son of God' (vi. 6; vii. 3; x. 29), 'the Firstborn' (i. 6 note); and 'the Son of God' is identified with 'Jesus' (iv. 14 note).

The title 'Son' is used in the Epistle only in reference to the Incarnate Lord. This follows from the scope of the teaching. But the title expresses not merely a moral relation, but a relation of being; and defines in human language that which 'was' beyond time immanent in the Godhead (x. 5; vii. 3 notes). There was (so to speak) a congruity in the Incarnation of the Secoud Person of the Holy Trinity (comp. p. 18).

In this connexion it must be noticed that the writer represents the Father as the Source (μία πηγὴ θεότητος) from which the Son derived all that He has (i. 2 ἔθηκεν; v. 5 οὐκ ἐδόξασεν ἑαυτόν). Comp. St John v. 26.

It is remarkable that God is spoken of as 'Father' only in i. 5 (from the lxx.; comp. xii. 9, 7). The title is used by St Paul in all his Epistles.

(b) The definite description of the Divine Personality given in i. 3 has been examined in detail in the notes upon the passage. The use of the absolute, timeless, term 'being' (ὥν) guards against the thought that the Lord's 'Sonship' was by adoption and not by nature. In Him the 'glory' of God finds manifestation, as its 'effulgence' (ἀπαύγασμα), and the 'essence' (ὑπόστασις) of God finds expression, as its embodiment, type (χαρακτήρ). The two ideas are complementary and neither is to be pressed to consequences. In ἀπαύγασμα the thought of 'personality' finds no place (ἐνυπόστατον οὐκ ἐστίν); and in χαρακτήρ the thought of 'coessentiality' finds no place. The two words are related exactly as ὁμοούσιος and μονογενής , and like those must be combined to give the fulness of the Truth. The Truth expressed thus antithetically holds good absolutely; and it is offered to us under the conditions of human life in the Incarnation. In Christ the essence of God is made distinct: in Christ the revelation of God's character is seen (comp. John v. 19, 30; xiv. 9).

(2) In relation to the World.

In relation to the World the Son is presented to us as (a) the Creator, (b) the Preserver, and (c) the Heir of all things. From the divine side indeed these three offices are one.

(a) The Creative work of the Son is affirmed both in the writer's own words (i. 2 δι' οὖ καὶ ἐπαίησεν τοὺς αἰῶνας), and by an application of the language of the Psalms (i. 10). At the same time the creation is finally

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referred to God (xi. 3 πίστει νοοῦμεν κατηρτίσθαι τοὺς αἰῶνας ῥήματι θεοῦ). Thus the teaching of the Epistle exactly corresponds with the Nicene phrases: πιστεύομεν εἰς ἕνα θεόν, πατέρα...πάντων...ποιητήν. καὶ εἰς ἕνα κύριον Ίησοῦν Χριστόν...δι' οὖ τὰ πάντα ἐγένετο....

(b) The thought of creation passes into that of the preservation, government, consummation of created things. The Son by 'the word of His power' (i. 3 φέπων note; comp. xi. 3) bears all things to their true end. He is over the whole house of God in virtue of what He is (iii. 6 υἱός) and of what He has done (x. 21 ἱερεύς). This work was in no way interrupted by the Incarnation. St Paul also combines the creative and sustaining power of Christ: Col. i. 16, 17 (ἐκτίσθη, ἔκτισται, συνέστηκεν).

(c) The idea of the 'heirship' of Christ, though in a limited sense, finds a place in the Synoptic Gospels (Matt. xxi. 38 and parr.). It is connected by St Paul with the work of creation: Col. i. 16 τὰ πάντα δι' αὐτοῦ καὶ εἰς αὐτὸν ἐκτισται. This conception is emphasised by the true order of the words in i. 2 δι' οὖ καὶ ἐποίησεν τ. αἰ. The fact that He created suggests the fitness that He should inherit. Comp. Addit Note on vi. 12.

The Sovereignty of Christ over 'the order to come' (ii. 5) presents His 'heirship' under one special aspect; and in part this Sovereignty is exercised even now (iii. 6; x. 21). In part however it awaits accomplishment (i. 13; x. 13).

ii. The Work of the Incarnate Christ.

The Work of the Incarnate Christ is presented under the aspect, (1) of His earthly life, and (2) of His Work in His glorified humanity in heaven.

(1) The Incarnation.

The Incarnation requires to be considered (a) in relation to the assumption of human nature (σαρκωθῆναι), and (b) in relation to human life (ἐνανθρωπῆσαι). Both views are required for a full view of the Truth.

(a) The Lord's humanity is declared to be real (ii. 14; comp. v. 10; vii. 14), perfect (ii. 17 κατὰ πάντα), and representative (ii. 9 ὑπὲρ παντός). At the same time, as has been seen, the Divine Personality was unchanged by the assumption of manhood. We must not however suppose that the body with its powers was simply an instrument which was directed by a divine 'principle.' The body prepared for Him by God (x. 5) is not, any more than 'flesh' in John i. 14, to be interpreted in a partial sense. The use of the human name (Ἰησοῦς, see p. 33) guards the fulness of His humanity (comp. ii. 6 lxx.). At the same time His perfect humanity was in absolute harmony with His Divine Nature, and so He could work through it using all men's powers; but it did not limit His Divine Nature in any way in itself: it limited only its manifestation.

(b) Thus the perfect human nature of Christ found expression in a perfect human life. By the discipline of suffering the Lord was 'made perfect,' bearing without the least failure every temptation to which we are exposed (iv. 15; v. 7 ff.; vii. 26). Comp. Addit. Note on ii. 10. His growth was not only negatively sinless, but a victorious development of every human power. Nor can it be without deep interest to notice how 427 the writer recognises in Christ separate human virtues: trust in God (ii. 13 ἔσομαι παποιθώς...); faithfulness (ii. 17; iii. 2); mercy and sympathy (ii. 17; iv. 15); dependence on God (v. 7 f.); faith (xii. 2). For the connexion of the discipline of Christ with the discipline of men, compare ii. 10 f. with xii. 7.

Christ did not however cease at any time to be the Son of God. He lived through death, offering Himself through His eternal spirit (ix. 14 note); and He exercises His priesthood in virtue of 'the power of an indissoluble life' (vii. 16).

In this union of two Natures in the one Person of Christ, Whose Personality is Divine, to use the technical language of Theology, we recognise the foundation-fact of a true fellowship of God and man. There would be no true fellowship, no sure hope for men, if the Person of Christ were simply a manifestation of Deity, or a divine principle working through human nature as its material.

As it is we can see how in virtue of His humanity and human life the Lord was able to fulfil His twofold office for men, as 'Apostle and High-priest' (iii. 1), declaring the will of God and preparing men to appear before Him.

(2) The Exaltation.

The exaltation of Christ is placed in this Epistle, as by St Paul (Phil. ii. 9 ff. διό), in close connexion with His sufferings (ii. 9; xii. 2). But the writer differs from St Paul in his mode of presenting it. While St Paul dwells on the Resurrection in each group of his Epistles, the writer of the Epistle to the Hebrews refers to it once only (xiii. 20; comp. v. 7), fixing his attention on the Ascension (iv. 14; vi. 20; vii. 26; ix. 11 f.; 24), and the Session on the right hand of God (i. 3; viii. 1; x. 12; xii. 2). This difference follows from the unique teaching of the Epistle on the work of Christ as King-priest. Comp. Addit. Notes on viii. 1 and viii. 1, 2.

From what has been said it will be seen that there is a very close Relation connexion between the Christology of the writer to the Hebrews and the Christology of St Paul. Both Apostles fix the minds of their readers upon what Christ is and what He did and does, and not upon what He taught: with both His prophetic work falls into the background. Both again rise to the thought of the glorified Christ through the work of Christ on earth. But in this respect the writer to the Hebrews forms a link between St Paul and St John. He dwells upon the eternal nature and unchangeable work of the Son before he treats of His historic work; while for St John even the sufferings of Christ are a form of His glory.

But though there is a remarkable agreement in idea between the teaching of the Epistle on the Person of Christ and that of St Paul's (later) Epistles (Phil. ii. 5—11; Eph. i. 3—14; Col. i. 15—20), even where the thoughts approach most nearly to coincidence, there still remain significant differences of phraseology: e.g.

i. 3 ἀπαύγασμα χαρακτήρ. Col. i. 15 (2 Cor. iv. 4) εἰκών.

id. φέρων τὰ πάντα τῷ ῥήμ. τῆς δυν. αὐτοῦ. Col i. 17 τὰ π. ἐν αὐτῷ συνέστηκεν.

i. 2 κληρονόμον πάντων. Col. i. 16 τὰ πάντα ἐις αὐτὸν ἔκτισται.

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i. 6 ὁ πρωτότοκος. Col. i. 15 πρωτότοκος πάσησ κτίσεως.

Col. i. 18 πρωτότοκος ἐκ τῶν νεκρῶν.

ii. 17 ὤφειλεν κατὰ πάντα τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς ὁμοιωθῆναι Phil. ii. 7 ἐν ὁμοιώματι ἀνθρώπων γενόμενος. Comp. Rom. viii. 3.

Compare also the use of Ps. viii. in ii. 6 ff. with the use of it in 1 Cor. xv. 27; Phil. iii. 21 (Eph. i. 22).

It is also of importance to observe that the writer of the Epistle does not use St Paul's images of Christ as 'the Second Adam' (1 Cor. xv. 22, 45), and 'the Head' of the Church (Eph. i. 22; iv. 15 f.; Col. i. 18), though he does dwell on the fellowship between the One Son and the 'many sons' (ii. 10 ff.; comp. x. 5 ff.); nor does he offer the thought of the Christian as dead and risen with Christ. On the other hand St Paul does not speak of Christ's work as High-priest, nor does he set forth the discipline of His human life as bringing to men the assurance of prevailing sympathy.

It follows also from the prominence which the writer gives to the priestly work of Christ that he represents the Lord as more active in His Passion than St Paul does. Even on the Cross he shews Christ as working rather than as suffering. Christ in St Paul is regarded predominantly as the Victim, in the Epistle to the Hebrews as the Priest even more than the Victim. In this point again the Epistle comes now to the gospel of St John, in which Christ on the Cross is seen in sovereign majesty.

There is, it may be added, no trace in the Epistle of the Dualistic views which find a place in the Pastoral Epistles (1 Tim. iv. 3 ff.; Tit. i. 15); nor of the Docetism which is met by St John (1 John iv. 2 f.; 2 John 7).

Compare Additional Note on i. 4, On the Divine Names in the Epistle.

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